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Technical Paper

Humidity Effects on a Carbon Hydrocarbon Adsorber

2009-04-20
2009-01-0873
Because combustion engine equipped vehicles must conform to stringent hydrocarbon (HC) emission requirements, many of them on the road today are equipped with an engine air intake system that utilizes a hydrocarbon adsorber. Also known as HC traps, these devices capture environmentally dangerous gasoline vapors before they can enter the atmosphere. A majority of these adsorbers use activated carbon as it is cost effective and has excellent adsorption characteristics. Many of the procedures for evaluating the adsorbtive performance of these emissions devices use mass gain as the measurand. It is well known that activated carbon also has an affinity for water vapor; therefore it is useful to understand how well humidity must be controlled in a laboratory environment. This paper outlines investigations that were conducted to study how relative humidity levels affect an activated carbon hydrocarbon adsorber.
Technical Paper

A Table Update Method for Adaptive Knock Control

2006-04-03
2006-01-0607
Knock correction is the spark angle retard applied to the optimum ignition timing to eliminate knock. In adaptive knock control, this amount of spark retard at an operating point (i.e. Speed, load) is stored in a speed/load characteristic map. It will be reused when the engine is operated in this range once more. In this paper, a method to learn the knock correction values into a speed/load characteristic map is described. This method proportionally distributes the knock correction into the characteristic map according to the distance between the speed/load of these nodes and the current operating point. The distributed knock correction value is filtered and accumulated in its adjacent nodes. Simulation examples demonstrate that the retrieved values from the map by the proposed method are smoother than those produced by the method of [2][3]. The mathematical basis for this method is developed. The one and two independent variable cases are illustrated.
Technical Paper

Combustion Characteristics of a Single-Cylinder Engine Equipped with Gasoline and Ethanol Dual-Fuel Systems

2008-06-23
2008-01-1767
The requirement of reduced emissions and improved fuel economy led the introduction of direct-injection (DI) spark-ignited (SI) engines. Dual-fuel injection system (direct-injection and port-fuel-injection (PFI)) was also used to improve engine performance at high load and speed. Ethanol is one of the several alternative transportation fuels considered for replacing fossil fuels such as gasoline and diesel. Ethanol offers high octane quality but with lower energy density than fossil fuels. This paper presents the combustion characteristics of a single cylinder dual-fuel injection SI engine with the following fueling cases: a) gasoline for PFI and DI, b) PFI gasoline and DI ethanol, and c) PFI ethanol and DI gasoline. For this study, the DI fueling portion varied from 0 to 100 percentage of the total fueling over different engine operational conditions while the engine air-to-fuel ratio remained at a constant level.
Technical Paper

Knock Detection for a Large Displacement Air-Cooled V-Twin Motorcycle Engine Using In-Cylinder Ionization Signals

2008-09-09
2008-32-0028
To obtain the maximum output power and fuel economy from an internal combustion engine, it is often necessary to detect engine knock and operate the engine at its knock limit. This paper presents the ability to detect knock using in-cylinder ionization signals on a large displacement, air-cooled, “V” twin motorcycle engine over the engine operational map. The knock detection ability of three different sensors is compared: production knock (accelerometer) sensor, in-cylinder pressure sensor, and ionization sensor. The test data shows that the ionization sensor is able to detect knock better than the production knock sensor when there is high mechanical noise present in the engine.
Technical Paper

A Predictive Control Algorithm for an Anti-Lock Braking System

2002-03-04
2002-01-0302
Generalized predictive control (GPC) is a discrete time control strategy proposed by Clark et al [1]. The controller tries to predict the future output of a system or plant and then takes control action at present time based on future output error. Such a predictive control algorithm is presented in this paper for deceleration slip regulation in an automobile. Most of the existing literature on the anti-lock brake control systems lacks the effectiveness of the wheel lockup prevention when the automobile is in a skid condition (in a low friction coefficient surface with panic braking situation). Simulation results show that the predictive feature of the proposed controller provides an effective way to prevent wheel lock-up in a braking event.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Pressure Pulsations in a Gasoline Injection System and Development of an Effective Damping Technology

2005-04-11
2005-01-1149
In today's search for a better fuel economy and lower emissions, it is essential to precisely control the injected fuel quantity, as demanded by the engine load, into each of the engine cylinders. In fuel injection systems, the pressure pulsations due to the rapid opening and closing of the injectors can cause uneven injected fuel amounts between cylinders. In order to develop effective techniques to reduce these pressure pulsations, it is crucial to have a good understanding of the dynamic characteristics of such fuel injection systems. This paper presents the benefits of using simulation as a tool to analyze the dynamic behaviors of a V8 gasoline injection system. The fuel system modeling, based on a one-dimensional (1D) lumped parameter approach, has been developed in the AMESim® environment. The comparison between the simulation results and the experimental data shows good agreement in fluid transient characteristics for both time and frequency domains.
Technical Paper

MBT Timing Detection and its Closed-Loop Control Using In-Cylinder Ionization Signal

2004-10-25
2004-01-2976
Maximum Brake Torque (MBT) timing for an internal combustion engine is the minimum advance of spark timing for best torque. Traditionally, MBT timing is an open loop feedforward control whose values are experimentally determined by conducting spark sweeps at different speed, load points and at different environmental operating conditions. Almost every calibration point needs a spark sweep to see if the engine can be operated at the MBT timing condition. If not, a certain degree of safety margin is needed to avoid pre-ignition or knock during engine operation. Open-loop spark mapping usually requires a tremendous amount of effort and time to achieve a satisfactory calibration. This paper shows that MBT timing can be achieved by regulating a composite feedback measure derived from the in-cylinder ionization signal referenced to a top dead center crank angle position. A PI (proportional and integral) controller is used to illustrate closed-loop control of MBT timing.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation of a Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition Engine with Different Fuels

2009-04-20
2009-01-0325
This paper focuses on the numerical investigation of the mixing and combustion of ethanol and gasoline in a single-cylinder 3-valve direct-injection spark-ignition engine. The numerical simulations are conducted with the KIVA code with global reaction models. However, an ignition delay model mitigates some of the deficiencies of the global one-step reaction model and is implemented via a two-dimensional look-up table, which was created using available detailed kinetics models. Simulations demonstrate the problems faced by ethanol operated engines and indicate that some of the strategies used for emission control and downsizing of gasoline engines can be employed for enhancing the combustion efficiency of ethanol operated engines.
Technical Paper

Multibody Dynamic Simulation of Steering Gear Systems With Three-Dimensional Surface Contacts

2006-02-14
2006-01-1960
In an effort to understand steering systems performance and properties at the microscopic level, we developed Multibody simulations that include multiple three-dimensional gear surfaces that are in a dynamic state of contact and separation. These validated simulations capture the dynamics of high-speed impact of gears traveling small distances of 50 microns in less than 10 milliseconds. We exploited newly developed analytic, numeric, and computer tools to gain insight into steering gear forces, specifically, the mechanism behind the inception of mechanical knock in steering gear. The results provided a three dimensional geometric view of the sequence of events, in terms of gear surfaces in motion, their sudden contact, and subsequent force generation that lead to steering gear mechanical knock. First we briefly present results that show the sequence of events that lead to knock.
Technical Paper

A Real Time Statistical Method for Engine Knock Detection

2007-04-16
2007-01-1507
The traditional method of engine knock detection is to compare the knock intensity with a predetermined threshold. The calibration of this threshold is complex and difficult. A statistical knock detection method is proposed in this paper to reduce the effort of calibration. This method dynamically calculates the knock threshold to determine the knock event. Theoretically, this method will not only adapt to different fuels but also cope with engine aging and engine-to-engine variation without re-calibration. This method is demonstrated by modeling and evaluation using real-time engine dynamometer test data.
Journal Article

Gasoline Fuel Injector Spray Measurement and Characterization - A New SAE J2715 Recommended Practice

2008-04-14
2008-01-1068
With increasingly stringent emissions regulations and concurrent requirements for enhanced engine thermal efficiency, a comprehensive characterization of the automotive gasoline fuel spray has become essential. The acquisition of accurate and repeatable spray data is even more critical when a combustion strategy such as gasoline direct injection is to be utilized. Without industry-wide standardization of testing procedures, large variablilities have been experienced in attempts to verify the claimed spray performance values for the Sauter mean diameter, Dv90, tip penetration and cone angle of many types of fuel sprays. A new SAE Recommended Practice document, J2715, has been developed by the SAE Gasoline Fuel Injection Standards Committee (GFISC) and is now available for the measurement and characterization of the fuel sprays from both gasoline direct injection and port fuel injection injectors.
Technical Paper

Stability Control of Combination Vehicle

2001-03-05
2001-01-0138
This paper discusses the development of combination vehicle stability program (CVSP) at Visteon. It will describe why stability control is needed for combination vehicles and how the vehicle stability can be improved. We propose and evaluate controller structures and design methods for CVSP. These include driver's intent identification, combination vehicle status estimation and control, and fault detection / tolerance. In this paper, the braking and steering dynamics of car-trailer and tractor-semitrailer combinations, and the brake systems which should be used extensively to increase the stability of combination vehicles are presented. Also our development platform is introduced and the combination vehicle simulation results are presented. The definition of combination vehicles in this paper includes car-trailer and commercial tractor-semitrailer combinations since their vehicle dynamics are based on the same equations of motion.
Technical Paper

MBT Timing Detection and its Closed-Loop Control Using In-Cylinder Pressure Signal

2003-10-27
2003-01-3266
MBT timing for an internal combustion engine is also called minimum spark timing for best torque or the spark timing for maximum brake torque. Unless engine spark timing is limited by engine knock or emission requirements at a certain operational condition, there exists an MBT timing that yields the maximum work for a given air-to-fuel mixture. Traditionally, MBT timing for a particular engine is determined by conducting a spark sweep process that requires a substantial amount of time to obtain an MBT calibration. Recently, on-line MBT timing detection schemes have been proposed based upon cylinder pressure or ionization signals using peak cylinder pressure location, 50 percent fuel mass fraction burn location, pressure ratio, and so on. Because these criteria are solely based upon data correlation and observation, both of them may change at different engine operational conditions. Therefore, calibration is still required for each MBT detection scheme.
Technical Paper

Stochastic Limit Control and Its Application to Knock Limit Control Using Ionization Feedback

2005-04-11
2005-01-0018
Spark timing of an Internal Combustion (IC) engine is often limited by engine knock in the advanced direction. The ability to operate the engine at its advanced (borderline knock) spark limit is the key for improving output power and fuel economy. Due to combustion cycle-to-cycle variations, IC engine combustion behaves similar to a random process and so does the engine performance criteria, such as IMEP (Indicated Mean Effective Pressure), and knock intensity. The combustion stability measure COVariance of IMEP assumes the IMEP is a random process. Presently, the spark limit control of IC engines is deterministic in nature. The controller does not utilize any stochastic information associated with control parameters such as knock intensity for borderline spark limit control. This paper proposes a stochastic limit control strategy for borderline knock control. It also develops a simple stochastic model for evaluating the proposed stochastic controller.
Technical Paper

Reducing Bolt-up Distortion of a Conventional Brake Rotor by Optimization

2005-04-11
2005-01-0793
Although not completely understood, rotor distortion due to bolt-up is an issue commonly found in conventional brake rotor design. In this paper, bolt-up is addressed by utilizing optimization and contact analysis methods. These methods give greater insight to the contributing factors that influence bolt-up distortion. In particular, the optimization method defines the approximate geometric shape required for a brake rotor based on optimizing one or more variables. By utilizing the non-linear contact analysis method, the results from the optimization analysis are validated. In general, the results show that bolt-up distortion is not significantly affected by changing design features, variables or combinations of design features and variables. However, significant improvement in bolt-up distortion is noticed when changes are made to the brake rotor and the wheel bearing hub.
Technical Paper

Inaudible Knock and Partial-Burn Detection Using In-Cylinder Ionization Signal

2003-10-27
2003-01-3149
Internal combustion engines are designed to maximize power subject to meeting exhaust emission requirements and minimizing fuel consumption. Maximizing engine power and fuel economy is limited by engine knock for a given air-to-fuel charge. Therefore, the ability to detect engine knock and run the engine at its knock limit is a key for the best power and fuel economy. This paper shows inaudible knock detection ability using in-cylinder ionization signals over the entire engine speed and load map. This is especially important at high engine speed and high EGR rates. The knock detection ability is compared between three sensors: production knock (accelerometer) sensor, in-cylinder pressure and ionization sensors. The test data shows that the ionization signals can be used to detect inaudible engine knock while the conventional knock sensor cannot under some engine operational conditions.
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