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Technical Paper

Body and Component Accuracy in Assembly Systems

1998-09-29
982269
To give the customer an immediate impression of quality several of criteria must be fulfilled such as styling, paint finish and fitting of outer panels/closures. Therefore, higher demands on geometrical quality e.g. stability for both exterior and interior are needed. The structural part of the car body is the key element for success. Beside the visual impression, lack of noise and vibrations during driving can convince a potential buyer to become an actual customer. To achieve this, car manufacturers have to draw up an overall strategy in combination with proper working methods to be able to guarantee a stable geometrical output throughout the entire development process and during series production over the lifetime of the vehicle. On a simultaneous engineering basis, the OEM, the system/component- and the process suppliers (for the industrial system from press shop to final assembly) have to adopt a common measurement strategy.
Technical Paper

A Can Communications Concept With Guaranteed Message Latencies

1998-10-19
98C050
A new in-vehicle communication concept for CAN networks has been developed, taking into account recent findings from real-time research. The concept is characterized by three impo features: (i) Ability to guarantee the real-time performance of the network already at the design stage, thus significantly reducing the need for testing; (ii) Built-in flexibility enabling the vehicle manufacturer to upgrade the network in the pre-production phase of a project as well as in the aftermarket; (iii) Low use of available resources, thus saving cost compared to other solutions. The concept is successfully used in all larger Volvo cars from model year 1999.
Technical Paper

A Study of Ground Simulation-Correlation between Wind-Tunnel and Water-Basin Tests of a Full-Scale Car

1989-02-01
890368
The aerodynamic properties of a full-scale car have been investigated in a wind-tunnel with upstream boundary layer suction, and in a water-basin where the car was rolling on the bottom. Measurements were carried out of the drag and lift forces, the static pressure distribution on the car body and the total head distribution between the car and the ground. By comparing data from the tunnel and the basin the ground simulation technique could be evaluated. The measured drag coefficients were found to be very similar in both facilities, while the absolute values of the lift coefficients were considerably higher in the tunnel. Lift differences due to configuration changes of the upperbody were essentially the same in the two facilities, while changes of the underbody caused smaller lift differences in the tunnel. In the project the water-basin technique was thoroughly investigated and proven.
Technical Paper

Interior Sound of Today's Electric Cars: Tonal Content, Levels and Frequency Distribution

2015-06-15
2015-01-2367
When it comes to the acoustic properties of electric cars, the powertrain noise differs dramatically compared to traditional vehicles with internal combustion engines. The low frequency firing orders, mechanical and combustion noise are exchanged with a more high frequency whining signature due to electromagnetic forces and gear meshing, lower in level but subject to annoyance. Previous studies have highlighted these differences and also investigated relevant perception criteria in terms of psycho-acoustic metrics. However, investigations of differences between different kinds of electric and hybrid electric cars are still rare. The purpose of this paper was to present the distribution of tonal components in today's hybrid/electric vehicles. More specifically, the number of prominent orders, their maximum levels and frequency separation were analyzed for the most critical driving conditions. The study is based upon measurements made on 13 electrified cars on the market.
Technical Paper

Surface Flow Visualization on a Full-Scale Passenger Car with Quantitative Tuft Image Processing

2016-04-05
2016-01-1582
Flow visualization techniques are widely used in aerodynamics to investigate the surface trace pattern. In this experimental investigation, the surface flow pattern over the rear end of a full-scale passenger car is studied using tufts. The movement of the tufts is recorded with a DSLR still camera, which continuously takes pictures. A novel and efficient tuft image processing algorithm has been developed to extract the tuft orientations in each image. This allows the extraction of the mean tuft angle and other such statistics. From the extracted tuft angles, streamline plots are created to identify points of interest, such as saddle points as well as separation and reattachment lines. Furthermore, the information about the tuft orientation in each time step allows studying steady and unsteady flow phenomena. Hence, the tuft image processing algorithm provides more detailed information about the surface flow than the traditional tuft method.
Technical Paper

A Reference Architecture for Infotainment Systems

2006-10-16
2006-21-0013
Volvo Car Corporation has developed a Reference Architecture for PAG1 Infotainment Systems. A Reference Architecture is an architecture scoping over more than a single system, i.e. an architecture aimed for a family of systems. The Infotainment Reference Architecture has since 2001 been successfully applied for the PAG family which so far covers the infotainment systems of Volvo XC90, Volvo S40/V50, Jaguar XK, Aston Martin DB9 and the brand new Volvo S80. In 1999, the system design departments started up with the clear objective to develop a system solution aiming for the PAG infotainment system family. The work was carried out according to the established development process at Volvo Cars. A year later a discouraging design review was performed. The number of involved functions, the level of function interaction and the distribution of functionalities between ECUs resulted in a non-manageable system solution.
Technical Paper

Accuracy in Flow Simulations of Climate Control-Part 1: The Air Distribution System

1999-03-01
1999-01-1200
Flow simulations of an air distribution system have been carried out using the CFD code FLUENT/UNS [1]. The purpose of this study is to validate this complex flow problem versus experimental data. Two modes of the climate system are investigated; the Ventilation mode and the Floor/Defroster mode. The complete geometrical model contains all ducts, central unit, heat exchangers, defroster and nozzles of the air distribution system. A high level of geometrical detailing in the mesh, consisting of 2.1 - 3.3 million cells, is used. The study shows that CFD has a potential to give reliable results, even for complex systems, like air distribution systems, if used in a controlled manner.
Technical Paper

Field Method for Torsion Stiffness Measurement of Complete Vehicles

2003-10-27
2003-01-2754
The following paper describes how to measure the global torsional stiffness of a complete car under field-like conditions. All that's needed are lifting devices, two stands of equal height, three glide planes or equivalent, three scales and two inclinometers, a spirit level, some pieces of aluminum and a glue gun. The results from four measured cars are presented and a comparison is made with values obtained with laboratory equipment and data from manufacturers. The method is a fast and economic means to find the most interesting cars that then can be selected for measurement by traditional methods, giving the stiffness as a function of the vehicles long axis, and thus minimizes the cost of benchmarking. Time for measuring one car with all equipment readily available and with personnel having some experience of the method is about two hours. Only the sway bars have to be disconnected. Absolutely no damage to the measured car means that rented cars can be used.
Technical Paper

Location of the First Auto-Ignition Sites for Two HCCI Systems in a Direct Injection Engine

2004-03-08
2004-01-0564
To elucidate the processes controlling the auto-ignition timing and overall combustion duration in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines, the distribution of the auto-ignition sites, in both space and time, was studied. The auto-ignition locations were investigated using optical diagnosis of HCCI combustion, based on laser induced fluorescence (LIF) measurements of formaldehyde in an optical engine with fully variable valve actuation. This engine was operated in two different modes of HCCI. In the first, auto-ignition temperatures were reached by heating the inlet air, while in the second, residual mass from the previous combustion cycle was trapped using a negative valve overlap. The fuel was introduced directly into the combustion chamber in both approaches. To complement these experiments, 3-D numerical modeling of the gas exchange and compression stroke events was done for both HCCI-generating approaches.
Technical Paper

Open-Interface Definitions for Automotive Systems1 Application to a Brake by Wire System

2002-03-04
2002-01-0267
Today automotive system suppliers develop more-or-less independent systems, such as brake, power steering and suspension systems. In the future, car manufacturers like Volvo will build up vehicle control systems combining their own algorithms with algorithms provided by automotive system suppliers. Standardization of interfaces to actuators, sensors and functions is an important enabler for this vision and will have major consequences for functionality, prices and lead times, and thus affects both vehicle manufacturers and automotive suppliers. The investigation of the level of appropriate interfaces, as part of the European BRAKE project, is described here. Potential problems and consequences are discussed from both a technical and a business perspective. This paper provides a background on BRAKE and on the functional decomposition upon which the interface definitions are based. Finally, the interface definitions for brake system functionality are given.
Journal Article

Structures of Flow Separation on a Passenger Car

2015-04-14
2015-01-1529
The phenomenon of three-dimensional flow separation is and has been in the focus of many researchers. An improved understanding of the physics and the driving forces is desired to be able to improve numerical simulations and to minimize aerodynamic drag over bluff bodies. To investigate the sources of separation one wants to understand what happens at the surface when the flow starts to detach and the upwelling of the streamlines becomes strong. This observation of a flow leaving the surface could be captured by investigating the limiting streamlines and surface parameters as pressure, vorticity or the shear stress. In this paper, numerical methods are used to investigate the surface pressure and flow patterns on a sedan passenger vehicle. Observed limiting streamlines are compared to the pressure distribution and their correlation is shown. For this investigation the region behind the antenna and behind the wheel arch, are pointed out and studied in detail.
Journal Article

Investigation of the Influence of Tyre Geometry on the Aerodynamics of Passenger Cars

2013-04-08
2013-01-0955
It is well known that wheels are responsible for a significant amount of the total aerodynamic drag of passenger vehicles. Tyres, and mostly rims, have been the subject of research in the automotive industry for the past years, but their effect and interaction with each other and with the car exterior is still not completely understood. This paper focuses on the use of CFD to study the effects of tyre geometry (tyre profile and tyre tread) on road vehicle aerodynamics. Whenever possible, results of the numerical computations are compared with experiments. More than sixty configurations were simulated. These simulations combined different tyre profiles, treads, rim designs and spoke orientation on two car types: a sedan and a sports wagon. Two tyre geometries were obtained directly from the tyre manufacturer, while a third geometry was obtained from our database and represents a generic tyre which covers different profiles of a given tyre size.
Technical Paper

Designing Based on Thermal Loads

2005-05-10
2005-01-2051
When designing components, systems and fluid characteristics, thermal loads gathered over the life cycle of an automobile are of great interest. Ageing and deterioration based on the temperature/time distribution that a component or fluid is exposed to, affects the functionality and/or durability of electronics, polymers and lubricants. Optimal design in terms of quality and cost are two of the most governing parameters at Volvo Cars at present. To meet this need, designing terms of life cycles from a thermal perspective has been developed during recent years. This paper presents a methodology for designing components and choosing system solutions from life span thermal loads in Volvo Car's vehicles. The fundamental ideas behind the method, design criteria and examples of usage are discussed from a holistic point of view.
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