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Technical Paper

Impact Dynamics of Unrestrained, Lap Belted, and Lap and Diagonal Chest Belted Vehicle Occupants*

A comparison is presented of the forces, accelerations, and kinematics of an anthropomorphic dummy for identical sled impacts for unrestrained, lap belted, and lap and diagonal chest restrained conditions. Biaxial accelerometers were mounted in the head, chest, and on the proximal end of the femur to obtain the accelerations during the impacts. Seat belt load cells were put in series with the belts at each anchor point. Biaxial load cells were positioned to be impacted by the head, chest, and each knee for the unrestrained condition and by the head and chest for the lap belted configuration. For the lap and diagonal chest restrained condition these load cells were not used. Impacts of 10 and 20 miles per hour were made with sled stopping distance of 4 and 9 inches, respectively. At 20 miles per hour the head struck with a force of 1580 pounds in the unrestrained mode, 600 pounds with the lap belt, and did not hit with the lap and shoulder harness.
Technical Paper

Living Human Dynamic Response to —Gx Impact Acceleration II—Accelerations Measured on the Head and Neck

A methodical investigation and measurement of human dynamic response to impact acceleration is being conducted as a Joint Army-Navy-Wayne State University investigation. Details of the experimental design were presented at the Twelfth Stapp Car Crash Conference in October 1968. Linear accelerations are being measured on the top of the head, at the mouth, and at the base of the neck. Angular velocity is also being measured at the base of the neck and at the mouth. A redundant photographic system is being used for validation. All data are collected in computer compatible format and data processing is by digital computer. Selected data in a stage of interim analysis on 18 representative human runs of the 236 human runs completed to date are presented. Review of the data indicates that peak accelerations measured at the mouth are higher than previous estimates.
Journal Article

A Component Test Methodology for Simulation of Full-Vehicle Side Impact Dummy Abdomen Responses for Door Trim Evaluation

Described in this paper is a component test methodology to evaluate the door trim armrest performance in an Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) side impact test and to predict the SID-IIs abdomen injury metrics (rib deflection, deflection rate and V*C). The test methodology consisted of a sub-assembly of two SID-IIs abdomen ribs with spine box, mounted on a linear bearing and allowed to translate in the direction of impact. The spine box with the assembly of two abdominal ribs was rigidly attached to the sliding test fixture, and is stationary at the start of the test. The door trim armrest was mounted on the impactor, which was prescribed the door velocity profile obtained from full-vehicle test. The location and orientation of the armrest relative to the dummy abdomen ribs was maintained the same as in the full-vehicle test.
Technical Paper

High-Speed Seatbelt Pretensioner Loading of the Abdomen

This study characterizes the response of the human cadaver abdomen to high-speed seatbelt loading using pyrotechnic pretensioners. A test apparatus was developed to deliver symmetric loading to the abdomen using a seatbelt equipped with two low-mass load cells. Eight subjects were tested under worst-case scenario, out-of-position (OOP) conditions. A seatbelt was placed at the level of mid-umbilicus and drawn back along the sides of the specimens, which were seated upright using a fixed-back configuration. Penetration was measured by a laser, which tracked the anterior aspect of the abdomen, and by high-speed video. Additionally, aortic pressure was monitored. Three different pretensioner designs were used, referred to as system A, system B and system C. The B and C systems employed single pretensioners. The A system consisted of two B system pretensioners. The vascular systems of the subjects were perfused.
Technical Paper

HMI Design for Increasing Vehicle Energy Efficiency by Affecting Driving Habits

Wayne State University EcoCAR2 team is designing and modifying a GM-donated Chevrolet Malibu 2013 to a Parallel-Through-The-Road (PTTR) plug-in hybrid. A Freescale-donated Center Stack Unit (CSU) touchscreen display is used for Human Machine Interface (HMI). Surveys were conducted to better understand CSU functionality expectations. One required function was increasing driving efficiency. Other hybrid and electric vehicles HMI systems present driving and environmental settings efficiencies such as average fuel economy, lifetime fuel economy, electric charge used, fuel used, distances driven on each power source, instantaneous power gauge and instantaneous driver efficiency gauge. These offer drivers a large sum of information but with no provision to analyze and improve one's driving habits unless one has the required knowledge to understand the causes behind the values presented.
Technical Paper

Equivalent Drive Cycle Analysis, Simulation, and Testing - Wayne State University's On-Road Route for EcoCAR2

The Wayne State University (WSU) EcoCAR2 student team is participating in a design competition for the conversion of a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu into a plug-in hybrid. The team created a repeatable on-road test drive route using local public roads near the university that would be of similar velocity ranges contained in the EcoCAR2 4-Cycle Drive Schedule - a weighted combination of four different EPA-based drive cycles (US06 split into city and highway portions, all of the HWFET, first 505 seconds portion of UDDS). The primary purpose of the team's local on-road route was to be suitable for testing the team's added hybrid components and control strategy for minimizing petroleum consumption and tail pipe emissions. Comparison analysis of velocities was performed between seven local routes and the EcoCAR2 4-Cycle Drive Schedule. Three of the seven local routes had acceptable equivalence for velocity (R₂ ≻ 0.80) and the team selected one of them to be the on-road test drive route.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Low-Temperature Combustion in an Optical Engine Fueled with Low Cetane Sasol JP-8 Fuel Using OH-PLIF and HCHO Chemiluminescence Imaging

Low cetane JP-8 fuels have been identified as being difficult to use under conventional diesel operation. However, recent focus on low-temperature combustion (LTC) modes has led to an interest in distillate hydrocarbon fuels having high volatility and low autoignition tendency. An experimental study is performed to evaluate low-temperature combustion processes in a small-bore optically-accessible diesel engine operated in a partially-premixed combustion mode using low-cetane Sasol JP-8 fuel. This particular fuel has a cetane number of 25. Both single and dual injection strategies are tested. Since long ignition delay is a consequence of strong autoignition resistance, under the conditions examined, low cetane Sasol JP-8 combustion can only take place with a double injection strategy: one pilot injection event in the vicinity of exhaust TDC and one main injection event near firing TDC.
Journal Article

Development of the Enhanced Peripheral Detection Task: A Surrogate Test for Driver Distraction

Up to now, there is no standard methodology that addresses how driver distraction is affected by perceptual demand and working memory demand - aside from visual allocation. In 2009, the Peripheral Detection Task (PDT) became a NHTSA recommended measure for driver distraction [1]. Then the PDT task was renamed as the Detection Response Task (DRT) because the International Standards Organization (ISO) has identified this task as a potential method for assessing selective attention in detection of visual, auditory, tactile and haptic events while driving. The DRT is also under consideration for adoption as an ISO standard surrogate test for driver performance for new telematics designs. The Wayne State University (WSU) driver imaging group [2, 3] improved the PDT and created the Enhanced Peripheral Detection Task I (EPDT-I) [4]. The EPDT-I is composed of a simple visual event detection task and a video of a real-world driving scene.
Journal Article

Cognitive Distraction While Driving: A Critical Review of Definitions and Prevalence in Crashes

There is little agreement in the field of driving safety as to how to define cognitive distraction, much less how to measure it. Without a definition and metric, it is impossible to make scientific and engineering progress on determining the extent to which cognitive distraction causes crashes, and ways to mitigate it if it does. We show here that different studies are inconsistent in their definitions of cognitive distraction. For example, some definitions do not include cellular conversation, while others do. Some definitions confound cognitive distraction with visual distraction, or cognitive distraction with cognitive workload. Other studies define cognitive distraction in terms of a state of the driver, and others in terms of tasks that may distract the driver. It is little wonder that some studies find that cognitive distraction is a negligible factor in causing crashes, while others assert that cognitive distraction causes more crashes than drunk driving.
Technical Paper

Parallel-Through-The-Road Plug-In Hybrid Vehicle Design Development Process

The Wayne State University (WSU) EcoCAR 2 Team designed the conversion of a GM donated 2013 Chevrolet Malibu to a Parallel-Through-The-Road (PTTR) Plug-In Hybrid vehicle within a 9 month timeframe. This fast prototyping project used the EcoCAR 2 Vehicle Development Process (EVDP). Various tradeoffs were made to meet all competition requirements and to make the vehicle as competitive as possible within budget, time and experience limitations. The chosen PTTR architecture, nicknamed by the team as “E2D2” (Ethanol-Electric Dual-Drivetrain), provides up to 35.7 electric only miles and a fuel economy of 60 miles per gallons gasoline equivalent (mpgge) or 3.96 liters gasoline equivalent (lge) per one hundred km. This is accomplished using an E85 engine-driven front traction system and a battery-electric-motors-driven rear traction system. The team developed the control system and designed the packaging and integration of all required components including the Energy Storage System (ESS).
Technical Paper

A Novel Approach for Combat Vehicle Mobility Definition and Assessment

Mobility assessment for combat vehicles is often a great challenge for the military due to various subjective attributes. The attributes' characteristics vary significantly depending on the vehicle type and its operating environments such as terrain, weather, and human factors. A clear definition and relationship between multiple attributes including human factors is necessary to assess mobility. To the best of authors' knowledge, many existing mobility assessment techniques use complex analytical methods and focus on individual attributes. In this paper, for the first time, the authors propose a novel approach to define vehicle mobility and its influencing attributes using qualitative linguistic fuzzy variables, which are defined as having values between 0 and 1. The authors also propose a fuzzy logic mobility (FLM) model and a simulation approach to assess a combat vehicle's mobility.
Technical Paper

Optimization for Plug-In Vehicles - Waste Heat Recovery from the Electric Traction Motor

The Wayne State University (WSU) EcoCAR2 student team is investigating powertrain optimizations as a part of their participation in the EcoCAR2 design competition for the conversion of a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu into a plug-in hybrid. EcoCAR2 is the current three-year Department of Energy (DoE) Advanced Vehicle Technical Competition (AVTC) for 15 select university student teams competing on designing, building, and then optimizing their Plug-In Hybrid conversions of GM donated vehicles. WSU's powertrain design provides for approximately 56-64 km (35-40 miles) of electric driving before the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) powertrain is needed. When the ICE is started, the ICE traditionally goes through a cold start with the engine, transmission, and final drive all at ambient temperature. The ICE powertrain components are most efficient when warmed up to their normal operating temperature, typically around 90-100 °C.
Journal Article

Experimental Assessments of Parallel Hybrid Medium-Duty Truck

Fuel consumption reduction on medium-duty tactical truck has and continues to be a significant initiative for the U.S. Army. The Crankshaft-Integrated-Starter-Generator (C-ISG) is one of the parallel hybrid propulsions to improve the fuel economy. The C-ISG configuration is attractive because one electric machine can be used to propel the vehicle, to start the engine, and to be function as a generator. The C-ISG has been implemented in one M1083A1 5-ton tactical cargo truck. This paper presents the experimental assessments of the C-ISG hybrid truck characteristics. The experimental assessments include all electric range for on- and off-road mission cycles and fuel consumption for the high voltage battery charging. Stationary tests related to the charging profile of the battery pack and the silent watch time duration is also conducted.
Technical Paper

Biomechanical Response of the Bovine Pia-Arachnoid Complex to Normal Traction Loading at Varying Strain Rates

The pia-arachnoid complex (PAC) covering the brain plays an important role in the mechanical response of the brain due to impact or inertial loading. The mechanical properties of the bovine PAC under tensile loading have been characterized previously. However, the transverse properties of this structure, such as shear and normal traction which are equally important to understanding the skull/brain interaction under traumatic loading, have not been investigated. These material properties are essential information needed to adequately define the material model of the PAC in a finite element (FE) model of human brain. The purpose of this study was to determine, experimentally, the material properties of the PAC under normal traction loading. PAC specimens were obtained from freshly slaughtered bovine subjects from various locations.
Technical Paper

Biomechanical Investigation of Thoracolumbar Spine Fractures in Indianapolis-type Racing Car Drivers during Frontal Impacts

The purpose of this study is to provide an understanding of driver kinematics, injury mechanisms and spinal loads causing thoracolumbar spinal fractures in Indianapolis-type racing car drivers. Crash reports from 1996 to 2006, showed a total of forty spine fracture incidents with the thoracolumbar region being the most frequently injured (n=15). Seven of the thoracolumbar fracture cases occurred in the frontal direction and were a higher injury severity as compared to rear impact cases. The present study focuses on thoracolumbar spine fractures in Indianapolis-type racing car drivers during frontal impacts and was performed using driver medical records, crash reports, video, still photographic images, chassis accelerations from on-board data recorders and the analysis tool MADYMO to simulate crashes. A 50th percentile, male, Hybrid III dummy model was used to represent the driver.
Technical Paper

Frequency Response and Coupling of Earpiece Accelerometers in the Human Head

Currently, there is great interest in motorsports medicine in measuring driver head impact accelerations by adding small triaxial accelerometers to the communication earpieces worn by drivers. Various studies have attempted to validate the ability of the earpiece accelerometers to accurately measure head accelerations. Those experiments demonstrate success in being able to measure head accelerations on dummies and humans in low severity impacts and non-impact head motion. No study has been performed to ascertain the ability of the earpiece accelerometers to accurately measure rigid body head accelerations of the skull when they are mounted in a human ear canal and subjected to high severity head accelerations. This research was performed to evaluate the frequency response and coupling of the earpiece accelerometers to the human skull using post mortem human subject (PMHS) heads as the most realistic surrogate for the living human.
Technical Paper

Decentralized Secure Protocol for Inter-Vehicle Communication Networks

In this paper, we propose a secure protocol for inter-vehicle communication (IVC) networks without the use of centralized roadside infrastructure. Future vehicles may use wireless IVC networks to exchange safety-critical information among each other. IVC networks do not have a centralized control, and instead rely on vehicles to coordinate with each other to exchange information. Because of the open medium, security is a concern in IVC networks. Vehicles need a mechanism to authenticate the safety-critical information that will be exchanged in IVC networks. A trusted third party Certificate Authority (CA) can provide such a mechanism through public-key certificates. However, the disadvantage of using public-key certificates is that drivers can identify each other. The certificate will allow drivers to trace each other's movements and will raise a privacy concern.
Technical Paper

Security Needs for the Future Intelligent Vehicles

The need for active safety, highway guidance, telematics, traffic management, cooperative driving, driver convenience and automatic toll payment will require future intelligent vehicles to communicate with other vehicles as well as with the road-side infrastructure. However, inter-vehicle and vehicle to roadside infrastructure communications will impose some security threats against vehicles' safety and their proprietary information. To avoid collisions, a vehicle should receive messages only from other authentic vehicles. The internal buses and electronics of a vehicle must also be protected from intruders and other people with malicious intents. Otherwise, a person can inject incorrect messages into an authentic vehicle's internal communication system and then make the vehicle transmit wrong information to the other vehicles within the vicinity. Such an event may have catastrophic consequences. Thus, a detailed study of the security needs of the future vehicles is very important.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Simulation Analysis of PFI-SI Engine for Fuel Economy Improvement

Variable Valve Timing (VVT) strategy on both intake and exhaust valves has a pivotal influence on the specific fuel consumptions and engine performance. In addition to this, fuel economy can also be enhanced by the application of Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) strategy. This paper presents three possible strategies to enhance fuel economy improvement: A possible VVT strategy Early Intake Valve Opening (EIVO) and Late Exhaust Valve Closure (LEVC) that alters the valve overlap to reduce fuel consumption A two-position VCR system that improves fuel conversion factor to realize fuel economy A strategy that combines above two technologies to produce a complementary effect on fuel economy All three strategies have been tested on a 1.8L DOHC four cylinder PFI engine. AVL BOOST a 1D engine gas exchange and cycle simulation code was used to model this engine to get fuel economy gains at part-load points.
Technical Paper

Lower Extremity Injury Criteria for Evaluating Military Vehicle Occupant Injury in Underbelly Blast Events

Anti-vehicular (AV) landmines and improvised explosive devices (IED) have accounted for more than half of the United States military hostile casualties and wounded in Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) (Department of Defense Personnel & Procurement Statistics, 2009). The lower extremity is the predominantly injured body region following an AV mine or IED blast accounting for 26 percent of all combat injuries in OIF (Owens et al., 2007). Detonations occurring under the vehicle transmit high amplitude and short duration axial loads onto the foot-ankle-tibia region of the occupant causing injuries to the lower leg. The current effort was initiated to develop lower extremity injury criteria for occupants involved in underbelly blast impacts. Eighteen lower extremity post mortem human specimens (PMHS) were instrumented with an implantable load cell and strain gages and impacted at one of three incrementally severe AV axial loading conditions.