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Technical Paper

Accident Analysis and Measures to Establish Compatibility

1999-03-01
1999-01-0065
The vehicle fleet differs in mass, geometry, stiffness and many other parameters. These differences are consequences of different design objectives for these vehicles and result from consumer demand, environmental and safety considerations etc. Accident research shows that the injury outcome differs in some cases, when two vehicles collide. Scientists often discuss a list of features that are assumed to be relevant for compatibility of vehicles. The relevance of these potentially important compatibility features and expected compatibility measures is examined from the perspective of accident analysis. An overview of this accident research is given and crash tests and measures are discussed that correspond with these findings.
Technical Paper

Feasible Steps towards Improved Crash Compatibility

2004-03-08
2004-01-1167
Compatibility has been a research issue for many years now. It has gained more importance recently due to significant improvements in primary and secondary safety. Using a rigorous approach, combining accident research and theoretical scientific considerations, measures to improve vehicle-vehicle compatibility, with an emphasis on feasibility, were discussed. German accident research statistics showed that frontal impacts are of higher statistical significance than side impacts. Based on this and the high potential for improvement due high available deformation energy, the frontal impact configuration was identified as the most appropriate collision mode for addressing the compatibility issue. In side impacts, accident avoidance was identified as the most feasible and sensible measure. For frontal vehicle-vehicle impacts, both trucks and passenger cars were identified as opponents of high statistical significance.
Technical Paper

Optical Coordinate Measuring Techniques for the Determination and Visualization of 3D Displacements in Crash Investigations

2003-03-03
2003-01-0891
The measurement of 3D coordinates using optical techniques is well known for more than 50 years. Today, modern photogrammetric systems are based on handheld digital cameras and are used to identify the location of any circular marker or feature on the object's surface. The ease of use and the accurate and automated derivation of 3D coordinates from 2D digital images helped to establish a powerful tool for position control, assembly checks and reverse engineering. A new application is the analysis of real vehicle crashes. The location of hundreds of markers on the damaged vehicle can easily be determined in vehicle body position. These coordinates are being compared to the undeformed geometry and provide herby 3D information on any displacement. Using reverse engineering techniques, surfaces are created from the 3D points and thus a 3D model of the crashed vehicle is available for an easy visualization of the deformation.
Technical Paper

Required Measures to Improve the Structural Interaction Potential of Passenger-Cars

2005-04-11
2005-01-1351
Compatibility has been a passive safety research issue for many years. Great advancements in secondary (passive) safety have been achieved in the last decades through focussing on the self-protection level provided by passenger cars. The next step is to consider the other vehicle involved in the collision as well. Compatibility relates to the simultaneous improvement of both self- and partner- protection. Several tests procedures have been proposed around the world to assess the compatibility of passenger cars. None are considered ready to be implemented. This paper shows that controlling vehicle front-end geometry is the most feasible step to improve both self- and partner-protection. Through this, an increase in the structural interaction potential offered by passenger cars would result. To improve structural interaction, a convergence of front-end structures, to within certain vertical limits, is necessary.
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