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Journal Article

Impact of Biodiesel Impurities on the Performance and Durability of DOC, DPF and SCR Technologies

It is estimated that operating continuously on a B20 fuel containing the current allowable ASTM specification limits for metal impurities in biodiesel could result in a doubling of ash exposure relative to lube-oil-derived ash. The purpose of this study was to determine if a fuel containing metals at the ASTM limits could cause adverse impacts on the performance and durability of diesel emission control systems. An accelerated durability test method was developed to determine the potential impact of these biodiesel impurities. The test program included engine testing with multiple DPF substrate types as well as DOC and SCR catalysts. The results showed no significant degradation in the thermo-mechanical properties of cordierite, aluminum titanate, or silicon carbide DPFs after exposure to 150,000 mile equivalent biodiesel ash and thermal aging. However, exposure of a cordierite DPF to 435,000 mile equivalent aging resulted in a 69% decrease in the thermal shock resistance parameter.
Journal Article

Effect of Accelerated Aging Rate on the Capture of Fuel-Borne Metal Impurities by Emissions Control Devices

Small impurities in the fuel can have a significant impact on the emissions control system performance over the lifetime of the vehicle. Of particular interest in recent studies has been the impact of sodium, potassium, and calcium that can be introduced either through fuel constituents, such as biodiesel, or as lubricant additives. In a collaboration between the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a series of accelerated aging studies have been performed to understand the potential impact of these metals on the emissions control system. This paper explores the effect of the rate of accelerated aging on the capture of fuel-borne metal impurities in the emission control devices and the subsequent impact on performance. Aging was accelerated by doping the fuel with high levels of the metals of interest. Three separate evaluations were performed, each with a different rate of accelerated aging.