Challenges and Opportunities for the Transition to Highly Energy-Efficient Passenger Cars
Maintaining the current ratio between certified and the customer-observed fuel consumption even with future required levels poses a considerable challenge. Increasing the efficiency of the driveline enables certified fuel consumption down to a feasible level in the order of 80 g CO₂/km using fossil fuels. Mainly affecting off-cycle fuel consumption, energy amounts used to create good interior climate as well as energy-consuming options and features threaten to further increase. Progressing urbanization will lead to decreasing average vehicle speeds and driving distances. Highly efficient powertrains come with decreased amounts of waste energy traditionally used for interior climate conditioning, thus making necessary a change of auxiliary systems.