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Technical Paper

Measurement of Wall Film Thickness in the Intake Manifold of a Standard Production SI Engine by a Spectroscopic Technique

1997-10-01
972832
This paper reports on a non-intrusive method for measuring the liquid fuel film thickness in the intake manifold of a series production SI engine with multi-point fuel injection. The technique is based on laser-induced fluorescence. The optical set-up uses a bifurcated optical fibre bundle for transmission of the laser light for excitation of the fluid and for detecting of the fluorescence light. Due to the special design of the optical probe head it is highly sensitive for thin film measurements and it allows the accurate determination of the fuel film thickness even between a few and 100 μm. Special emphasis is placed on the selection of an adequate tracer added to the iso-octane fuel to achieve the correct film thickness even under vaporizing conditions, and on a detailed study of the parameters influencing the evaluated film thickness.
Technical Paper

Crank-Angle Resolved Temperature in SI Engines Measured by Emission-Absorption Spectroscopy

1999-10-25
1999-01-3542
Crank-angle resolved, gas temperatures are determined in the combustion chamber of a Volkswagen (VW) standard-production, port-injected SI engine. During idle, two different methods are applied: (1) a direct spectroscopic emission-absorption technique at a resonance line of potassium, seeded to the air stream to generate sufficient spectral absorptance (‘colouring’ technique), and (2) a more standard, indirect method in which temperatures are derived from pressure recordings using a two-zone thermodynamic model. Combustion temperatures obtained during idle with both the spectroscopic (1) and ‘two-zone’ (2) methods are in good agreement. In addition, the spectroscopic technique is extended to transient operating conditions where the ‘two-zone’ method is not applicable. Combustion temperatures measured during cold-start and abrupt load alteration are in good agreement with former investigations.
Technical Paper

Time-Resolved Analysis of Soot Formation and Oxidation in a Direct-Injection Diesel Engine for Different EGR-Rates by an Extinction Method

1995-10-01
952517
The formation of soot during the first phase and the oxidation of soot during the later phase of the combustion in a direct-injection diesel engine have been investigated in detail by an extinction method. The experiments were performed in a 1.9 l near-production high-speed four-cylinder in-line direct-injection diesel engine for passenger cars for different rates of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and for different fuels. The measurements result in crank angle resolved and cycle-averaged soot mass concentrations in the piston bowl and the combustion chamber. The results show that with increasing EGR-rates the amount of soot formed is increased only slightly but the amount of soot oxidized during combustion decreases significantly. This is assumed to be the main reason for the increase of soot in the exhaust gas with increasing EGR-rates.
Technical Paper

European Diesel Research IDEA-Experimental Results from DI Diesel Engine Investigations

1994-10-01
941954
Within the European research programme IDEA (Integrated Diesel European Action), detailed experimental and theoretical studies of the fundamental phenomena of the Diesel engine like flow, injection, mixture formation, auto-ignition, combustion and pollutant formation were carried out to improve knowledge and to set up models for a simulation code. Because this basic research of the Diesel combustion process is very complex and cost intensive, it was carried out jointly by the JRC (Joint Research Committee), an association of European car manufacturers (Fiat, Peugeot SA, Renault, Volvo and Volkswagen). The activities were also subsidized by the Commission of the European Communities and the Swedish National Board of Technical Development. The results of the research work will support the design of even more efficient engines and the further reduction of soot and NOx emissions and will also enable the companies to reduce time and cost in developing new engines.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Measurements and Analysis on Fundamental Cold Start and Warm-up Phenomena of SI Engines

1995-10-01
952394
A recently developed Laser Raman Scattering system was applied to measure the in-cylinder air-fuel ratio and the residual gas content (via the water content) of the charge simultaneously in a firing spark-ignition engine during cold start and warm-up. It is the main objective of this work to elucidate the origin of misfires and the necessity to over-fuel at cool ambient temperatures. It turns out that the overall air-fuel ratio and residual gas content (in particular the residual water content) of the charge appear to be the most important parameters for the occurrence of misfires (without appropriate fuel enrichment), i.e., the engine behaviour from cycle to cycle becomes rather predictable on the basis of these data. An alternative explanation for the necessity to over-fuel is given.
Technical Paper

Quantitative In-Cylinder NO LIF Measurements with a KrF Excimer Laser Applied to a Mass-Production SI Engine Fueled with Isooctane and Regular Gasoline

1997-02-24
970824
Quantitative 1-D spatially-resolved NO LIF measurements in the combustion chamber of a mass-production SI engine with port-fuel injection using a tunable KrF excimer laser are presented. One of the main advantages of this approach is that KrF laser radiation at 248 nm is only slightly absorbed by the in-cylinder gases during engine combustion and therefore it allows measurements at all crank angles. Multispecies detection turned out to be crucial for this approach since it is possible to calculate the in-cylinder temperature from the detected Rayleigh scattering and the simultaneously acquired pressure traces. Additionally, it allows the monitoring of interfering emissions and spectroscopic effects like fluorescence trapping which turned out to take place. Excitation with 248 nm yields LIF emissions at shorter wavelengths than the laser wavelength (at 237 and 226 nm).
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Mixture Formation Analysis with Spontaneous Raman Scattering Applied to a Mass-Production SI Engine

1997-02-24
970827
Mixture formation analysis in the combustion chamber of a slightly modified mass-production SI engine with port-fuel injection using nonintrusive laser measurement techniques is presented. Laser Raman scattering and planar laser-induced tracer fluorescence are employed to measure air-fuel ratio and residual gas content of the charge with and without spatial resolution. Single-cycle measurements as well as cycle-averaged measurements are performed. Engine operation parameters like load, speed, injection timing, spark timing, coolant temperature, and mean air-fuel ratio are changed to study whether the effects on mixture formation and engine performance can be resolved by the applied laser spectroscopic techniques. Mixture formation is also analyzed by measurement of the charge composition as a function of crank angle. Clear correlations of the charge composition data and engine operating conditions are seen.
Technical Paper

Vapor/Liquid Visualization with Laser-Induced Exciplex Fluorescence in an SI-Engine for Different Fuel Injection Timings

1996-05-01
961122
Laser-induced exciplex fluorescence has been applied to the mixture formation process in the combustion chamber of an optically-accessible four-cylinder in-line spark-ignition engine in order to distinguish between liquid and vapor fuel distribution during the intake and compression stroke for different injection timings. The naphthalene/N,N,N′N′-tetramethyl p-phenylene diamine (TMPD) exciplex system excited at 308nm with a broadband XeCl excimer laser is used to obtain spectrally-separated, single-shot fluorescence images of the liquid or vapor phase of the fuel. For different timings of the fuel injector this technique is applied to obtain crank-angle-resolved images of the resulting mixture in the combustion chamber. The fluorescence light is detected with an intensified slow-scan CCD-camera equipped with appropriate filters.
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