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Technical Paper

Analysis of Muscle Fatigue for Urban Bus Drivers using Electromyography

Professional bus drivers are highly exposed to physical fatigue and work-related injuries because driving task includes complicated actions that require a variety of ability and cause extreme concentration or strain. For this reason, there has always been some sense of concern regarding driver fatigue, especially for drivers of commercial vehicles. In this study, we have tried to analyze quantitative fatigue degree of urban bus drivers by measuring their physiological signals. The investigation is made up of the following approaches: a traditional questionnaire survey and video-ethnographic method with 4-way cameras. The close-circuit cameras are installed to observe the upper and lower body of real drivers when they are in driving or even resting. This approach can help to understand urban bus drivers' behaviors and fatigue-related issues. Based on the video-ethnographic investigation results above, we have got certain patterns of drivers.
Technical Paper

Co-operative Control of Regenerative Braking using a Front Electronic Wedge Brake and a Rear Electronic Mechanical Brake Considering the Road Friction Characteristic

In this study, a co-operative regenerative braking control algorithm was developed for an electric vehicle (EV) equipped with an electronic wedge brake (EWB) for its front wheels and an electronic mechanical brake (EMB) for its rear wheels. The co-operative regenerative braking control algorithm was designed considering the road friction characteristic to increase the recuperation energy while avoiding wheel lock. A powertrain model of an EV composed of a motor, and batteries and a MATLAB model of the control algorithm were also developed. They were linked to the CarSim model of the vehicle under study to develop an EV simulator. The EMB and EWB were modeled with an actuator, screw, and wedge to develop an EMB and EWB simulator. A co-simulator for an EV equipped with an EWB for the front wheels and an EMB for the rear wheels was fabricated, composed of the EV and the EMB and EWB simulator.
Technical Paper

Test Method for Operational Deflection Shape Analysis of Squealing Brake Disc in Dynamic Condition

In order to reduce brake squeal noise, it is important to identify operational deflection shape (ODS) of brake disc while squeal arises. However, in the conventional modal analysis and optical measurement, it is only able to identify limited ODS because of the technical limits. This paper details the test method to identify ODS in radial and tangential as well as axial direction of a brake disc in driving condition. Vibrational signal of a rotating disc was obtained by triaxial accelerometer installed to solid type discs/cooling fins of ventilated type discs, then ODS of disc were analyzed through digital signal processing.
Technical Paper

Optimization for Brake Feeling in Vehicle without Brake Noise

Recently, upon customer’s needs for noise-free brake, carmakers are increasingly widely installing damping kits in their braking systems. However, an installation of the damping kits may excessively increase softness in the brake system, by loosening stroke feeling of a brake pedal and increasing compressibility after durability. To find a solution to alleviate this problem, we first conducted experiments to measure compressibility of shims by varying parameters such as adhesive shims (e.g., bonding spec., steel and rubber thickness), piston’s shapes (e.g., different contact areas to the shims), and the numbers of durability. Next, we installed a brake feeling measurement system extended from a brake pedal to caliper. We then compared experimental parameters with brake feeling in a vehicle. Finally, we obtained an optimized level of brake feeling by utilizing the Design for Six Sigma (DFSS).
Technical Paper

Compatibility between Brake Discs and Friction Materials in DTV Generation and Recovery Test

A comparative study was carried out to investigate the DTV (disk thickness variation) behavior according to the types of brake disks (gray iron grade 250 and high-carbon gray iron grade 200, 170) with two typical friction materials (non-steel and low-steel friction materials). To evaluate DTV generation and recovery characteristics, a parasitic drag mode simulating highway driving (off-brake) and a normal braking mode simulating city traffic driving (on-brake) were used with an inertia brake dynamometer. Results showed that DTV and BTV were strongly affected by the microstructure, hardness level and distribution of the gray cast iron with the friction material types. The BTV was reduced in the friction two pairs using non-steel friction materials with high carbon grade disks and low-steel friction materials with high-carbon, low hardness disk. In particular, the pair of low-steel friction materials and high-carbon, low-hardness brake disks was more effective on DTV recovery.
Technical Paper

Corrosion Induced Brake Torque Variation: The Effect from Gray Iron Microstructure and Friction Materials

Brake judder caused by corrosion of gray iron disks was investigated. In this study, the microstructure of the gray iron disks and the friction film developed on the disk surface by commercial friction materials were examined to find the root cause of the corrosion induced brake torque variation. Corrosion of the disk was carried out in an environmental chamber, simulating in-vehicle disk corrosion. Moisture content and acidity of the friction materials were also taken into account for this investigation and brake tests to examine torque variation during brake applications were performed using a single-end brake dynamometer. Results showed that the friction film developed on the disk surface strongly affected the amount of corrosion, while graphite morphology of the gray iron had little effect on the corrosion.
Technical Paper

Development of an Engine Torquemeter for In-vehicle Application and Parametric Study on Fuel Consumption Contribution

The mechanical energy of an engine is lost by engine friction and in driving the engine's auxiliary components, which is then transferred to transmission. Thus, it is very important to know the exact value of engine friction and the driving torque of engine's auxiliary components in order to reduce fuel consumption of an engine by reducing these losses. And, it is also helpful to know the braking torque of an engine in actual vehicle so as to improve vehicle's driving performance. For these reasons, present study developed an engine torquemeter for in-vehicle application, and measured braking torque of an engine in vehicle and analyzed fuel consumption contributions of engine's auxiliary components.
Journal Article

Development of Noise Propensity Index (NPI) for Robust Brake Friction

A semi-empirical index to evaluate the noise propensity of brake friction materials is introduced. The noise propensity index (NPI) is based on the ratio of surface and matrix stiffness of the friction material, fraction of high-pressure contact plateaus on the sliding surface, and standard deviation of the surface stiffness of the friction material that affect the amplitude and frequency of the stick-slip oscillation. The correlation between noise occurrence and NPI was examined using various brake linings for commercial vehicles. The results obtained from reduced-scale noise dynamometer and vehicle tests indicated that NPI is well correlated with noise propensity. The analysis of the stick-slip profiles also indicated that the surface property affects the amplitude of friction oscillation, while the mechanical property of the friction material influences the propagation of friction oscillation after the onset of vibration.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Vehicle Body Effect on Brake Noise

Creep groan noise occurs in a just moving vehicle by the simultaneous application of torque to the wheel and the gradual release of brake pressure in-vehicle. It is the low frequency noise giving the driver a very uncomfortable feeling. Recently, the field claims regarding the creep groan noise are increasing. So far, creep groan noise has been improved by means of chassis modification the transfer system. But vehicle body the response system does not. In this paper, the effect between vibration characteristics of vehicle body, creep groan noise was analyzed. Then presented analysis method for vehicle body effect regarding creep groan noise.
Journal Article

An Improvement of Brake Squeal CAE Model Considering Dynamic Contact Pressure Distribution

In the brake system, unevenly distributed disc-pad contact pressure not only leads to a falling-off in braking feeling due to uneven wear of brake pads, but also a main cause of system instability which leads to squeal noise. For this reason there have been several attempts to measure contact pressure distribution. However, only static pressure distribution has been measured in order to estimate the actual pressure distribution. In this study a new test method is designed to quantitatively measure dynamic contact pressure distribution between disc and pad in vehicle testing. The characteristics of dynamic contact pressure distribution are analyzed for various driving conditions and pad shape. Based on those results, CAE model was updated and found to be better in detecting propensity of brake squeal.
Technical Paper

The Unified Relationship between Torque and Gear Ratio and Its Application in Multi-Step Automatic Transmissions

The market demands for CO2 reduction and fuel economy have led to a variety of new gear set concepts of automatic transmissions with 4 planetary gear sets and 6 shift elements in recent years. Understanding the relationship between the torque of clutch and brake and gear ratio in the design stage is very important to assess new gear set concepts and to set up the control strategy for enhancing shift quality and to reduce the heat generation of clutch and brake. In this paper, a new systematic approach is used to unify the relationship between torque and gear ratio during the gear shift for all multi-step planetary automatic transmissions. This study describes the unified concept model with a lumped inertia regardless of the specific transmission layout and derives the principal unified relationship equations using torque and energy analysis, which prove that the sum of brake torque is always gear ratio -1 in every in-gear.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Disc Scoring Generation Principle and Reduction(III)

In the latest works, we presented the guideline for reducing Metal pick up(MPU,the main component of disc scoring) by controlling the location of the roughness of disc, the brake pad frictioncoefficients and the disc slot's size. In this study, the previously studied iron transfer theory to 'Cu free' brake pad and the disc surface roughness controlling methods which are based on the mass production manufacturing process are applied. It is possible to suggest the ways to improve the scoring-free disc without reducing friction coefficient between the disc and pad, and any demerit such as increased wear and airplane noise like conventional slot discs.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Optimum Reduction of Required Brake Fluid Level for Improvement of The High Speed Continuous Brake Distance

The high speed continuous braking distance assessment is the worst condition for thermal fades. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between fade characteristic and friction materials & brake fluid amount for improving braking distance. So, we used the dynamometer to measure the friction coefficient, braking distance and required brake fluid amount. First of all, we studied the influence of friction coefficient on the same friction material shape (chamfer shape, area of the friction material, number of slots). Secondly, we knew the effects of braking distance by the shape of the friction material. Through these two studies, the shape of the friction material favorable to the fade characteristics was obtained. Finally, we measured the amount of required brake fluid in caliper after 10 consecutive braking cycles through Dynamometer. And then, we measured the amount of compression deformation and uneven wear of the friction material.
Technical Paper

A Development of the Model Based Torque Feedback Control with Disturbance Observer for Electric Power Steering System

Electric Power Steering (EPS) needs to meet both functional and stability requirements, it plays significant role in controlling vehicle motion. In the meantime, customers emphasizes natural steering feel which can reflect vehicle motion and road surface information while isolate unwanted external disturbances. In general, conventional EPS control algorithms exert assist torque according to driver torque measured from torque sensor, while maintaining stability using stabilizing compensator. However, there exist significant trade-off between steering feel and stability, because the performances of assist torque control and stabilizing compensator are strongly coupled. In this paper a torque feedback control algorithm for EPS system is proposed in order to overcome the trade-off, and to achieve more natural, robust steering feel.