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Technical Paper

Fatigue Resistance of Short Fiber-Reinforced TiNi/Al6061-SiC Composite

2007-04-16
2007-01-1423
The short NiTi fiber-reinforced NiTi/Al6061-SiC composite was recently developed through the U.S. Army SBIR Phase-II program [1]. The objectives of this project are to use short NiTi fiber reinforcement to induce compressive stress through shape memory effect, to use silicon carbide (SiC) particulate reinforcement to enhance the mechanical properties of the aluminum matrix, to gain fundamental knowledge of short NiTi fiber-reinforced aluminum matrix composite, and eventually to improve fatigue resistance, impact damage tolerance and fracture toughness of the composite. The fatigue life, damage and fracture behavior of TiNi/Al6061-SiC, TiNi/Al6061, Al6061-SiC composites as well as monolithic Al6061 alloy were investigated under fully reversed cyclic loading. It was found that fatigue life of NiTi/Al6061-SiC composite, in term of the cycles, increased by two orders of magnitude, compared to monolithic Al6061 alloy
Technical Paper

Visualization and Analysis of the Impingement Processes of a Narrow-Cone DI Gasoline Spray

2001-05-07
2001-01-2023
The direct injection spray-wall interactions were investigated experimentally using high-speed laser-sheet imaging, shadowgraphy, wetted footprints and phase Doppler interferometry techniques. A narrow-cone high-pressure swirl injector is used to inject iso-octane fuel onto a plate, at three different impact angles inside a pressurized chamber. Heated air and plate conditions were compared with unheated cases. Injection interval was also varied in the heated case to compare dry- and wet- wall impingement behaviors. High-speed macroscopic Mie-scattering images showed that presence of wall and air temperature has only minor effect on the bulk spray structure and penetration speed for the narrow-cone injector tested. The overall bulk motions of the spray plume and its spatial position at a given time are basically unaffected until a few millimeters before impacting the wall.
Technical Paper

Quantitative Measurements of Direct-Injection Gasoline Fuel Sprays in Near-Nozzle Region Using Synchrotron X-Ray

2001-03-05
2001-01-1293
A quantitative and time-resolved technique has been developed to probe the dense spray structure of direct-injection (DI) gasoline sprays in near-nozzle region. This technique uses the line-of-sight absorption of monochromatic x-rays from a synchrotron source to measure the fuel mass with time resolution better than 1 μs. The small scattering cross-section of fuel at x-rays regime allows direct measurements of spray structure that are difficult with most visible-light optical techniques. Appropriate models were developed to determine the fuel density as a function of time.
Technical Paper

An Analysis of Regulated and Unregulated Emissions in an HSDI Diesel Engine under the LTC Regime

2007-04-16
2007-01-0905
Several mechanisms are discussed to understand the formation of both regulated and unregulated emissions in a high speed, direct injection, single cylinder diesel engine using low sulphur diesel fuel. Experiments were conducted over a wide range of injection pressures, EGR rates, injection timings and swirl ratios. The regulated emissions were measured by the standard emission equipment. Unregulated emissions such as aldehydes and ketones were measured by high pressure liquid chromatography and hydrocarbon speciation by gas chromatography. Particulate mass was measured with a Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance (TEOM). Analysis was made of the sources of different emission species and their relationship with the combustion process under the different operating conditions. Special attention is given to the low temperature combustion (LTC) regime which is known to reduce both NOx and soot. However the HC, CO and unregulated emissions increased at a higher rate.
Technical Paper

Fuel Chemistry Impacts on Gasoline HCCI Combustion with Negative Valve Overlap and Direct Injection

2007-10-29
2007-01-4105
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion has the potential to produce low NOx and low particulate matter (PM) emissions while providing high efficiency. In HCCI combustion, the start of auto-ignition of premixed fuel and air depends on temperature, pressure, concentration history during the compression stroke, and the unique reaction kinetics of the fuel/air mixture. For these reasons, the choice of fuel has a significant impact on both engine design and control strategies. In this paper, ten (10) gasoline-like testing fuels, statistically representative of blends of four blending streams that spanned the ranges of selected fuel properties, were tested in a single cylinder engine equipped with a hydraulic variable valve train (VVT) and gasoline direct injection (GDI) system.
Technical Paper

Effect of Fuel Humidity on the Performance of a Single-Cylinder Research Engine Operating on Hydrogen

2002-10-21
2002-01-2685
This report describes work recently performed by AVL and DaimlerChrysler, including both simulations and single-cylinder research engine development, to quantify the effects of fuel humidity on the performance of an internal combustion engine fueled by hydrogen. The combustion process was simulated from both a thermodynamic and a chemical kinetics standpoint. Both simulations suggested that substantial NOx reductions could be achieved. An engine was then operated on a laboratory fuel system designed to provide hydrogen at various levels of humidity, and the sensitivity of its performance (emissions and efficiency) to humidity and excess air ratio was determined. These tests verified that NOx emissions were reduced by fuel humidity. Finally, the engine and simulation results were compared. Although correlation was not perfect, the trends proved to be correct.
Technical Paper

Transient Simulation of DGI Engine Injector with Needle Movement

2002-10-21
2002-01-2663
Utilization of direct injection systems is one of the most promising technologies for fuel economy improvement for SI engine powered passenger cars. Engine performance is essentially influenced by the characteristics of the injection equipment. This paper will present CFD analyses of a swirl type GDI injector carried out with the Multiphase Module of AVL's FIRE/SWIFT CFD code. The simulations considered three phases (liquid fuel, fuel vapor, air) and mesh movement. Thus the transient behavior of the injector can be observed. The flow phenomena known from measurement and shown by previous simulation work [2, 7, 10, 11] were reproduced. In particular the simulations shown in this paper could explain the cause for the outstanding atomization characteristics of the swirl type injector, which are caused by cavitation in the nozzle hole.
Technical Paper

Emissions Trade-Off and Combustion Characteristics of a High-Speed Direct Injection Diesel Engine

2001-03-05
2001-01-0197
The emissions trade-off and combustion characteristics of a high speed, small-bore, direct injection, single cylinder, diesel engine are investigated at three different load conditions. The experiments covered a wide range of parameters including the injection pressure, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rate and swirl ratio (Sw). The effects of each parameter on the ignition delay (ID), apparent rate of energy release (ARER), NOx, Bosch smoke unit (BSU), CO and hydrocarbons are investigated. The results show that the NOx emission dropped continuously with the increase in EGR (up to 55%), but with increasing smoke emission in a classical trade-off relationship. The increase in injection pressure generally reduced smoke with NOx penalty; however, the NOx penalty decreased at higher EGR. There also appears to be an increase in the cool flame intensity at the high EGR rates. Applying swirl at high EGR rate and high injection pressure conditions further reduced smoke emissions.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Effects of EGR and Injection Pressure on Emissions in a High-Speed Direct-Injection Diesel Engine

2001-03-05
2001-01-1004
Experimental data is used in conjunction with multi-dimensional modeling in a modified version of the KIVA-3V code to characterize the emissions behavior of a high-speed, direct-injection diesel engine. Injection pressure and EGR are varied across a range of typical small-bore diesel operating conditions and the resulting soot-NOx tradeoff is analyzed. Good agreement is obtained between experimental and modeling trends; the HSDI engine shows increasing soot and decreasing NOx with higher EGR and lower injection pressure. The model also indicates that most of the NOx is formed in the region where the bulk of the initial heat release first takes place, both for zero and high EGR cases. The mechanism of NOx reduction with high EGR is shown to be primarily through a decrease in thermal NOx formation rate.
Technical Paper

Biomechanical Investigation of Thoracolumbar Spine Fractures in Indianapolis-type Racing Car Drivers during Frontal Impacts

2006-12-05
2006-01-3633
The purpose of this study is to provide an understanding of driver kinematics, injury mechanisms and spinal loads causing thoracolumbar spinal fractures in Indianapolis-type racing car drivers. Crash reports from 1996 to 2006, showed a total of forty spine fracture incidents with the thoracolumbar region being the most frequently injured (n=15). Seven of the thoracolumbar fracture cases occurred in the frontal direction and were a higher injury severity as compared to rear impact cases. The present study focuses on thoracolumbar spine fractures in Indianapolis-type racing car drivers during frontal impacts and was performed using driver medical records, crash reports, video, still photographic images, chassis accelerations from on-board data recorders and the analysis tool MADYMO to simulate crashes. A 50th percentile, male, Hybrid III dummy model was used to represent the driver.
Technical Paper

Frequency Response and Coupling of Earpiece Accelerometers in the Human Head

2006-12-05
2006-01-3657
Currently, there is great interest in motorsports medicine in measuring driver head impact accelerations by adding small triaxial accelerometers to the communication earpieces worn by drivers. Various studies have attempted to validate the ability of the earpiece accelerometers to accurately measure head accelerations. Those experiments demonstrate success in being able to measure head accelerations on dummies and humans in low severity impacts and non-impact head motion. No study has been performed to ascertain the ability of the earpiece accelerometers to accurately measure rigid body head accelerations of the skull when they are mounted in a human ear canal and subjected to high severity head accelerations. This research was performed to evaluate the frequency response and coupling of the earpiece accelerometers to the human skull using post mortem human subject (PMHS) heads as the most realistic surrogate for the living human.
Technical Paper

High-Speed Seatbelt Pretensioner Loading of the Abdomen

2006-11-06
2006-22-0002
This study characterizes the response of the human cadaver abdomen to high-speed seatbelt loading using pyrotechnic pretensioners. A test apparatus was developed to deliver symmetric loading to the abdomen using a seatbelt equipped with two low-mass load cells. Eight subjects were tested under worst-case scenario, out-of-position (OOP) conditions. A seatbelt was placed at the level of mid-umbilicus and drawn back along the sides of the specimens, which were seated upright using a fixed-back configuration. Penetration was measured by a laser, which tracked the anterior aspect of the abdomen, and by high-speed video. Additionally, aortic pressure was monitored. Three different pretensioner designs were used, referred to as system A, system B and system C. The B and C systems employed single pretensioners. The A system consisted of two B system pretensioners. The vascular systems of the subjects were perfused.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Biaxial Tissue Properties of the Human Cadaver Aorta

2006-11-06
2006-22-0010
This study focuses on the biaxial mechanical properties of planar aorta tissue at strain rates likely to be experienced during automotive crashes. It also examines the structural response of the whole aorta to longitudinal tension. Twenty-six tissue-level tests were conducted using twelve thoracic aortas harvested from human cadavers. Cruciate samples were excised from the ascending, peri-isthmic, and descending regions. The samples were subjected to equibiaxial stretch at two nominal speed levels using a new biaxial tissue-testing device. Inertia-compensated loads were measured to facilitate calculation of true stress. High-speed videography and regional correlation analysis were used to track ink dots marked on the center of each sample to obtain strain. In a series of component-level tests, the response of the intact thoracic aorta to longitudinal stretch was obtained using seven aorta specimens. The aorta fails within the peri-isthmic region.
Technical Paper

Study of Potential Mechanisms of Traumatic Rupture of the Aorta Using InSitu Experiments

2006-11-06
2006-22-0011
Traumatic rupture of the aorta (TRA) is an important transportation-related injury. This study investigated TRA mechanisms using in situ human cadaver experiments. Four quasi-static tests and one dynamic test were performed. The quasi-static experiments were conducted by perturbing the mediastinal structures of the cadavers. The mechanisms investigated included anterior, superior, and lateral displacement of the heart and aortic arch. The resulting injuries ranged from partial tears to complete transections. All injuries occurred within the peri-isthmic region. Intimal tears were associated with the primary injuries. The average failure load and stretch were 148 N and 30 percent for the quasi-static tests. This study illustrates that TRA can result from appropriate application of nominal levels of longitudinal load and tension. The results demonstrate that intraluminal pressure and whole-body acceleration are not required for TRA to occur.
Technical Paper

Influences of Intake Charge Preparations on HCCI Combustion in a Single Cylinder Engine with Variable Valve Timing and Gasoline Direct Injection

2006-10-16
2006-01-3274
Intake charge preparation has strong effects on HCCI combustion, especially on the start of ignition. In this paper, the influence of different intake charge preparation modes on HCCI combustion in a single cylinder engine equipped with a hydraulic variable valve train (VVT) and gasoline direct injection (GDI) system is studied. By using VVT and GDI, three different intake charge preparation modes are implemented: re-compression early injection (RCEI), re-compression split injection (RCSI), and re-breathing early injection (RBEI). For each intake charge preparation mode, three engine operating conditions are investigated: 1.5 bar IMEP at 1000 rpm, 3 bar IMEP at 2000 rpm, and 6 bar/deg of maximum rate of pressure rise at 3000 rpm (IMEP's very near 3 bar). For all engine operating conditions and intake charge preparation modes, the combustion phasing, represented by the 50% mass fraction burned location (CA50), were fixed at 5 degrees after top dead center.
Technical Paper

Fuel Injection Strategy for Reducing NOx Emissions from Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines Fueled with DME

2006-10-16
2006-01-3324
A new fuel injection strategy is proposed for DME engines. Under this strategy, a pre-injection up to 40% demand is conducted after intake valves closing. Due to high volatility of DME, a lean homogeneous mixture can be formed during the compression stroke. Near TDC, a pilot injection is conducted. Combined fuel mass for the pre-injection and pilot injection is under the lean combustion limit of DME. Thus, the mixture is enriched and combustion can take place only in the neighborhood of sprays of the pilot injection. The main injection is conducted after TDC. Because only about half of the demand needs to be injected and DME evaporates almost immediately, combustion duration for the main injection plus the unburnt fuel in the cylinder should not be long because a large portion of the fuel has been premixed with air. With a high EGR rate and proper timing for the main injection, low temperature combustion could be realized.
Technical Paper

Application of CFD Modeling in Combustion Bowl Assessment of Diesel Engines Using DoE Methodology

2006-10-16
2006-01-3330
The current paper describes a methodology for combustion bowl assessment for diesel engines. The methodology is based on the application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) following a Design of Experiments (DoE) procedure. In this work the 3D CFD simulation was performed by the commercial CFD code AVL-FIRE for different combustion bowls from intake valve closing (IVC) to exhaust valve opening (EVO). The initial conditions (at IVC) and boundary conditions were obtained from 1D simulation. Since the work was concentrated on the spray injection, mixing, combustion as well as bowl aerodynamics only a sector mesh was employed for the calculations. A DoE procedure was also used for this simulation work in order to minimize the number of simulation runs and at the same time maintaining the accuracy required assessing the influences of different bowl geometry, spray and intake air motion parameters.
Technical Paper

Shoulder Injury and Response Due to Lateral Glenohumeral Joint Impact: An Analysis of Combined Data

2005-11-09
2005-22-0014
To date, several lateral impact studies (Bolte et al., 2000, 2003, Marth, 2002 and Compigne et al., 2004) have been performed on the shoulder to determine the response characteristics and injury threshold of the shoulder complex. Our understanding of the biomechanical response and injury tolerance of the shoulder would be improved if the results of these tests were combined. From a larger data base shoulder injury tolerance criteria can be developed as well as corridors for side impact dummies. Data from the study by Marth (2002, 12 tests) was combined with data from the previous studies. Twenty-two low speed tests (4.5 ± 0.7 m/s) and 9 high speed tests (6.7 ± 0.7 m/s) were selected from the combined data for developing corridors. Shoulder force, deflection and T1y acceleration corridors were developed using a minimization of cumulative variance technique.
Technical Paper

Effect of Injection Pressure and Swirl Motion on Diesel Engine-out Emissions in Conventional and Advanced Combustion Regimes

2006-04-03
2006-01-0076
The fuel injection pressure and the swirl motion have a great impact on combustion in small bore HSDI diesel engines running on the conventional or advanced combustion concepts. This paper examines the effects of injection pressure and the swirl motion on engine-out emissions over a wide range of EGR rates. Experiments were conducted on a single cylinder, 4-valve, direct injection diesel engine equipped with a common rail injection system. The pressures and temperatures in the inlet and exhaust surge tanks were adjusted to simulate turbocharged engine conditions. The load and speed of the engine were typical to highway cruising operation of a light duty vehicle. The experiments covered a wide range of injection pressures, swirl ratios and injection timings. Engine-out emission measurements included hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, smoke (in Bosch Smoke Units, BSU) and NOx.
Technical Paper

Can Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines Fueled with DME Meet US 2007/2010 Emissions Standard with A Simplified Aftertreatment System?

2006-04-03
2006-01-0053
Emissions from CI engines fueled with dimethyl ether (DME) were discussed in this paper. Thanks to its high content of fuel oxygen, DME combustion is virtually soot free. This characteristic of DME combustion indicates that the particulate filter will not be needed in the aftertreatment system for engines fueled with DME. NOx emissions from a CI engine fueled with DME can meet the US 2007 regulation with a high EGR rate. Because 49% more fuel mass must be delivered in each DME injection than the corresponding diesel-fuel injection, and the DME injection pressure is lower than 500 bar under the current fuel-system technology, the DME injection duration is generally longer than that of diesel-fuel injection. This is unfavorable to further NOx reduction. A multiple-injection strategy with timing for the primary injection determined by the cylinder temperature was proposed.
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