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Technical Paper

Development of a Finite Element Model of the Human Shoulder

2000-11-01
2000-01-SC19
Previous studies have hypothesized that the shoulder may be used to absorb some impact energy and reduce chest injury due to side impacts. Before this hypothesis can be tested, a good understanding of the injury mechanisms and the kinematics of the shoulder is critical for occupant protection in side impact. However, existing crash dummies and numerical models are not designed to reproduce the kinematics and kinetics of the human shoulder. The purpose of this study was to develop a finite element model of the human shoulder in order to achieve a deeper understanding of the injury mechanisms and the kinematics of the shoulder in side impact. Basic anthropometric data of the human shoulder used to develop the skeletal and muscular portions of this model were taken from commercial data packages. The shoulder model included three bones (the humerus, scapula and clavicle) and major ligaments and muscles around the shoulder.
Technical Paper

Kinematics of Human Cadaver Cervical Spine During Low Speed Rear-End Impacts

2000-11-01
2000-01-SC13
The purposes of this study were to measure the relative linear and angular displacements of each pair of adjacent cervical vertebrae and to compute changes in distance between two adjacent facet joint landmarks during low posterior- anterior (+Gx) acceleration without significant hyperextension of the head. A total of twenty-six low speed rear-end impacts were conducted using six postmortem human specimens. Each cadaver was instrumented with two to three neck targets embedded in each cervical vertebra and nine accelerometers on the head. Sequential x-ray images were collected and analyzed. Two seatback orientations were studied. In the global coordinate system, the head, the cervical vertebrae, and the first or second thoracic vertebra (T1 or T2) were in extension during rear-end impacts. The head showed less extension in comparison with the cervical spine.
Technical Paper

A tibial mid-shaft injury mechanism in frontal automotive crashes

2001-06-04
2001-06-0241
Lower extremity injuries in frontal automotive crashes usually occur with footwell intrusion where both the knee and foot are constrained. In order to identify factors associated with tibial shaft injury, a series of numerical simulations were conducted using a finite element model of the whole human body. These simulations demonstrated that tibial mid-shaft injuries in frontal crashes could be caused by an abrupt change in velocity and a high rate of footwell intrusion.
Technical Paper

Effect of EGR on Autoignition, Combustion, Regulated Emissions and Aldehydes in DI Diesel Engines

2002-03-04
2002-01-1153
In view of the new regulations for diesel engine emissions, EGR is used to reduce the NOx emissions. Diluting the charge with EGR affects the autoignition, combustion as well as the regulated and unregulated emissions of diesel engines, under different operating conditions. This paper presents the results of an investigation on the effect of EGR on the global activation energy and order of the autoignition reactions, premixed and mixing-controlled combustion fractions, the regulated (unburned hydrocarbons, NOx, CO and particulates), aldehydes, CO2 and HC speciation. The experiments were conducted on two different direct injection, four-stroke-cycle, single-cylinder diesel engines over a wide range of operating conditions and EGR ratios.
Technical Paper

A Faster Algorithm for the Calculation of the IMEP

2000-10-16
2000-01-2916
The Indicated Mean Effective Pressure (IMEP) is a very important engine parameter, giving significant information about the quality of the cycle that transforms heat into mechanical work. For this reason, modern data acquisition systems display, on line, the cylinder pressure variation together with the corresponding IMEP. The paper presents a very simple algorithm for the calculation of IMEP, based on the correlation between IMEP and the gas pressure torque. It was found that that the IMEP may be calculated by a very simple formula involving only two harmonic components of the cylinder pressure variation. The computation of the two harmonic components is very easily performed because it does not involve the calculation of an average pressure and the cylinder volume variation. The method was experimentally validated showing differences less than 0.2% with respect to the IMEP calculated by the traditional method.
Technical Paper

Exploration of the Contribution of the Start/Stop Transients in HEV Operation and Emissions

2000-08-21
2000-01-3086
The effects of the start/stop (S/S) transients on the Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) operation and emissions are explored in this study. The frequency with which the engine starts and stops during an urban driving cycle is estimated by using the NREL's Advanced Vehicle Simulator software (ADVISOR). Furthermore, several tests were conducted on single-cylinder and multi-cylinder direct injection diesel engines in order to measure the cycle-resolved mole fractions of the hydrocarbons and nitric oxide exhaust emissions under frequent start/stop mode of operation. The frictional losses in engine in its entirety as well as in its components are also determined. In addition, the dynamic behavior of different high pressure fuel injection systems are investigated under the start and stop mode of operation.
Technical Paper

A New Model of Traumatic Axonal Injury to Determine the Effects of Strain and Displacement Rates

2006-11-06
2006-22-0023
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) continues to be a major health problem, with over 500,000 cases per year with a societal cost of approximately $85 billion in the US. Motor vehicle accidents are the leading cause of such injuries. In many cases of TBI widespread disruption of the axons occurs through a process known as diffuse axonal injury (DAI) or traumatic axonal injury (TAI). In the current study, an in vivo TAI model was developed using spinal nerve roots of adult rats. This model was used to determine functional and structural responses of axons to various strains and displacement rates. Fifty-six L5 dorsal nerve roots were each subjected to a predetermined strain range (<10%, 10-20% and >20%) at a specified displacement rate (0.01 mm/sec and 15 mm/sec) only once. Image analysis was used to determine actual strains on the roots during the pull.
Technical Paper

Biomechanical Response of the Bovine Pia-Arachnoid Complex to Tensile Loading at Varying Strain Rates

2006-11-06
2006-22-0025
The pia-arachnoid complex (PAC) covering the brain plays an important role in the mechanical response of the brain due to impact or inertial loading. However, the mechanical properties of the pia-arachnoid complex and its influence on the overall response of the brain have not been well characterized. Consequently, finite element (FE) brain models have tended to oversimplify the response of the pia-arachnoid complex, possibly resulting in a loss of accuracy in the model predictions. The aim of this study was to determine, experimentally, the material properties of the pia-arachnoid complex under quasi-static and dynamic loading conditions. Specimens of the pia-arachnoid complex were obtained from the parietal and temporal regions of freshly slaughtered bovine subjects with the specimen orientation recorded. Single-stroke, uniaxial quasi-static and dynamic tensile experiments were performed at strain-rates of 0.05, 0.5, 5 and 100 s-1 (n = 10 for each strain rate group).
Technical Paper

Application of a Finite Element Model of the Brain to Study Traumatic Brain Injury Mechanisms in the Rat

2006-11-06
2006-22-0022
Complete validation of any finite element (FE) model of the human brain is very difficult due to the lack of adequate experimental data. However, more animal brain injury data, especially rat data, obtained under well-defined mechanical loading conditions, are available to advance the understanding of the mechanisms of traumatic brain injury. Unfortunately, internal response of the brain in these experimental studies could not be measured. The aim of this study was to develop a detailed FE model of the rat brain for the prediction of intracranial responses due to different impact scenarios. Model results were used to elucidate possible brain injury mechanisms. An FE model, consisting of more than 250,000 hexahedral elements with a typical element size of 100 to 300 microns, was developed to represent the brain of a rat. The model was first validated locally against peak brain deformation data obtained from nine unique dynamic cortical deformation (vacuum) tests.
Technical Paper

Combustion and Emission Characteristics of a Small-Bore HSDI Diesel Engine in the Conventional and LTC Combustion Regimes

2005-09-11
2005-24-045
An experimental investigation was conducted on a small-bore, high-speed diesel engine to study the effect of different operating parameters on combustion and engine-out emissions in the conventional and low temperature regimes. For the conventional diesel combustion, the spray behavior is analyzed and a differentiation is made between the conditions in the small-bore and the larger bore quiescent chamber engines. The effects of the injection pressure, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), injection timing and swirl ratio (SR) on combustion and engine-out emission are investigated. The trade-off between NOx and smoke, measured in Bosch smoke unit, (BSU), is investigated with a special attention to the low temperature combustion regime, (LTC). The results showed that the LTC regime could be reached at fairly high EGR rates under all the injection pressures investigated in this work. The margin for the variation in EGR was limited just before the misfiring EGR.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Surrogate Blood Vessels on the Impact Response of a Physical Model of the Brain

2004-11-01
2004-22-0012
Cerebral blood vessels are an integral part of the brain and may play a role in the response of the brain to impact. The purpose of this study was to quantify the effects of surrogate vessels on the deformation patterns of a physical model of the brain under various impact conditions. Silicone gel and tubing were used as surrogates for brain tissue and blood vessels, respectively. Two aluminum cylinders representing a coronal section of the brain were constructed. One cylinder was filled with silicone gel only, and the other was filled with silicone gel and silicone tubing arranged in the radial direction in the peripheral region. An array of markers was embedded in the gel in both cylinders to facilitate strain calculation via high-speed video analysis. Both cylinders were simultaneously subjected to a combination of linear and angular acceleration using a two-segment pendulum.
Technical Paper

Temperature Effect on Performance of a Commercial Fuel Filter for Biodiesel Blends with ULSD

2010-04-12
2010-01-0473
Biodiesel offers a potentially viable alternative fuel source for diesel automotive applications. However, biodiesel may present problems at colder temperatures due to the crystallization of fatty acid methyl esters and precipitation of other components, such as unreacted triglycerides and sterol glycosides in biodiesel. At lower temperatures, the fuel gels until it solidifies in the fuel lines, clogging the fuel filter, and shutting down the engine. A laboratory-based continuous loop fuel system was utilized to determine the flow properties at low temperatures of biodiesel in B100, B20, and B10 blends for soybean and choice white grease (pig fat) biodiesel fuel. The continuous loop fuel delivery system was designed to be similar to those that can be found in engines and vehicles currently in use, and provided a mechanical pump or an electric pump as a means to simulate systems found in the different types of vehicles.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Injury Criteria for the Prediction of Commotio Cordis from Lacrosse Ball Impacts

2011-11-07
2011-22-0010
Commotio Cordis (CC) is the second leading cause of mortality in youth sports. Impacts occurring directly over the left ventricle (LV) during a vulnerable period of the cardiac cycle can cause ventricular fibrillation (VF), which results in CC. In order to better understand the pathophysiology of CC, and develop a mechanical model for CC, appropriate injury criteria need to be developed. This effort consisted of impacts to seventeen juvenile porcine specimens (mass 21-45 kg). Impacts were delivered over the cardiac silhouette during the venerable period of the cardiac cycle. Four impact speeds were used: 13.4, 17.9, 22.4, and 26.8 m/s. The impactor was a lacrosse ball on an aluminum shaft instrumented with an accelerometer (mass 188 g - 215 g). The impacts were recorded using high-speed video. LV pressure was measured with a catheter. Univariate binary logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate the predictive ability of ten injury criteria.
Technical Paper

Effect of Using Biodiesel (B-20) and Combustion Phasing on Combustion and Emissions in a HSDI Diesel Engine

2011-04-12
2011-01-1203
The use of biodiesel and its blends with ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) is gaining significant importance due to its ability to burn in conventional diesel engines with minor modifications. However the chemical and physical properties of biodiesel are different compared to the conventional ULSD. These differences directly impact the injection, spray formation, auto ignition and combustion processes which in turn affect the engine-out emissions. To understand the effect of fueling with B-20, tests were conducted on a single cylinder 0.42L direct injection research diesel engine. The engine is equipped with a common rail injection system, variable EGR and swirl control systems and was operated at a constant engine speed of 1500 rpm and 3 bar IMEP to simulated turbocharged conditions. Injection timing and duration were adjusted with B-20 at different locations of peak premixed combustions (LPPC) and two different swirl ratios to achieve 3 bar IMEP.
Technical Paper

Charge Motion Benefits of Valve Deactivation to Reduce Fuel Consumption and Emissions in a GDi, VVA Engine

2011-04-12
2011-01-1221
Requirements for reduced fuel consumption with simultaneous reductions in regulated emissions require more efficient operation of Spark Ignited (SI) engines. An advanced valvetrain coupled with Gasoline Direct injection (GDi) provide an opportunity to simultaneously reduce fuel consumption and emissions. Work on a flex fuel GDi engine has identified significant potential to reduce throttling by using Early Intake Valve Closing (EIVC) and Late Intake Valve Closing (LIVC) strategies to control knock and load. High loads were problematic when operating on gasoline for particulate emissions, and low loads were not able to fully minimize throttling due to poor charge motion for the EIVC strategy. The use of valve deactivation was successful at reducing high load particulate emissions without a significant airflow penalty below 3000 RPM. Valve deactivation did increase the knocking tendency for knock limited fuels, due to increased heat transfer that increased charge temperature.
Technical Paper

A Practical Time-Domain Approach to Controller Design and Calibration for Applications in Automotive Industry

2011-04-12
2011-01-0693
This paper summarizes a systematic approach to control of nonlinear automotive systems exposed to fast transients. This approach is based on a combined application of hardware characterization, which inverts nonlinearities, and conventional Proportional-plus-Integral-plus-Derivative (PID) control. The approach renders the closed-loop system dynamics more transparent and simplifies the controller design and calibration for applications in automotive industry. The authors have found this approach effective in presenting and teaching PID controller design and calibration guidelines to automotive engineering audience, who at times may not have formal training in controls but need to understand the development and calibration process of simple controllers.
Technical Paper

Numerical Prediction and Validation of Fuel Spray Behavior in a Gasoline Direct-Injection Engine

2001-09-24
2001-01-3668
Analysis of flow field and charge distribution in a gasoline direct-injection (GDI) engine is performed by a modified version of the KIVA code. A particle-based spray model is proposed to simulate a swirl-type hollow-cone spray in a GDI engine. Spray droplets are assumed to be fully atomized and introduced at the sheet breakup locations as determined by experimental correlations and energy conservation. The effects of the fuel injection parameters such as spray cone angle and ambient pressure are examined for different injectors and injection conditions. Results show reasonable agreement with the measurements for penetration, dispersion, global shape, droplet velocity and size distribution by Phase Doppler Particle Anemometry(PDPA) in a constant-volume chamber. The test engine is a 4-stroke 4-valve optically accessible single-cylinder engine with a pent-roof head and tumble ports.
Technical Paper

Simulation of the Effect of Recirculated Gases on Ignition Delay During Cold Starting of a Direct Injection Diesel Engine

2011-04-12
2011-01-0838
Simulations using CFD and chemical kinetics models have been applied to gain a better understanding of the effect of the recirculated gases on the autoignition process during cold starting of a direct injection diesel engine. The cranking gases recirculated (CGR) contain fuel vapor and partial oxidation products which affect the autoignition process in different ways. Some hydrocarbons (HCs) species enhance the reaction rates and reduce ignition delay. Meanwhile other HCs species and the partial oxidation products of the autoignition process have an opposing effect. The simulation covered a wide range of the hydrocarbons and aldehydes concentrations and their effect on the ignition delay in a 1.2L Ford DIATA 4-cylinders, water cooled, turbocharged and intercooled diesel engine. The simulated opposing effects of HCs and HCHO on the ignition delay are validated by experimental results at room temperature.
Technical Paper

Multi Sensing Fuel Injector for Electronically Controlled Diesel Engines

2011-04-12
2011-01-0936
Internal combustion engine control requires feedback signals to the ECU in order to meet the increasingly stringent emissions standards. Reducing the number of on-board sensors needed for proper engine performance would reduce the cost and complexity of the electronic system. This paper presents a new technique to enable one engine element, the fuel injector, to perform multiple sensing tasks in addition to its primary task of delivering the fuel into the cylinder. The injector is instrumented within an electric circuit to produce a signal indicative of the ionization produced from the combustion process in electronically controlled diesel engines. The output of the multi sensing fuel injector (MSFI) system can be used as a feedback signal to the engine control unit (ECU) for injection timing and diagnostics of the injection and combustion processes.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Head and Neck Response During Side Impact

1999-03-01
1999-01-0717
Numerical analyses of head and neck response during side impact are presented in this paper. A mathematical human model for side impact simulation was developed based on previous studies of other researchers. The effects of muscular activities during severe side impact were analyzed with the use of this model. This study shows that the effect of muscular activities is significant especially if the occupant is prepared to resist the impact. This result suggests that the modeling of muscles is important for the simulation of real accident situation.
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