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Technical Paper

Analysis of Coatings Appearance and Durability Testing Induced Surface Defects Using Image Capture/Processing/Analysis

This paper describes the applicability of optical imaging techniques to the analysis of the scratch resistance of automotive interior plastic materials. The evaluation of so-called “finger testing” has traditionally relied upon human vision for detection of the initial scratch position. Commonly performed under uniform and defined illumination conditions, the relative contrast difference signified by whitening on a surface as determined by unaided human vision is a highly variable subjective perception; thus individual inspectors may determine the “whitening” point differently. This paper compares test data obtained from both visual and instrumental evaluation methods and discusses the advantages of optical imaging techniques for surface defect analysis.
Technical Paper

A Virtual Testing Methodology for Automotive Concept Product Design

The process for accurately estimating product reliability early in the development process can be a difficult and costly task. Traditional methods like Reliability Prediction Models and Life Testing Strategies yield beneficial results when relative information is known about the product that is to be analyzed. When there is minimal information known (prior failure rates…) such a new concept design these above reliability methods have limitations. For these cases a Virtual Testing Strategies have proven to yield valuable results. This paper will demonstrate a reliability analysis procedure for a new automotive concept design. This analysis procedure composes of a mathematical model, model validation, parameter diagram, design of experiment (DOE), response surface, and optimization.
Technical Paper

Optimizing the Effects of Body Attachment Stiffness on Steering Column In-Vehicle Modes

This paper presents an unambiguous and intuitive method for identification of steering column resonant (SCR) mode of vibration. One simple but overlooked technique to determine the SCR mode in-vehicle is to provide local stiffnesses of the body locations where the Instrument Panel (IP) attaches, to the IP suppliers to be used in their design and development. This paper describes how this technique is useful in predicting the first few important in-vehicle steering column modes for different classes of vehicles, with examples presented in each class. The results obtained from such analyses are compared against those from direct in-buck simulations. This technique is not limited to its application in developing IP systems, but can easily be extended to include other systems such as seats, fuel tanks, etc. Also it is shown that a design optimization analysis may be performed using these attachment stiffnesses as design variables resulting in a system level solution.
Technical Paper

Optimization and Robust Design of Heat Sinks for Automotive Electronics Applications

The increasing power requirement for automotive electronics (radios, etc.), combined with ever-shrinking size and weight allowances, is creating a greater need for optimization and robust design of heat sinks. Not only does a heat sink directly affect the overall performance and reliability of a specific electronics application, but a well-designed, optimized heat sink can have other benefits - such as eliminating the requirement for special fans, reducing weight of the application, eliminating additional heat sink support structures, etc. Optimizing heat sink efficiency and thermal performance offers a challenge, due to the many competing design requirements. These requirements include effecting greater temperature reductions, accommodating vehicle packaging requirements and size limitations, generating a uniform heat distribution, etc., and all the while reducing the heat sink cost.
Technical Paper

Non-Linear Analysis of Tunable Compression Bushing for Stabilizer Bars

Stabilizer bars in a suspension system are supported with bushings by a frame structure. To prevent the axial movement of the stabilizer bar within the bushing, several new stabilizer bar-bushing systems have been developed. The new systems introduce permanent compressive force between the bar and the bushing thereby preventing the relative movement of the bar within the bushing. This mechanical bond between the bar and the bushing can eliminate features such as grippy flats, collars etc. In addition, by controlling the compression parameters, the properties of the bushing such as bushing rates can be tuned and hence can be used to improve the ride and handling performance of the vehicle. In this paper, nonlinear CAE tools are used to evaluate one such compressively loaded bushing system. Computational difficulties associated with modeling such a system are discussed.
Technical Paper

Human Factors Flight Test Evaluation of an Airport Surface Display with Indications & Alerts (SURF IA)

This paper presents the results of a human factors flight test evaluation of a display of Enhanced Traffic Situational Awareness on the Airport Surface with Indications and Alerts (SURF IA). The study is an element of the FAA-sponsored Surface Conflict Detection and Alerting with Consideration of Arrival Applications program. The objective of the flight test was to conduct a comparative evaluation of two candidate SURF IA displays: a detailed Airport Surface Situation Awareness (ASSA) display and a runways-only Final Approach Runway Occupancy Awareness (FAROA) display. Six pilots with a current Air Transport Pilot Certificate each completed 18 scenarios. A Beechcraft King Air C-90 and a Cessna Citation Sovereign aircraft were deployed for the flight tests. The scenarios were conducted at Seattle-Tacoma International Airport and at Snohomish County Paine Field Airport, with each aircraft acting as ‘traffic’ for the other aircraft.
Technical Paper

Blind Spot Monitoring by a Single Camera

A practical and low cost Blind Spot Monitoring system is proposed. By using a single camera, the range and azimuth position of a vehicle in a blind spot are measured. The algorithm is based on the proposed RWA (Range Window Algorithm). The camera is installed on the door mirror and monitoring the side and rear of the host vehicle. The algorithm processes the image and identifies range and azimuth angle of the vehicle in the adjacent lane. This algorithm is applied to real situations. The 388 images including several kinds of vehicles are analyzed. The detection rate is 86% and the range accuracy is 1.6[m]. The maximum detection range is about 30[m].
Technical Paper

A Computer Aided Optimization Tool to Design Electromagnetic Retarders

The work presented here outlines the development of a robust CAO tool for optimal design of electromagnetic retarder machines. The developed EM-CAO tool is then used to perform a wide variety of CAE/CAO tasks, from automatically computing the torque versus rpm performance curves of the EM retarder to performing optimization. Two specific examples of optimal design of the EM retarder are reported. Through the use of a task manager/optimizer repetitive jobs are fully automated thereby making the analysis and optimization of electromagnetic retarders faster and user-friendlier.
Technical Paper

Application of DOE Methods to RPM-Domain Data for Hydraulic Steering Pump NVH Improvement

The present work demonstrates the application of Design of Experiments (DOE) statistical methods to the design and optimization of a hydraulic steering pump for NVH performance. DOE methods were applied to RPM-domain data to examine the effect of several different factors, as well as the interactions between these factors, on pump NVH. Whereas most DOE analyses typically consider only a single response variable, the present work considered multiple response variables. Specifically, pump NVH performance curves for several pump rotational orders over a range of shaft speeds were analyzed. Thus, it was possible to determine the effect of the factors in question over the entire speed range of pump operation, rather than a single speed or setting. Statistical methods were applied to determine which factors and interactions had a significant effect on pump NVH. These factors were used to construct an empirical mathematical prediction model for NVH performance.
Technical Paper

Environmental Systems Considerations for Aircraft Cabins During Ground Operation

The quality of outside air during ground operations was analyzed by comparing airport and engine exhaust data to exposure limits and odor thresholds. The results indicated that the outside air may contain compounds in high enough concentrations to be odorous. If the odor is to be treated, the important design criteria that must be considered include the phase of compounds, compound type, location of treatment device on the aircraft, pressure drop, operating temperature, and maintenance interval. Finally, a control strategy is outlined that monitors the air quality as well as the efficiency of an air treatment system.
Technical Paper

Integrate Structural Optimization into Upfront Carbon Canister Component Design Process

An effort to integrate a structural optimization process into the carbon canister bracket design is presented to demonstrate the benefits of an upfront Computer-Aided Engineering (CAE) driven design. Structural optimization methods - including topology, shape, and size optimization - are used to develop the injection molded plastic carbon canister bracket. Furthermore, the incorporation of the Knowledge Base Engineering (KBE) features in the design process not only accelerates the design process but also ease manufacturing feasibility. Even though topology optimization has been widely used to explore the initial topological designs of different products, it is still a great challenge to explore shell like structure designs with 3D solid design package spaces using topology optimization method.
Technical Paper

Localized Nonlinear Model of Plastic Air Induction Systems for Virtual Design Validation Tests

Plastic air induction system (AIS) has been widely used in vehicle powertrain applications for reduced weight, cost, and improved engine performance. Physical design validation (DV) tests of an AIS, as to meet durability and reliability requirements, are usually conducted by employing the frequency domain vibration tests, either sine sweep or random vibration excitations, with a temperature cycling range typically from -40°C to 120°C. It is well known that under high vibration loading and large temperature range, the plastic components of the AIS demonstrate much higher nonlinear response behaviors as compared with metal products. In order to implement a virtual test for plastic AIS products, a practical procedure to model a nonlinear system and to simulate the frequency response of the system, is crucial. The challenge is to model the plastic AIS assembly as a function of loads and temperatures, and to evaluate the dynamic response and fatigue life in frequency domain as well.
Technical Paper

Designing a Tuned Torsional Damper for Automotive Applications Using FEA and Optimization

Tuned mass dampers are frequently used in vehicles to resolve vibration issues arising from problematic torsional modes. The design of a tuned damper is straightforward, but evaluating its effect on other system modes is time consuming. An upfront design tool will accelerate the process of designing and evaluating the damper's affect on system level dynamic characteristics. Computer aided engineering tools have been developed to design a tuned torsional damper using two different approaches. In the first approach, a two-degree of freedom torsional system model is utilized. In the second approach, a detailed finite element model of a driveline system is considered. In the second approach, the effect of the damper to the vehicle driveline system response at the hypoid pinion nose and other desired locations is studied to assess the effectiveness of the damper design. In both approaches, the damper rotational inertia is considered as a design variable.
Technical Paper

Optimal Design of Roller One Way Clutch for Starter Drives

The starter drive clutch is a one way roller clutch and a key component in a starter motor that is used to crank internal combustion engines. The starter drive clutch transmits torque from an electrical motor to a ring gear mounted on a cranking shaft in an engine thus cranks the engine. The clutch also prevents the whole starter from damage caused by extremely high load and/or extremely high speed applied to the starter pinion from the engine. Drive slippage and barrel cracking are two major failure modes for the starter drive[1]. Insufficient torque capacity results in drive slippage while excessive high hoop stress on the clutch barrel ring causes barrel crack. To eliminate drive slippage failure, the clutch should be designed with high torque capacity. High torque capacity, however, is a cause of high hoop stress on the barrel that may result in the cracked barrel failure. Higher torque capacity and lower hoop stress are two completely opposite design directions.
Technical Paper

A Discussion on Interior Compartment Doors and Latches

Interior compartment doors are required by Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) 201, to stay closed during physical head impact testing, and when subjected to specific inertia loads. This paper defines interior compartment doors, and shows examples of several different latches designed to keep these doors closed. It also explores the details of the requirements that interior compartment doors and their latches must meet, including differing requirements from automobile manufacturers. It then shows the conventional static method a supplier uses to analyze a latch and door system. And, since static calculations can't always capture the complexities of a dynamic event, this paper also presents a case study of one particular latch and door system showing a way to simulate the forces experienced by a latch. The dynamic simulation is done using Finite Element Analysis and instrumentation of actual hardware in physical tests.
Technical Paper

Combining CAE and Experimental Techniques to Develop Optimal Defrost / Demist Performance in a Vehicle

Customer clinics and surveys have revealed the increased importance to the customer of good defrost and demist performance in their vehicle. Achieving this level of performance, within the time and cost constraints of a modern vehicle development program, places increased reliance on computational (CAE) techniques. However, this paper describes how the optimum development process should be to combine this reliance upon CAE methods with a newly developed experimental technique. This new laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) based methodology is employed at all stages of the development process and complements the CAE techniques perfectly. The end result is optimized airflow management within the vehicle cabin – essential if good defrost and demist performance is to be achieved in a vehicle.
Journal Article

Advanced Electric Drives for Aerospace More Electric Architectures

This paper discusses the problem of obtaining electric machines (EM) for advanced electric drives (AED) used in more electric architecture (MEA) applicable to aircraft, spacecraft, and military ground vehicles. The AED are analyzed by those aspects of Six Sigma theory that relate to critical-to-quality (CTQ) subjects. Using this approach, weight, volume, reliability, efficiency, and cost CTQ are addressed to develop a balance among them, resulting in an optimized system. The influence of machine controllers and system considerations is discussed. As a part of the machine evaluation process, speeds, bearings, complexities, rotor mechanical and thermal limitations, torque pulsations, currents, and power densities are considered. A methodology for electric machine selection is demonstrated. An example of high-speed, high-performance machine application is shown. A system approach is used for overall electric machine selection and optimization.
Technical Paper

Overview of Automotive Plastic Parts Molds Development of in Brazil

In Brazil the market for plastic parts molds, in last few years had become very competitive, with several Vehicle Operations and a big number of a different models, and with today total market volume it means low volumes productions for each model. This market demands for good toolshops and at the same time a big pressure to reduce investments, one of the most important. Plastic components usage in the car, is increasing overtime, with new applications for Exterior, interior and powertrain, requiring new technologies for Injection molding processing and making molds to be more complex. The development of plastic parts in Brazil has its own characteristics, strengths and weaknesses. In fact a big and heterogeneous market. This paper intends to present an analysis of development of plastic parts in Brazil, considering the development of mold tooling locally, focusing the automotive market.
Technical Paper

Development of a Fuel Efficient Multipurpose 75W-90 Gear Lubricant

Automotive gear oil development has expanded beyond the historical requirements of emphasizing wear protection to encompass modern needs for fuel economy and limited slip frictional properties. This paper describes the development process of a new generation, fuel efficient gear lubricant for use in light duty vehicles. A systematic formulation approach was used, encompassing fluid viscometrics and additive optimization. Performance testing in both laboratory and vehicle tests is described. Though standard GL-5 tests were used to confirm oxidation, wear and corrosion performance, emphasis is given to those methods used for optimizing fuel economy.
Technical Paper

Statistical Modeling of Fatigue Crack Growth in Wing Skin Fastener Holes

Estimation and prediction of residual life and reliability are serious concerns in life cycle management for aging structures. Laboratory testing replicating fatigue loading for a typical military aircraft wing skin was undertaken. Specimens were tested until their fatigue life expended reached 100% of the component fatigue life. Then, scanning electron microscopy was used to quantify the size and location of fatigue cracks within the high stress regions of simulated fastener holes. Distributions for crack size, nearest neighbor distances, and spatial location were characterized statistically in order to estimate residual life and to provide input for life cycle management. Insights into crack initiation and growth are also provided.