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Technical Paper

Emission Reductions and Operational Experiences With Heavy Duty Diesel Fleet Vehicles Retrofitted with Continuously Regenerated Diesel Particulate Filters in Southern California

2001-03-05
2001-01-0512
Particulate emission control from diesel engines is one of the major concerns in the urban areas in California. Recently, regulations have been proposed for stringent PM emission requirements from both existing and new diesel engines. As a result, particulate emission control from urban diesel engines using advanced particulate filter technology is being evaluated at several locations in California. Although ceramic based particle filters are well known for high PM reductions, the lack of effective and durable regeneration system has limited their applications. The continuously regenerated diesel particulate filter (CRDPF) technology discussed in this presentation, solves this problem by catalytically oxidizing NO present in the diesel exhaust to NO2 which is utilized to continuously combust the engine soot under the typical diesel engine operating condition.
Technical Paper

A Continuously Variable Power Split Transmission for Automotive Applications

1997-02-24
970687
Continuously variable transmissions, commonly known as CVT's, have been shown to be feasible alternatives to the conventional multi-step gear transmissions (standard or automatic) typically used in automotive applications. Most CVT applications, however, rely on a shaft-to-shaft transmission arrangement, in which the belt-sheave action limits the load capacity of the transmission, particularly at the high power ranges (low speed, high torque). In this paper, a system based on a combined planetary gear train and a continuously variable pulley system is presented. The uniqueness of this arrangement is that the variable pulleys provide a power/torque split and recirculation function, which, when combined with the planetary gear train function, produces a continuously variable power split transmission system.
Technical Paper

A Double Planetary Gear Train-CVT Transmission with Multiple Applications

1995-02-01
950094
A family of transmission systems based on a “Planetary Gear - CVT” mechanism is presented here. The systems considered consist of two compound planetary gear trains connected through a CVT pulley system to provide the power/torque split and recirculation function, without the use of additional clutches and/or chain drives. A two degree of freedom system results in which one of the degrees of freedom is directly related to the CVT ratio. The mechanisms considered here combine the gear reduction function of compound planetary gear trains with the continuously variable trans- used as a circulating power control unit. The kinematics and dynamics of this family of systems is presented with emphasis on the belt forces, torques on the various shafts and the overall input/output velocity ratios through the CVT ratio span. Then a parametric analysis is conducted to characterize the effect of the various functional ratios and parameters of the system in terms of the overall performance.
Technical Paper

Transient Emissions Tests of Cummins N-14 Natural Gas Engine

1995-11-01
952653
A heavy-duty engine testing project involving Cummins Engine Company, Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), and West Virginia University (WVU) has been completed. This project evaluated the transient exhaust gas emissions rate of Cummins N-14 heavy-duty diesel engines converted to natural gas. Three heavy-duty N-14 diesel engines were converted to run on natural gas using a lean burn strategy by SwRI and are in field service in Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control District (SBAPCD). Two of the engines were tested under a steady-state cycle that simulates the U.S. heavy-duty transient cycle. The third engine was tested at the WVU Engine Research Laboratory following the U.S. Federal Test Procedure (FTP). However, at WVU, lean burn combustion strategy was shifted rich of stoichiometric during idling time of the FTP test. This may have caused the engine to produce more total hydrocarbons (THC) and carbon monoxide (CO).
Technical Paper

Speciation of Hydrocarbon Emissions from a Medium Duty Diesel Engine

1996-02-01
960322
Growing concern over ground-level ozone and its role in smog formation has resulted in extensive investigation into identifying ozone sources. Motor vehicle exhaust, specifically oxides of nitrogen and hydrocarbons, have been identified as major ozone precursors in urban areas. Past research has concentrated on assessing the impact of emissions from gasoline fueled light duty vehicles. However, little work has been done on identifying ozone precursors from medium and heavy duty diesel fueled vehicles. This paper presents the results of testing performed on a Navistar T 444E 190 horsepower diesel engine which is certified as a light/heavy-duty emissions classification and is used in medium duty trucks up to 11,800 kg (26,000 lb) GVW. Regulated emissions and speciated hydrocarbon emissions were collected using a filter, bag and Tenax adsorption cartridges for both steady state and transient engine operation.
Technical Paper

Investigation of a Radio Frequency Plasma Ignitor for Possible Internal Combustion Engine Use

1997-02-24
970071
This paper outlines the development process of a radio frequency (RF) plasma ignitor and its application to internal combustion engines. The system features a high Q quarter-wave coaxial cavity resonator that serves as an electric field magnifier and as a discharge device. The preliminary characteristics of the cavity have been studied by the construction and operation of larger scaled devices. Testing has been performed using these devices in a testing apparatus operating under ambient conditions. Once an analysis of the large-scale device is complete, a smaller device, more inclined to interfacing with a standard engine, will be constructed and tested on a full scale engine. The final device is intended to operate in the 800-1500 MHz range.
Technical Paper

Zero Dimensional Combustion Modeling of an Axial Vane Rotary Engine

1997-02-24
970069
A zero dimensional combustion model of an axial vane rotary engine has been developed. The engine is a positive displacement mechanism that permits the four “stroke” action to occur in one revolution of the shaft with a minimum number of moving components. Current modeling efforts for this engine require improved estimations of engine parameters such as chamber pressure, chamber wall temperature, gas temperature, and heat loss. The purpose of this investigation was to develop a zero dimensional combustion model that predicts the above-mentioned parameters in a quick and accurate manner for a spark ignition or compression ignition version of the engine. For this effort, NASA's ZMOTTO code was modified. Piston engine data and the results from the modified ZMOTTO code are in good agreement.
Technical Paper

Comparative Emissions from Natural Gas and Diesel Buses

1995-12-01
952746
Data has been gathered using the West Virginia University Heavy Duty Transportable Emissions Laboratories from buses operating on diesel and a variety of alternate fuels in the field. Typically, the transportable chassis dynamo meter is set up at a local transit agency and the selected buses are tested using the fuel in the vehicle at the time of the test. The dynamometer may be set up to operate indoors or outdoors depending on the space available at the site. Samples of the fuels being used at the site are collected and sent to the laboratory for analysis and this information is then sent together with emissions data to the Alternate Fuels Data Center at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Emissions data are acquired from buses using the Central Business District cycle reported in SAE Standard J1376; this cycle has 14 ramps with 20 mph (32.2 km/h) peaks, separated by idle periods.
Technical Paper

Ideal Computer Analysis of a Novel Engine Concept

1996-02-01
960080
A novel engine concept, currently under study, addresses many of the problems commonly associated with conventional internal combustion engines. In its simplest form the novel engine consists of a single crankshaft operating both a piston compressor and a piston expander which are connected by a continuous flame combustion chamber. One might regard this as a Brayton piston engine which is similar to a previous engine investigated by Warren. Also, due to the use of piston cylinders as the compression and expansion devices, this engine varies little mechanically from current engine technology thus allowing for easy implementation. The main improvement from conventional engine design is that the expansion cylinder can have a larger displacement than that of the compression cylinder. This allows more power to be extracted by lowering the loss due to blowdown and this will increase the thermal efficiency.
Technical Paper

An Approach to Simulate Chassis Dynamometer Test Cycles with Engine Dynamometer Test Cycles for Heavy-Duty Urban Buses

1996-10-01
962196
A mathematical model has been developed to transfer Chassis Dynamometer (CD) test cycles for heavy duty vehicles to the equivalent Engine Dynamometer (ED) test cycles. The model assumed a generalized drivetrain layout, and a variable drive line efficiency. An interactive computer code was written to represent the mathematical model for different drivetrain systems. Several CD test cycles were used to obtain equivalent ED test cycles for a sample based upon an urban bus equipped with an automatic transmission. Results showed the possibility of simulating CD test cycles with equivalent ED test cycles for heavy-duty urban buses under certain assumptions.
Technical Paper

The Rand-Cam Engine: A Pistonless Four Stroke Engine

1994-03-01
940518
The Rand-Cam engine is a positive displacement machine, operating on a four stroke cycle, which consists of a rotor with multiple axial vanes forming combustion chambers as the rotor and vanes rotate in a cam shaped housing. The cam housing, consisting of two “half-housings” or stators, contains a toroidal trough of varying depth machined into each stator. The two stators are phased so that the shallowest point on one trough corresponds to the deepest on the other. A set of six vanes, able to move axially through machined holes in the rotor, traverses the troughs creating six captured zones per side. These zones vary in volume with rotor rotation. Since each trough has two deep sections and two shallow sections with ramps in between, full four stroke operation is obtained between each pair of vanes in each trough, corresponding to twelve power “strokes” per revolution.
Technical Paper

Parametric Modeling and Analysis of a Planetary Gear-CVT Mechanism

1994-03-01
940519
The mechanism considered here, combines the functions of a planetary gear train and a continuously variable transmission (CVT) system, through a circulating power control unit, which results by connecting the sun-gear shaft and the ring-gear rotation through a variable pitch pulley system. The mechanism is simple and does not require clutches for its operation. Three basic configurations are presented, two of them produce a power feedback effect and a third one produces a power split forward, without a “geared neutral” condition. Parametric analysis is carried out in relation to the circulating power split feature in order to to assist in the design of an optimum configuration for light-weight applications. A parametric approach is used to generate a model that can be used to perform parametric sensitivity analysis.
Technical Paper

Performance of a High Speed Engine with Dual Fuel Capability

1994-03-01
940517
Concern over dwindling oil supplies has led to the adoption of alternate fuels to power fleet vehicles. However, during the interim period when alternate fuel supply stations are few and far between, dual fuel engines prove a necessity. In the light duty arena, these engines are typically gasoline engines modified to accommodate compressed natural gas (CNG) as an alternate fuel, but they are seldom optimized with both fuels in mind. A Saturn 1.9 liter 4 cylinder dual overhead cam engine was selected as a base for developing an optimized gasoline/CNG powerplant. Baseline data on power and steady state emissions (CO2, CO, NOx, HC) were found using the standard Saturn controller. In addition to monitoring standard sensor measurements, real-time pressure traces were taken for up to 256 cycles using a modified head with embedded PCB piezoelectric pressure transducers.
Technical Paper

Hydrodynamic Mobility Analysis of the Vane Lift Mechanism for the Rand Cam™ Engine

1995-02-01
950450
In this paper, a new method for the hydro-dynamic analysis of a sliding cylinder in a fully lubricated parallel track is presented. The method is an extension of Booker's “Mobility Method” (developed for cylindrical journal bearings) to the case of sliding cylinders, in which the clearance between the track and the cylinder, the viscosity of the lubricant, the radius and length of the pin, the sliding velocity and the applied transverse load determine the hydrodynamic behavior of the cylinder. In the Rand Cam™ Engine [1]*, the axicycloidal motion of vanes is driven by a rotor and a cylindrical cam, and one of the alternative designs to provide this function is based on a cylindrical pin sliding within a track which follows the profile of the motion of the main cams of the engine. This function is very important for the engine, since it separates the load bearing function from the sealing function left to the apex-like seals.
Technical Paper

Natural Gas and Diesel Transit Bus Emissions: Review and Recent Data

1997-11-17
973203
Natural Gas engines are viewed as an alternative to diesel power in the quest to reduce heavy duty vehicle emissions in polluted urban areas. In particular, it is acknowledged that natural gas has the potential to reduce the inventory of particulate matter, and this has encouraged the use of natural gas engines in transit bus applications. Extensive data on natural gas and diesel bus emissions have been gathered using two Transportable Heavy Duty Vehicle Emissions Testing Laboratories, that employ chassis dynamometers to simulate bus inertia and road load. Most of the natural gas buses tested prior to 1997 were powered by Cummins L-10 engines, which were lean-burn and employed a mechanical mixer for fuel introduction. The Central Business District (CBD) cycle was used as the test schedule.
Technical Paper

Hydrocarbon Speciation of a Lean Burn Spark Ignited Engine

1997-10-01
972971
A research program at West Virginia University sought to identify and quantify the individual hydrocarbon species present in alternative fuel exhaust. Compressed natural gas (CNG) has been one of the most widely researched fuels proposed to replace liquid petroleum fuels. Regulated CNG non-methane hydrocarbon emissions are often lower than hydrocarbon emissions from conventional liquid fuels because of the absence of heavier hydrocarbons in the fuel. Reducing NOx and non-methane organic gas (NMOG) emission levels reduces the ozone forming potential (OFP) of the exhaust gases. A Hercules GTA 3.7 liter medium duty CNG engine was operated at seven load and speed set points using local supply CNG gas. The engine was operated at several rated, intermediate and idle speed set points. The engine was operated while the air/fuel ratio value was varied.
Technical Paper

A Controller for a Spark Ignition Engine with Bi-Fuel Capability

1994-10-01
942004
A bi-fuel engine with the ability to run optimally on both compressed natural gas (CNG) and gasoline is being developed. Such bi-fuel automotive engines are necessary to bridge the gap between gasoline and natural gas as an alternative fuel while natural gas fueling stations are not yet common enough to make a dedicated natural gas vehicle practical. As an example of modern progressive engine design, a Saturn 1.9 liter 4-cylinder dual overhead cam (DOHC) engine has been selected as a base powerplant for this development. Many previous natural gas conversions have made compromises in engine control strategies, including mapped open-loop methods, or resorting to translating the signals to or from the original controller. The engine control system described here, however, employs adaptive closed-loop control, optimizing fuel delivery and spark timing for both fuels.
Technical Paper

Turbocharging a Bi-Fuel Engine for Performance Equivalent to Gasoline

1994-10-01
942003
A bi-fuel engine capable of operating either on compressed natural gas (CNG) or gasoline is being developed for the transition to alternative fuel usage. A Saturn 1.9 liter 4-cylinder engine was selected as a base powerplant. A control system that allows closed-loop optimization of both fuel delivery and spark timing was developed. Stock performance and emissions of the engine, as well as performance and emissions with the new controller on gasoline and CNG, have been documented. CNG operation in an engine designed for gasoline results in power loss because of the lower volumetric efficiency with gaseous fuel use, yet such an engine does not take advantage of the higher knock resistance of CNG. It is the goal of this research to use the knock resistance of CNG to recover the associated power loss. The two methods considered for this include turbocharging with a variable boost wastegate and raising the compression ratio while employing variable valve timing.
Technical Paper

Effect of Fuel Composition on the Operation of a Lean Burn Natural Gas Engine

1995-10-01
952560
With the implementation of a closed loop fuel control system, operation of lean-burn natural gas engines can be optimized in terms of reducing emissions while maximizing efficiency. Such a system would compensate for variations in fuel composition, but also would correct for variations in volumetric efficiency due to immediate engine history and long-term engine component wear. Present day engine controllers perform well when they are operated with the same gas composition for which they were calibrated, but because fuel composition varies geographically as well as seasonally, some method of compensation is required. A closed loop control system on a medium-duty lean-burn engine will enhance performance by maintaining the desired air-fuel ratio to eliminate any unwanted rich or lean excursions (relative to the desired air-fuel ratio) that produce excess engine-out emissions. Such a system can also guard against internal engine damage due to overheating and/or engine knock.
Technical Paper

A Performance Study of Iso-Butanol-, Methanol-, and Ethanol-Gasoline Blends Using a Single Cylinder Engine

1993-11-01
932953
The objective of this study was to evaluate iso-butanol (C4H9OH) as an alternative fuel for spark ignition engines. Unlike methanol (CH3OH) and ethanol (C2H5OH), iso-butanol has not been extensively studied in the past as either a fuel blend candidate with gasoline or straight fuel. The performance of a single cylinder engine (ASTM=CFR) was studied using alcohol-gasoline blends under different input parameters. The engine operating conditions were: three carburetor settings (three different fuel flow rates), spark timings of 5°, 10°, 15°, 20°, and 25° BTDC, and a range of compression ratios from a minimum of 7.5 to a maximum of 15 in steps of one depending on knock. The fuels tested were alcohol-gasoline blends having 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% of iso-butanol, ethanol, and methanol. And also as a baseline fuel, pure gasoline (93 ON) was used. The engine was run at a constant speed of 800 RPM.
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