Kinematics of Human Cadaver Cervical Spine During Low Speed Rear-End Impacts
The purposes of this study were to measure the relative linear and angular displacements of each pair of adjacent cervical vertebrae and to compute changes in distance between two adjacent facet joint landmarks during low posterior- anterior (+Gx) acceleration without significant hyperextension of the head. A total of twenty-six low speed rear-end impacts were conducted using six postmortem human specimens. Each cadaver was instrumented with two to three neck targets embedded in each cervical vertebra and nine accelerometers on the head. Sequential x-ray images were collected and analyzed. Two seatback orientations were studied. In the global coordinate system, the head, the cervical vertebrae, and the first or second thoracic vertebra (T1 or T2) were in extension during rear-end impacts. The head showed less extension in comparison with the cervical spine.