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Technical Paper

Lower Extremity Injury Criteria for Evaluating Military Vehicle Occupant Injury in Underbelly Blast Events

2009-11-02
2009-22-0009
Anti-vehicular (AV) landmines and improvised explosive devices (IED) have accounted for more than half of the United States military hostile casualties and wounded in Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) (Department of Defense Personnel & Procurement Statistics, 2009). The lower extremity is the predominantly injured body region following an AV mine or IED blast accounting for 26 percent of all combat injuries in OIF (Owens et al., 2007). Detonations occurring under the vehicle transmit high amplitude and short duration axial loads onto the foot-ankle-tibia region of the occupant causing injuries to the lower leg. The current effort was initiated to develop lower extremity injury criteria for occupants involved in underbelly blast impacts. Eighteen lower extremity post mortem human specimens (PMHS) were instrumented with an implantable load cell and strain gages and impacted at one of three incrementally severe AV axial loading conditions.
Journal Article

Jaw Loading Response of Current ATDs

2009-04-20
2009-01-0388
Biomechanical surrogates are used in various forms to study head impact response in automotive applications and for assessing helmet performance. Surrogate headforms include those from the National Operating Committee on Standards for Athletic Equipment (NOCSAE) and the many variants of the Hybrid III. However, the response of these surrogates to loading at the chin and how that response may affect the loads transferred from the jaw to the rest of the head are unknown. To address part of that question, the current study compares the chin impact response performance of select human surrogates to that of the cadaver. A selection of Hybrid III and NOCSAE based surrogates with fixed and articulating jaws were tested under drop mass impact conditions that were used to describe post mortem human subject (PMHS) response to impacts at the chin (Craig et al., 2008). Results were compared to the PMHS response with cumulative variance technique (Rhule et al., 2002).
Technical Paper

Effect of Different Biodiesel Blends on Autoignition, Combustion, Performance and Engine-Out Emissions in a Single Cylinder HSDI Diesel Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-0489
The effects of different blends of Soybean Methyl Ester (biodiesel) and ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuel: B-00 (ULSD), B-20, B-40, B-60, B-80 and B-100 (biodiesel); on autoignition, combustion, performance, and engine out emissions of different species including particulate matter (PM) in the exhaust, were investigated in a single-cylinder, high speed direct injection (HSDI) diesel engine equipped with a common rail injection system. The engine was operated at 1500 rpm under simulated turbocharged conditions at 5 bar IMEP load with varied injection pressures at a medium swirl of 3.77 w ithout EGR. Analysis of test results was done to determine the role of biodiesel percentage in the fuel blend on the basic thermodynamic and combustion processes under fuel injection pressures ranging from 600 bar to 1200 bar.
Technical Paper

An Experimental and Computational Investigation of Water Condensation inside the Tubes of an Automotive Compact Charge Air Cooler

2016-04-05
2016-01-0224
Abstract To address the need of increasing fuel economy requirements, automotive Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) are increasing the number of turbocharged engines in their powertrain line-ups. The turbine-driven technology uses a forced induction device, which increases engine performance by increasing the density of the air charge being drawn into the cylinder. Denser air allows more fuel to be introduced into the combustion chamber, thus increasing engine performance. During the inlet air compression process, the air is heated to temperatures that can result in pre-ignition resulting and reduced engine functionality. The introduction of the charge air cooler (CAC) is therefore, necessary to extract heat created during the compression process. The present research describes the physics and develops the optimized simulation method that defines the process and gives insight into the development of CACs.
Technical Paper

Modeling, Simulation and Control Development of a Pre-Transmission Parallel E85 PHEV for Year-1 of EcoCAR 3 Competition

2016-04-05
2016-01-1256
Abstract This paper details the first year of modeling and simulation, and powertrain control development for the Wayne State University EcoCAR 3 vehicle. Included in this paper are the processes for developing simulation platforms, plant models and electronic control units to support the supervisory control system development. The EcoCAR 3 competition challenges sixteen North American universities to re-engineer the 2016 Chevrolet Camaro to reduce its environmental impact without compromising its performance and consumer acceptability. The team is in the final stages of competition Year One, which, as the “non-vehicle year,” focuses on the preliminary design, simulation, and hybrid modes selection for the team’s selected vehicle architecture.
Technical Paper

Advancement and Validation of a Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Plant Model

2016-04-05
2016-01-1247
Abstract The objective of the research into modeling and simulation was to provide an improvement to the Wayne State EcoCAR 2 team’s math-based modeling and simulation tools for hybrid electric vehicle powertrain analysis, with a goal of improving the simulation results to be less than 10% error to experimental data. The team used the modeling and simulation tools for evaluating different outcomes based on hybrid powertrain architecture changes (hardware), and controls code development and testing (software). The first step was model validation to experimental data, as the plant models had not yet been validated. This paper includes the results of the team’s work in the U.S. Department of Energy’s EcoCAR 2 Advanced vehicle Technical Competition for university student teams to create and test a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle for reducing petroleum oil consumption, pollutant emissions, and Green House Gas (GHG) emissions.
Journal Article

The Dimensional Model of Driver Demand: Visual-Manual Tasks

2016-04-05
2016-01-1423
Abstract Many metrics have been used in an attempt to predict the effects of secondary tasks on driving behavior. Such metrics often give rise to seemingly paradoxical results, with one metric suggesting increased demand and another metric suggesting decreased demand for the same task. For example, for some tasks, drivers maintain their lane well yet detect events relatively poorly. For other tasks, drivers maintain their lane relatively poorly yet detect events relatively well. These seeming paradoxes are not time-accuracy trade-offs or experimental artifacts, because for other tasks, drivers do both well. The paradoxes are resolved if driver demand is modeled in two orthogonal dimensions rather than a single “driver workload” dimension. Principal components analysis (PCA) was applied to the published data from four simulator, track, and open road studies of visual-manual secondary task effects on driving.
Technical Paper

Driver Demand: Eye Glance Measures

2016-04-05
2016-01-1421
Abstract This study investigated driver glances while engaging in infotainment tasks in a stationary vehicle while surrogate driving: watching a driving video recorded from a driver’s viewpoint and projected on a large screen, performing a lane-tracking task, and performing the Tactile Detection Response Task (TDRT) to measure attentional effects of secondary tasks on event detection and response. Twenty-four participants were seated in a 2014 Toyota Corolla production vehicle with the navigation system option. They performed the lane-tracking task using the vehicle’s steering wheel, fitted with a laser pointer to indicate wheel movement on the driving video. Participants simultaneously performed the TDRT and a variety of infotainment tasks, including Manual and Mixed-Mode versions of Destination Entry and Cancel, Contact Dialing, Radio Tuning, Radio Preset selection, and other Manual tasks. Participants also completed the 0-and 1-Back pure auditory-vocal tasks.
Journal Article

The Dimensional Model of Driver Demand: Extension to Auditory-Vocal and Mixed-Mode Tasks

2016-04-05
2016-01-1427
Abstract The Dimensional Model of Driver Demand is extended to include Auditory-Vocal (i.e., pure “voice” tasks), and Mixed-Mode tasks (i.e., a combination of Auditory-Vocal mode with visual-only, or with Visual-Manual modes). The extended model was validated with data from 24 participants using the 2014 Toyota Corolla infotainment system in a video-based surrogate driving venue. Twenty-two driver performance metrics were collected, including total eyes-off-road time (TEORT), mean single glance duration (MSGD), and proportion of long single glances (LGP). Other key metrics included response time (RT) and miss rate to a Tactile Detection Response Task (TDRT). The 22 metrics were simplified using Principal Component Analysis to two dimensions. The major dimension, explaining 60% of total variance, we interpret as the attentional effects of cognitive demand. The minor dimension, explaining 20% of total variance, we interpret as physical demand.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of Active and Passive Cooling Systems of a Lithium-Ion Battery Module for Electric Vehicles

2016-04-05
2016-01-0655
In this work, a pseudo three-dimensional coupled thermal-electrochemical model is established to estimate the heat generation and temperature profiles of a lithium ion battery as functions of the state of the discharge. Then, this model is used to investigate the effectiveness of active and passive thermal management systems. The active cooling system utilizes cooling plate and water as the working fluid while the passive cooling system incorporates a phase change material (PCM). The thermal effects of coolant flow rate examined using a computational fluid dynamics model. In the passive cooling system, Paraffin wax used as a heat dissipation source to control battery temperature rise. The effect of module size and battery spacing is studied to find the optimal weight of PCM required. The results show that although the active cooling system has the capability to reduce the peak temperatures, it leads to a large temperature difference over the battery module.
Technical Paper

Behavior of Adhesively Bonded Steel Double Hat-Section Components under Axial Quasi-Static and Impact Loading

2016-04-05
2016-01-0395
Abstract An attractive strategy for joining metallic as well as non-metallic substrates through adhesive bonding. This technique of joining also offers the functionality for joining dissimilar materials. However, doubts are often expressed on the ability of such joints to perform on par with other mechanical fastening methodologies such as welding, riveting, etc. In the current study, adhesively-bonded single lap shear (SLS), double lap shear (DLS) and T-peel joints are studied initially under quasi-static loading using substrates made of a grade of mild steel and an epoxy-based adhesive of a renowned make (Huntsman). Additionally, single lap shear joints comprised of a single spot weld are tested under quasi-static loading. The shear strengths of adhesively-bonded SLS joints and spot-welded SLS joints are found to be similar.
Technical Paper

Simulation and Comparison of Autoignition of Homogeneous Fuel/Air Mixtures and Sprays in Diesel Engines

2016-04-05
2016-01-0311
All previous correlations of the ignition delay (ID) period in diesel combustion show a positive activation energy, which means that shorter ID periods are achieved at higher charge temperatures. This is not the case in the autoignition of most homogeneous hydrocarbons-air mixtures where they experience the NTC (Negative Temperature Coefficient ) regime in the intermediate temperature range, from about 800 K to 1000 K). Here, the autoignition reactions slow down and longer ID periods are experienced at higher temperatures. Accordingly the global activation energy for the autoignition reactions of homogeneous mixtures should vary from positive to negative values.
Technical Paper

Baxter Kinematic Modeling, Validation and Reconfigurable Representation

2016-04-05
2016-01-0334
Abstract A collaborative robot or cobot is a robot that can safely and effectively interact with human workers while performing industrial tasks. The ability to work alongside humans has increased the importance of collaborative robots in the automation industry, as this unique feature is a much needed property among robots nowadays. Rethink Robotics has pioneered this unique discipline by building many robots including the Baxter Robot which is exclusive not only because it has collaborative properties, but because it has two arms working together, each with 7 Degrees Of Freedom. The main goal of this research is to validate the kinematic equations for the Baxter collaborative robot and develop a unified reconfigurable kinematic model for the Left and Right arms so that the calculations can be simplified.
Journal Article

A Linkage Based Solution Approach for Determining 6 Axis Serial Robotic Travel Path Feasibility

2016-04-05
2016-01-0336
Abstract When performing trajectory planning for robotic applications, there are many aspects to consider, such as the reach conditions, joint and end-effector velocities, accelerations and jerk conditions, etc. The reach conditions are dependent on the end-effector orientations and the robot kinematic structure. The reach condition feasibility is the first consideration to be addressed prior to optimizing a solution. The ‘functional’ work space or work window represents a region of feasible reach conditions, and is a sub-set of the work envelope. It is not intuitive to define. Consequently, 2D solution approaches are proposed. The 3D travel paths are decomposed to a 2D representation via radial projections. Forward kinematic representations are employed to define a 2D boundary curve for each desired end effector orientation.
Technical Paper

Fanuc Family Inverse Kinematics Modeling, Validation and Visualization

2016-04-05
2016-01-0335
Abstract Inverse kinematic solutions of six degree of freedom (DOF) robot manipulation is a challenging task due to complex kinematic structure and application conditions which affects and depend on the robot’s tool frame position, orientation and different possible configurations. The robot trajectory represents a series of connected points in three dimensional space. Each point is defined with its position and orientation related to the robot’s base frames or users teach pendant. The robot will move from point to point using the desired motion type (linear, arc, or joint). This motion requires inverse kinematic solution. This paper presents a detailed inverse kinematic solution for Fanuc 6R (Rotational) robot family using a geometrical method. Each joint angular position will be geometrically analyzed and all possible solutions will be included in the decision equations. The solution will be developed in a parametric manner to cover the complete Fanuc six DOF family.
Journal Article

Methods for Evaluating the Functional Work Space for Machine Tools and 6 Axis Serial Robots

2016-04-05
2016-01-0338
Abstract The ‘boundary of space’ model representing all possible positions which may be occupied by a mechanism during its normal range of motion (for all positions and orientations) is called the work envelope. In the robotic domain, it is also known as the robot operating envelope or workspace. Several researchers have investigated workspace boundaries for different degrees of freedom (DOF), joint types and kinematic structures utilizing many approaches. The work envelope provides essential boundary information, which is critical for safety and layout concerns, but the work envelope information does not by itself determine the reach feasibility of a desired configuration. The effect of orientation is not captured as well as the coupling related to operational parameters. Included in this are spatial occupancy concerns due to linking multiple kinematic chains, which is an issue with multi-tasking machine tools, and manufacturing cells.
Journal Article

Development of JP-8 Surrogates and their Validation using Ignition Quality Tester

2014-04-15
2014-01-9077
This paper presents a new approach for the development of six different JP-8 surrogates for application in diesel cycle simulation. The approach involves a step-wise formulation of 2-, 3-, and 4-component surrogates from a list of pure compounds which are selected based on several criteria. A MATLAB code is developed and is used in conjunction with the Ignition Quality Tester (IQT) and HYSYS software in order to formulate optimal surrogates. The first part of the results shows a comparison between the calculated and the measured DCNs for six surrogates. The differences in the properties such as the density, volatility, lower heating value, H/C ratio, molecular weight, and threshold sooting index of the surrogates and the JP-8 are also highlighted. This is followed by the evaluation of the surrogates with respect to the target JP-8 fuel. The evaluation is made in terms of ignition delays and the rate of heat release at three different IQT test temperatures.
Technical Paper

Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Reengineering of a Conventional Sedan for EcoCAR2

2015-04-14
2015-01-1235
Abstract The Wayne State University student team reengineered a mid-sized sedan into a functional plug-in hybrid electric vehicle as participants in the EcoCAR 2 competition sponsored by the US Department of Energy and managed by Argonne National Laboratory. The competition goals included reducing petroleum usage, emissions, and energy consumption through implementing advanced vehicle technologies. During the competition, the team did plug-in charging of the 19 kWh high voltage traction battery, drove in pure electric mode (engine off) until the battery was depleted, then switched to hybrid mode and continued driving by using E85 from the fuel tank. The pure electric mode vehicle driving range was 48 km [30 miles] while pulling an emissions instrumented test trailer and projected to be 58 km [36 miles] without the test trailer load for the competition's city/highway blend drive cycle.
Technical Paper

Design and Simulation of Lithium-Ion Battery Thermal Management System for Mild Hybrid Vehicle Application

2015-04-14
2015-01-1230
Abstract It is well known that thermal management is a key factor in design and performance analysis of Lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery, which is widely adopted for hybrid and electric vehicles. In this paper, an air cooled battery thermal management system design has been proposed and analyzed for mild hybrid vehicle application. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis was performed using CD-adapco's STAR-CCM+ solver and Battery Simulation Module (BMS) application to predict the temperature distribution within a module comprised of twelve 40Ah Superior Lithium Polymer Battery (SLPB) cells connected in series. The cells are cooled by air through aluminum cooling plate sandwiched in-between every pair of cells. The cooling plate has extended the cooling surface area exposed to cooling air flow. Cell level electrical and thermal simulation results were validated against experimental measurements.
Technical Paper

Effects of Sinusoidal Whole Body Vibration Frequency on Drivers' Muscle Responses

2015-04-14
2015-01-1396
Abstract Low back pain has a higher prevalence among drivers who have long term history of vehicle operations. Vehicle vibration has been considered to contribute to the onset of low back pain. However, the fundamental mechanism that relates vibration to low back pain is still not clear. Little is known about the relationship between vibration exposure, the biomechanical response, and the physiological responses of the seated human. The aim of this study was to determine the vibration frequency that causes the increase of muscle activity that can lead to muscle fatigue and low back pain. This study investigated the effects of various vibration frequencies on the lumbar and thoracic paraspinal muscle responses among 11 seated volunteers exposed to sinusoidal whole body vibration varying from 4Hz to 30Hz at 0.4 g of acceleration. The accelerations of the seat and the pelvis were recorded during various frequency of vibrations. Muscle activity was measured using electromyography (EMG).
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