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Technical Paper

Application of the New City-Suburban Heavy Vehicle Route (CSHVR) to Truck Emissions Characterization

1999-05-03
1999-01-1467
Speed-time and video data were logged for tractor-trailers performing local deliveries in Akron, OH. and Richmond, VA. in order to develop an emissions test schedule that represented real truck use. The data bank developed using these logging techniques was used to create a Yard cycle, a Freeway cycle and a City-Suburban cycle by the concatenation of microtrips. The City-Suburban driving cycle was converted to a driving route, in which the truck under test would perform at maximum acceleration during certain portions of the test schedule. This new route was used to characterize the emissions of a 1982 Ford tractor with a Cummins 14 liter, 350 hp engine and a 1998 International tractor with a Cummins 14 liter, 435 hp engine. Emissions levels were found to be repeatable with one driver and the driver-to-driver variation of NOx was under 4%, although the driver-to-driver variations of CO and PM were higher.
Technical Paper

Speciation of Hydrocarbon Emissions from a Medium Duty Diesel Engine

1996-02-01
960322
Growing concern over ground-level ozone and its role in smog formation has resulted in extensive investigation into identifying ozone sources. Motor vehicle exhaust, specifically oxides of nitrogen and hydrocarbons, have been identified as major ozone precursors in urban areas. Past research has concentrated on assessing the impact of emissions from gasoline fueled light duty vehicles. However, little work has been done on identifying ozone precursors from medium and heavy duty diesel fueled vehicles. This paper presents the results of testing performed on a Navistar T 444E 190 horsepower diesel engine which is certified as a light/heavy-duty emissions classification and is used in medium duty trucks up to 11,800 kg (26,000 lb) GVW. Regulated emissions and speciated hydrocarbon emissions were collected using a filter, bag and Tenax adsorption cartridges for both steady state and transient engine operation.
Technical Paper

Hydrocarbon Speciation of a Lean Burn Spark Ignited Engine

1997-10-01
972971
A research program at West Virginia University sought to identify and quantify the individual hydrocarbon species present in alternative fuel exhaust. Compressed natural gas (CNG) has been one of the most widely researched fuels proposed to replace liquid petroleum fuels. Regulated CNG non-methane hydrocarbon emissions are often lower than hydrocarbon emissions from conventional liquid fuels because of the absence of heavier hydrocarbons in the fuel. Reducing NOx and non-methane organic gas (NMOG) emission levels reduces the ozone forming potential (OFP) of the exhaust gases. A Hercules GTA 3.7 liter medium duty CNG engine was operated at seven load and speed set points using local supply CNG gas. The engine was operated at several rated, intermediate and idle speed set points. The engine was operated while the air/fuel ratio value was varied.
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