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Technical Paper

Impact of Biodiesel Emission Products from a Multi-Cylinder Direct Injection Diesel Engine on Particulate Filter Performance

2009-04-20
2009-01-1184
As diesel emission regulations continue to increase, the use of exhaust aftertreatment systems containing, for example the diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and diesel particulate filter (DPF) will become necessary in order to meet these stringent emission requirements. The addition of a DOC and DPF in conjunction with utilizing biodiesel fuels requires extensive research to study the implications that biodiesel blends have on emissions as well as to examine the effect on aftertreatment devices. The proceeding work discusses results from a 2006 VM Motori four-cylinder 2.8L direct injection diesel engine coupled with a diesel oxidation catalyst and catalyzed diesel particulate filter. Tests were done using ultra low sulfur diesel fuel blended with 20% choice white grease biodiesel fuel to evaluate the effects of biodiesel emission products on the performance and effectiveness of the aftertreatment devices and the effect of low temperature combustion modes.
Technical Paper

Advanced Low Temperature Combustion (ALTC): Diesel Engine Performance, Fuel Economy and Emissions

2008-04-14
2008-01-0652
The objective of this work is to develop a strategy to reduce the penalties in the diesel engine performance, fuel economy and HC and CO emissions, associated with the operation in the low temperature combustion regime. Experiments were conducted on a research high speed, single cylinder, 4-valve, small-bore direct injection diesel engine equipped with a common rail injection system under simulated turbocharged conditions, at IMEP = 3 bar and engine speed = 1500 rpm. EGR rates were varied over a wide range to cover engine operation from the conventional to the LTC regime, up to the misfiring point. The injection pressure was varied from 600 bar to 1200 bar. Injection timing was adjusted to cover three different LPPCs (Location of the Peak rate of heat release due to the Premixed Combustion fraction) at 10.5° aTDC, 5 aTDC and 2 aTDC. The swirl ratio was varied from 1.44 to 7.12. Four steps are taken to move from LTC to ALTC.
Journal Article

The Effect of HCHO Addition on Combustion in an Optically Accessible Diesel Engine Fueled with JP-8

2010-10-25
2010-01-2136
Under the borderline autoignition conditions experienced during cold-starting of diesel engines, the amount and composition of residual gases may play a deterministic role. Among the intermediate species produced by misfiring and partially firing cycles, formaldehyde (HCHO) is produced in significant enough amounts and is sufficiently stable to persist through the exhaust and intake strokes to kinetically affect autoignition of the following engine cycle. In this work, the effect of HCHO addition at various phases of autoignition of n-heptane-air mixtures is kinetically modeled. Results show that HCHO has a retarding effect on the earliest low-temperature heat release (LTHR) phase, largely by competition for hydroxyl (OH) radicals which inhibits fuel decomposition. Conversely, post-LTHR, the presence of HCHO accelerates the occurrence of high-temperature ignition.
Journal Article

Properties of Butanol-Biodiesel-ULSD Ternary Mixtures

2010-10-25
2010-01-2133
The use of butanol as an alternative biofuel blend component for conventional diesel fuel has been under extensive investigation. However, some fuel properties such as cetane number and lubricity fall below the accepted values as described by the ASTM D 975 diesel specifications. Blending 10% butanol with #2 ULSD decreases the cetane number by 7% (from 41.6 to 39.0). At higher butanol blend levels, i.e., 20% v/v, the cetane number decrease cannot be compensated for; even with the addition of a 2000 ppm level commercial cetane improver. The decreased cetane number, or in other words, increased ignition delay, can be attributed to the increased blend level of low cetane butanol as well as the critical physical properties for better atomization of fuels during auto ignition such as viscosity. The kinematic viscosity dropped sharply with increasing butanol blend level up to 25 % v/v, then increased with further increase of butanol blend level.
Technical Paper

Safety Performance of a Chemically Strengthened Windshield

1969-02-01
690485
Safety performance of an experimental windshield with a thin, chemically tempered inner pane is compared with the standard windshield and other experimental windshields. The chemically tempered windshield has a penetration velocity of 35 mph compared with 26 mph penetration velocity for the standard windshield and has lower peak head accelerations than other types used in the experiments. The windshield tested produces a bulge on impact, which decelerates the head over a long distance with low accelerations. The bulge or pocket is lined with particles that are less lacerative than the standard annealed glass.
Technical Paper

Testing the Validity and Limitations of the Severity Index

1970-02-01
700901
The head acceleration pulses obtained from monkey concussion, cadaver skull fracture (t = 0.002 sec), and football helmet experiments (0.006< t< 0.011 sec) have been subjected to injury hazard assessment by the Severity Index method. Although not directly applicable, the method correlates well with degree of monkey concussion. The range of Severity Indices for acceleration pulses obtained during impact to nine cadavers, all of which produced a linear fracture, was 540-1760 (1000 is danger to life) with a median value of 910. The helmet experiments showed good correlation between the Severity Index and the Wayne State University tolerance curve. These helmet tests also showed that a kinematics chart with curves of velocity change, stopping distance, average head acceleration, and time, with a superimposed Wayne State tolerance curve, can be useful in injury assessment.
Technical Paper

Spinal Loads Resulting from -Gx Acceleration

1973-02-01
730977
The biodynamic response of cadaver torsos subjected to -Gx impact acceleration is discussed in this paper, with particular emphasis on the response of the vertebral column. The existence of an axial force along the spine and its manifestation as a load on the seat pan are reported. Spinal curvature appears to be an important factor in the generation of this spine load. In anthropometric dummies, the spine load does not exist. Details of the testing and results are given, and the development of a mathematical model is shown.
Technical Paper

Head Model for Impact

1972-02-01
720969
A human head model has been developed primarily for use in evaluation of impact attenuation properties of football helmets, but is also applicable in automobile impact safety tests. Using firm silicon rubber molds made from impressions of cadaver bones, a skull and mandible were each cast in one piece using a self-skinning urethane foam that hardens into cross section geometry similar to the human bone. A rubber gel material is used to simulate the brain. The skull and attached mandible are overlayed with repairable silicon rubber skin having puncture and sliding-over-bone characteristics similar to human skin. At present, the model has a rudimentary solid silicon rubber neck, through the center of which runs a flexible steel cable attached at the foramen magnum. The cable is used to attach the head to a carriage or anthropometric dummy and can be adjusted in tension to give various degrees of flexibility.
Technical Paper

Effect of Long-Duration Impact on Head

1972-02-01
720956
Impacts have been analyzed in terms of degree of injury, head injury criterion (HIC), and average acceleration as a function of time for frontal impacts against the following surfaces: 1. Rigid flat surface-fractured cadaver skull. 2. Astroturf-head drop of football-helmeted cadaver. 3. Windshield penetrating impact of a dummy. 4. Airbag-dynamic test by human volunteers. It is concluded that the linear acceleration/time concussion tolerance curve may not exist and that only impacts against relatively stiff surfaces producing impulses with short rise times can be critical. The authors hypothesize that if a head impact does not contain a critical HIC interval of less than 0.015 s, it should be considered safe as far as cerebral concussion is concerned.
Technical Paper

Determination of Impact Responses of ES-2re and SID-IIs - Part III: Development of Transfer Functions

2018-04-03
2018-01-1444
An understanding of stiffness characteristics of different body regions, such as thorax, abdomen and pelvis of ES-2re and SID-IIs dummies under controlled laboratory test conditions is essential for development of both compatible performance targets for countermeasures and occupant protection strategies to meet the recently updated FMVSS214, LINCAP and IIHS Dynamic Side Impact Test requirements. The primary purpose of this study is to determine the transfer functions between the ES-2re and SID-IIs dummies for different body regions under identical test conditions using flat rigid wall sled tests. The experimental set-up consists of a flat rigid wall with five instrumented load-wall plates aligned with dummy’s shoulder, thorax, abdomen, pelvis and femur/knee impacting a stationary dummy seated on a rigid low friction seat at a pre-determined velocity.
Technical Paper

Determination of Impact Responses of ES-2re and SID-IIs – Part II: SID-IIs

2018-04-03
2018-01-1448
The main purpose of this study was to determine the impact responses of the different body regions (shoulder, thorax, abdomen and pelvis/leg) of the ES-2re and SID-IIs dummies using rigid wall impacts under different initial test conditions. The experimental set-up consisted of a flat rigid wall with five instrumented load-wall plates aligned with dummy’s shoulder, thorax, abdomen, pelvis and knee impacting a stationary dummy seated on a rigid seat at a pre-determined velocity. The relative location and orientation of the load-wall plates was adjusted relative to the body regions of the ES-2re and SID-IIs dummies respectively.
Technical Paper

Behavior of Adhesively Bonded Steel Double-Hat Section Components under Lateral Impact Loading

2018-04-03
2018-01-1447
Recent experimental studies on the behavior of adhesively-bonded steel double-hat section components under axial impact loading have produced encouraging results in terms of load-displacement response and energy absorption when compared to traditional spot-welded hat- sections. However, it appears that extremely limited study has been carried out on the behavior of such components under transverse impact loading keeping in mind applications such as automotive body structures subject to lateral/side impact. In the present work, lateral impact studies have been carried out in a drop-weight test set-up on adhesively-bonded steel double-hat section components and the performance of such components has been compared against their conventional spot-welded and hybrid counterparts. It is clarified that hybrid components in the present context refer to adhesively-bonded hat-sections with a few spot welds only aimed at preventing catastrophic flange separations.
Technical Paper

Determination of Impact Responses of ES-2re and SID-IIs - Part I: ES-2re

2018-04-03
2018-01-1449
The main purpose of this study was to determine the impact responses of the different body regions (shoulder, thorax, abdomen and pelvis/leg) of the ES-2re and SID-IIs dummies using rigid wall impacts under different initial test conditions. The experimental set-up consisted of a flat rigid wall with five instrumented load-wall plates aligned with dummy’s shoulder, thorax, abdomen, pelvis and knee impacting a stationary dummy seated on a rigid seat at a pre-determined velocity. The relative location and orientation of the load-wall plates was adjusted relative to the body regions of the ES-2re and SID-IIs dummies respectively.
Technical Paper

Autoignition and Combustion of ULSD and JP8 during Cold Starting of a High Speed Diesel Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-0797
Cold starting problems of diesel engines are caused mainly by the failure of the auto-ignition process or the subsequent combustion of the rest of the charge. The problems include long cranking periods and combustion instability leading to an increase in fuel consumption in addition to the emission of undesirable unburned hydrocarbons which appear in the exhaust as white smoke. The major cause of these problems is the low temperature and pressure of the charge near the end of the compression stroke and/or the poor ignition quality of the fuel. This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation of cold starting of a high speed diesel engine with ULSD (Ultra Low Sulphur Diesel) and JP8 (Jet Propulsion) fuels at ambient temperature (25°C). A detailed analysis is made of the autoignition and combustion of the two fuels in the first few cycles in the cold start transient. In addition, a comparison is made between these processes for the two fuels during idle operation.
Technical Paper

Direct Injection Compression Ignition Engine: Cold Start on Gasoline and Diesel

2017-03-28
2017-01-0699
The superior fuel economy of direct injection internal combustion engines (diesel and gasoline) is related to use of a high compression ratio to auto-ignite the fuel and the overall lean combustible mixture. Two of the major problems in diesel engine emissions are the NOx and soot emissions, which are caused by the heterogeneity of the charge and the properties of the diesel fuel. Conventional Direct Injection Spark Ignition Gasoline engines don't have these problems because of the fuel properties particularly its volatility. However, its efficiency and specific power output are limited by the knock, knock produced preignition and the sporadic preignition phenomenon. The Gasoline Direct Injection Compression Ignition (GDICI) engine combines the superior features of the two engines by increasing the compression ratio and use of gasoline as a fuel.
Technical Paper

Reconstruction of Pediatric Occupant Kinematic Responses Using Finite Element Method in a Real-World Lateral Impact

2017-03-28
2017-01-1462
Computational human body models, especially detailed finite element models are suitable for investigation of human body kinematic responses and injury mechanism. A real-world lateral vehicle-tree impact accident was reconstructed by using finite element method according to the accident description in the CIREN database. At first, a baseline vehicle FE model was modified and validated according to the NCAP lateral impact test. The interaction between the car and the tree in the accident was simulated using LS-Dyna software. Parameters that affect the simulation results, such as the initial pre-crash speed, impact direction, and the initial impact location on the vehicle, were analyzed. The parameters were determined by matching the simulated vehicle body deformations and kinematics to the accident reports.
Technical Paper

Prediction of the Behaviors of Adhesively Bonded Steel Hat Section Components under Axial Impact Loading

2017-03-28
2017-01-1461
Adhesively bonded steel hat section components have been experimentally studied in the past as a potential alternative to traditional hat section components with spot-welded flanges. One of the concerns with such components has been their performance under axial impact loading as adhesive is far more brittle as compared to a spot weld. However, recent drop-weight impact tests have shown that the energy absorption capabilities of adhesively bonded steel hat sections are competitive with respect to geometrically similar spot-welded specimens. Although flange separation may take place in the case of a specimen employing a rubber toughened epoxy adhesive, the failure would have taken place post progressive buckling and absorption of impact energy.
Technical Paper

Effect of Strain Rate on Mechanical Responses of Jute-Polyester Composites

2017-03-28
2017-01-1467
There has been a keen interest in recent times on implementation of lightweight materials in vehicles to bring down the unladen weight of a vehicle for enhancing fuel efficiency. Fiber-reinforced composites comprise a class of such materials. As sustainability is also a preoccupation of current product development engineers including vehicle designers, bio-composites based on natural fibers are receiving a special attention. Keeping these motivations of lower effective density, environment friendliness and occupational safety in mind, woven jute fabric based composites have been recently studied as potential alternatives to glass fiber composites for structural applications in automobiles. In the past, mechanical characterization of jute-polyester composites were restricted to obtaining their stress-strain behaviors under quasi-static conditions.
Technical Paper

Research on the FE Modeling and Impact Injury of Obese 10-YO Children Based on Mesh Morphing Methodology

2018-04-03
2018-01-0540
In order to improve the comprehensive protection for children with variable shapes and sizes, this paper conducted studies on the impact injury for obese children based on a 10-YO finite element model. Some specific geometrics on the body surface were firstly acquired by the combination of pediatric anthropometric database and generator of body (GEBOD). A Radial Basis Function (RBF) based mesh morphing technique was then used to modify the original standard size FE model using the obtained geometrics. The morphed FE model was validated based on the experimental data of frontal sled test and chest-abdomen impact test. The effects of obesity on injury performances were analyzed through simplified high-speed and low-speed crash simulations.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Characteristics of the Human Spine During -Gx Acceleration

1978-02-01
780889
Spinal kinematics and kinetics of human cadaveric specimens subjected to -Gx acceleration are reported along with an attempt to design a surrogate spine for use in an anthropomorphic test device (ATD). There were a total of 30 runs on 9 embalmed and 2 unembalmed cadavers which were heavily instrumented. External photographic targets were attached to T1, T12, and the pelvis to record spinal kinematics. The subjects were restrained by upper and lower leg clamps attached to an impact seat equipped with a six-axis load cell. A rigid link 486 mm long and pinned at both ends was proposed for use in an ATD as a surrogate spine. An optimization method was used to obtain the location and length of a linkage which followed the least squares path of Tl relative to the pelvis.
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