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Technical Paper

LEV II Applications Based on a Lean Start Calibration

2001-03-05
2001-01-1311
This paper compares and discusses the impact of conventional and improved start strategies on the design of the exhaust aftertreatment system. It is recognised that hardware measures on the exhaust side will not be sufficient if Volvo's 5 and 6 cylinder engines are to fulfil SULEV emission levels, assuming passive three way systems only. A new start strategy, providing an excessive heat profile combined with low engine out hydrocarbon emissions, was therefore developed. Temperature profiles, raw emissions and mass flow obtained with the Lean Start Calibration will be shown for the 5 and 6 cylinder engines, both naturally aspirated as turbo. The remaining part of the paper presents a brief history of the exhaust aftertreatment design modifications for Volvo's 5 cylinder N/A engine fulfilling LEV, ULEV I, ULEV II and PZEV emission levels respectively. The impact of the new start strategy on the cold start performance will be shown.
Technical Paper

Numerical Flow Simulations of a Detailed Car Underbody

2001-03-05
2001-01-0703
The airflow around a detailed car underbody has been simulated using a commercial CFD software. Moving ground and rotating-wheel boundary conditions were applied in order to allow comparisons of Cd and dCd values with experimental data from a wind tunnel fitted with moving ground facilities. The calculated Cd and dCd figures compared very well with the available experimental results. Four configurations were tested and the maximum difference between experimental and numerical Cd values was 0.009. The individual contribution of different parts of the vehicle to the total drag was calculated and is discussed in this paper. This paper also describes in detail the numerical technique used to perform the computations.
Technical Paper

Passenger AIR-BAG Status Indication Awareness Study

1997-02-24
970276
With the growing concern about the potential dangers with rear facing child seats placed in the front seat of passenger airbag equipped cars, various systems are being considered for deactivation of the airbag. To increase the awareness of and confidence in these proposed systems, information displays were developed for the purpose of telling the status of the passenger airbag system and to warn when necessary. A study of the effectiveness, understanding and acceptance of a selection of such information displays was jointly undertaken by Volvo Car Corporation, SAAB Automobile AB and the Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute. Respondents of various age and demographic composition, parents and grand parents of small children, were exposed to six different sets of information displays and were asked to interpret them and also rank which information displays that would most clearly convey the message.
Technical Paper

A Semiconductor Gas Sensor Array for the Detection of Gas Emissions from Interior Trim Materials in Automobiles

1998-02-23
980995
The principles of an electronic nose are described briefly. It is shown how a sensor array in combination with pattern recognition software can be used for quality control and classification of car interior trim materials. Anomalies such as bad smelling leather and carpet are shown as outliers. The results are consistent with GC-MS TVOC measurements as well as with data from a human sensory panel. More needs to be done, however, regarding the sensor stability in particular before the sensor array can be used for routine classification of the trim materials.
Technical Paper

Body and Component Accuracy in Assembly Systems

1998-09-29
982269
To give the customer an immediate impression of quality several of criteria must be fulfilled such as styling, paint finish and fitting of outer panels/closures. Therefore, higher demands on geometrical quality e.g. stability for both exterior and interior are needed. The structural part of the car body is the key element for success. Beside the visual impression, lack of noise and vibrations during driving can convince a potential buyer to become an actual customer. To achieve this, car manufacturers have to draw up an overall strategy in combination with proper working methods to be able to guarantee a stable geometrical output throughout the entire development process and during series production over the lifetime of the vehicle. On a simultaneous engineering basis, the OEM, the system/component- and the process suppliers (for the industrial system from press shop to final assembly) have to adopt a common measurement strategy.
Technical Paper

PremAir® Catalyst System

1998-10-19
982728
Traditional approaches to pollution control have been to develop benign non-polluting processes or to abate emissions at the tailpipe or stack before emitting to the atmosphere. A new technology called PremAir®* Catalyst Systems takes a different approach and directly reduces ambient ground level ozone. This technology can be applied to both mobile and stationary applications. For automotive applications, the new system involves placing a catalytic coating on the car's radiator or air conditioner condenser. As air passes over the radiator or condenser, the catalyst converts the ozone into oxygen. Three Volvo vehicles with a catalyst coating on the radiator were tested on the road during the 1997 summer ozone season in southern California to assess performance. Studies were also conducted in Volvo's laboratory to determine the effect of the catalyst coating on the radiator's performance with regard to corrosion, heat transfer and pressure drop.
Technical Paper

A Can Communications Concept With Guaranteed Message Latencies

1998-10-19
98C050
A new in-vehicle communication concept for CAN networks has been developed, taking into account recent findings from real-time research. The concept is characterized by three impo features: (i) Ability to guarantee the real-time performance of the network already at the design stage, thus significantly reducing the need for testing; (ii) Built-in flexibility enabling the vehicle manufacturer to upgrade the network in the pre-production phase of a project as well as in the aftermarket; (iii) Low use of available resources, thus saving cost compared to other solutions. The concept is successfully used in all larger Volvo cars from model year 1999.
Technical Paper

The Inflatable Curtain (IC) - A New Head Protection System in Side Impacts

1998-05-31
986180
Car accident investigations have shown that the head, the chest and the abdomen are the three most vulnerable body regions in side impacts, when serious-to-fatal (MAIS 3-6) injuries are considered. Injuries are much more common to occupants seated on the struck side than to those on the non-struck side. The development of new side impact protection systems has therefore been focused on struck side occupants. The first airbag system for side impact protection, jointly developed by Volvo and Autoliv, was introduced on the market in 1994. The SIPS bag is seat-mounted and protects mainly the chest and the abdomen, and also to some extent the head, since the head's lateral relative displacement is reduced by the side airbag, thereby keeping the head inside the car's outer profile. However, if an external object is exposed in the head area, for example in a truck-to-car side impact or in a single car collision into a pole or a tree, there is a need for an additional head protection device.
Technical Paper

A Study of Ground Simulation-Correlation between Wind-Tunnel and Water-Basin Tests of a Full-Scale Car

1989-02-01
890368
The aerodynamic properties of a full-scale car have been investigated in a wind-tunnel with upstream boundary layer suction, and in a water-basin where the car was rolling on the bottom. Measurements were carried out of the drag and lift forces, the static pressure distribution on the car body and the total head distribution between the car and the ground. By comparing data from the tunnel and the basin the ground simulation technique could be evaluated. The measured drag coefficients were found to be very similar in both facilities, while the absolute values of the lift coefficients were considerably higher in the tunnel. Lift differences due to configuration changes of the upperbody were essentially the same in the two facilities, while changes of the underbody caused smaller lift differences in the tunnel. In the project the water-basin technique was thoroughly investigated and proven.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Vehicle Pitch in Sled Testing

1985-02-25
850098
In HYGE sled simulations of 35 mph barrier crashes with the Volvo 760 dummy kinematics and injury criteria have been different from what can be observed in barrier crashes One of the major differences between sled testing and barrier crashes is the car pitch in the barrier crashes. In order to improve the sled testing a method to simulate pitch on the sled was developed. Dummy kinematics and injury criteria from sled tests with pitch simulation have proved to be in good agreement with results from barrier crashes. The paper will give a more detailed description of vehicle pitch, the sled pitch arrangement and a comparison of dummy kinematics and injury criteria from barrier crashes and sled testing with and without pitch displacement.
Technical Paper

Systematic Multi-Disciplinary Optimization of Engine Mounts

2011-05-17
2011-01-1674
In modern vehicles, each system must meet tough demands to fulfill the many different attribute requirements, design constraints and manufacturing limitations. It becomes difficult and time-consuming to find an optimal and robust design using a traditional engineering process. Volvo Cars has for several years been using Multi-Disciplinary Optimization, MDO, that basically shows the customer attributes levels, such as NVH, ride comfort, and driveability as a function of different parameter configurations. This greatly facilitates project team understanding of the limitations and possibilities of the different systems, and has become a key enabler to achieving a good balance between different attributes. Traditionally, this type of comprehensive Design of Experiments (DOE) optimization demands huge time and computer resources. Frequently, experimental designs will not fulfill manufacturing limitations or attribute targets, making this decision process slow, tedious, and fruitless.
Technical Paper

Dispersion of Test-Based NVH Characteristics at Various Trim Levels

2011-05-17
2011-01-1569
A broad measurement campaign was run at Volvo aiming at the evaluation of dispersion in test-based NVH characteristics of a car body and at the derivation of reference data for judging the accuracy of CAE predictions. Within this work 6, nominally identical, vehicles were tested. Tests included operational noise on Complete Vehicle (CV) level (road noise, engine noise and idling noise), NTF, VTF & Acoustic FRF measurements in CV, Trimmed Body (TB) & TB-Stripped (TBS) configurations. Additionally, modal analysis and NTF, VTF, AFRF tests were carried out on 4 BIPs of the same vehicle type. Further, limited tests were carried out on 28 vehicles of the same type. The aim of the work was to study the development of dispersion with increasing complexity of the test object, from the BIP to TB and CV.
Technical Paper

Reducing Pressure Fluctuations at High Loads by Means of Charge Stratification in HCCI Combustion with Negative Valve Overlap

2009-06-15
2009-01-1785
Future demands for improvements in the fuel economy of gasoline passenger car engines will require the development and implementation of advanced combustion strategies, to replace, or combine with the conventional spark ignition strategy. One possible strategy is homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) achieved using negative valve overlap (NVO). However, several issues need to be addressed before this combustion strategy can be fully implemented in a production vehicle, one being to increase the upper load limit. One constraint at high loads is the combustion becoming too rapid, leading to excessive pressure-rise rates and large pressure fluctuations (ringing), causing noise. In this work, efforts were made to reduce these pressure fluctuations by using a late injection during the later part of the compression. A more appropriate acronym than HCCI for such combustion is SCCI (Stratified Charge Compression Ignition).
Technical Paper

Testing and Verification of Adaptive Cruise Control and Collision Warning with Brake Support by Using HIL Simulations

2008-04-14
2008-01-0728
This paper presents how hardware in the loop (HIL) simulations have been used for testing during the development of the adaptive cruise control (ACC) and collision warning with brake support (CWBS) functions implemented in the Volvo S80. Both the brake system controller and the controller where the ACC and CWBS functions were implemented were tested. The HIL simulator was used for automated batch simulations in which different controller software releases were analyzed from both system, fail-safe and functional performance perspectives. This paper presents the challenges and the benefits of using HIL simulations when developing distributed active safety functions. Some specific simulation results are analyzed and discussed. The conclusion shows that although it is difficult and time-consuming to develop a complete HIL simulation environment for active safety functions such as ACC and CWBS, the benefits justify the investment.
Technical Paper

Development of the Euro 5 Combustion System for Volvo Cars' 2.4.I Diesel Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-1450
The development of a new combustion system for a light-duty diesel engine is presented. The soot-NOx trade-off is significantly improved with maintained or improved efficiency. This is accomplished only by altering the combustion chamber geometry, and thereby the in-cylinder flow. The bowl geometry is developed in CFD and validated in single cylinder tests. Tests and simulations align remarkably well. Under identical conditions in the engine the new combustion chamber decreases smoke by 11-27%, NOx by 2-11%, and maintains efficiency as compared to the baseline geometry. The injector nozzle is matched to the new bowl using design of experiments (DoE). By this method transfer functions are obtained that can be used to optimize the system using analytical tools. The emissions show a complex dependence on the nozzle geometry. The emission dependence on nozzle geometry varies greatly over the engine operating range.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Investigations of the Base Wake on an SUV

2013-04-08
2013-01-0464
With the increase in fuel prices and the increasingly strict environmental legislations regarding CO₂ emissions, reduction of the total energy consumption of our society becomes more important. Passenger vehicles are partly responsible for this consumption due to their strong presence in the daily life of most people. Therefore reducing the impact of cars on the environment can assist in decreasing the overall energy consumption. Even though several fields have an impact on a passenger car's performance, this paper will focus on the aerodynamic part and more specifically, the wake behind a vehicle. By definition a car is a bluff body on which the air resistance is for the most part driven by pressure drag. This is caused by the wake these bodies create. Therefore analyzing the wake characteristics behind a vehicle is crucial if one would like to reduce drag.
Technical Paper

Severe Frontal Collisions with Partial Overlap - Two Decades of Car Safety Development

2013-04-08
2013-01-0759
Frontal Severe Partial Overlap Collisions (SPOC) also called small overlap crashes pose special challenges with respect to structural design as well as occupant protection. In the early 1990s, the SPOC test method was developed addressing 20-40% overlap against a fixed rigid barrier with initial velocities up to 65 km/h. The knowledge gained has been used in the design of Volvo vehicles since then. Important design principles include front side members orientated along the wheel envelopes together with a strong support structure utilizing a space frame principle with beams loaded mainly in tension and compression. This novel setup was first introduced in the 850-model in 1991 and has been refined and patented (2001) in later Volvo front structures. Among the design principles are multiple front side members on each side, helping energy absorption efficiency and robustness.
Technical Paper

Influences of Different Front and Rear Wheel Designs on Aerodynamic Drag of a Sedan Type Passenger Car

2011-04-12
2011-01-0165
Efforts towards ever more energy efficient passenger cars have become one of the largest challenges of the automotive industry. This involves numerous different fields of engineering, and every finished model is always a compromise between different requirements. Passenger car aerodynamics is no exception; the shape of the exterior is often dictated by styling, engine bay region by packaging issues etcetera. Wheel design is also a compromise between different requirements such as aerodynamic drag and brake cooling, but as the wheels and wheel housings are responsible for up to a quarter of the overall aerodynamic drag on a modern passenger car, it is not surprising that efforts are put towards improving the wheel aerodynamics.
Technical Paper

A Structure and Calibration Method for Data-Driven Modeling of NOX and Soot Emissions from a Diesel Engine

2012-04-16
2012-01-0355
The development and implementation of a new structure for data-driven models for NOX and soot emissions is described. The model structure is a linear regression model, where physically relevant input signals are used as regressors, and all the regression parameters are defined as grid-maps in the engine speed/injected fuel domain. The method of using grid-maps in the engine speed/injected fuel domain for all the regression parameters enables the models to be valid for changes in physical parameters that affect the emissions, without having to include these parameters as input signals to the models. This is possible for parameters that are dependent only on the engine speed and the amount of injected fuel. This means that models can handle changes for different parameters in the complete working range of the engine, without having to include all signals that actually effect the emissions into the models.
Technical Paper

Acoustic One-Dimensional Compressor Model for Integration in a Gas-Dynamic Code

2012-04-16
2012-01-0834
An acoustic one-dimensional compressor model has been developed. This model is based on compressor map information and it is able to predict how the pressure waves are transmitted and reflected by the compressor. This is later on necessary to predict radiated noise at the intake orifice. The fluid-dynamic behavior of the compressor has been reproduced by simplifying the real geometry in zero-dimensional and one-dimensional elements with acoustic purposes. These elements are responsible for attenuating or reflecting the pressure pulses generated by the engine. In order to compensate the effect of these elements in the mean flow variables, the model uses a corrected compressor map. Despite of the fact that the compressor model was developed originally as a part of the OpenWAM™ software, it can be exported to other commercial wave action models. An example is provided of exporting the described model to GT-Power™.
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