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Technical Paper

Emission Reductions and Operational Experiences With Heavy Duty Diesel Fleet Vehicles Retrofitted with Continuously Regenerated Diesel Particulate Filters in Southern California

2001-03-05
2001-01-0512
Particulate emission control from diesel engines is one of the major concerns in the urban areas in California. Recently, regulations have been proposed for stringent PM emission requirements from both existing and new diesel engines. As a result, particulate emission control from urban diesel engines using advanced particulate filter technology is being evaluated at several locations in California. Although ceramic based particle filters are well known for high PM reductions, the lack of effective and durable regeneration system has limited their applications. The continuously regenerated diesel particulate filter (CRDPF) technology discussed in this presentation, solves this problem by catalytically oxidizing NO present in the diesel exhaust to NO2 which is utilized to continuously combust the engine soot under the typical diesel engine operating condition.
Technical Paper

Use of the West Virginia University Truck Test Cycle to Evaluate Emissions from Class 8 Trucks

1995-02-01
951016
Emissions from light duty vehicles have traditionally been measured using a chassis dynamometer, while heavy duty testing has been based on engine dynamometers. However, the need for in-use vehicle emissions data has led to the development of two transportable heavy duty chassis dynamometers capable of testing buses and heavy trucks. A test cycle has been developed for Class 8 trucks, which typically have unsyncronized transmissions. This test cycle has five peaks, each consisting of an acceleration, cruise period, and deceleration, with speeds and acceleration requirements that can be met by virtually all vehicles in common service. Termed the “WVU 5 peak truck test”, this 8 km (5 mile) cycle has been used to evaluate the emissions from diesel and ethanol powered over-the-road tractors and from diesel and ethanol powered snow plows, all with Detroit Diesel 6V92 engines.
Technical Paper

The Design of a Bi-Fuel Engine Which Avoids the Penalties Associated with Natural Gas Operation

1995-02-01
950679
An alternative fuel that has demonstrated considerable potential in reducing emissions and crude oil dependence is compressed natural gas (CNG). A dedicated CNG vehicle suffers from the lack of an adequate number of fueling stations and the poor range limited by CNG storage technology. A vehicle capable of operating on either gasoline or natural gas allows alternative fuel usage without sacrificing vehicle range and mobility. Although many such bi-fuel vehicles are in existence, historically they have employed older engine designs and made compromises in engine control parameters that can degrade performance relative to gasoline and increase emissions. A modern production engine, a 1992 Saturn 1.9 liter 16 valve powerplant, is being optimized for operation on each fuel to realize the full potential of CNG in a bi-fuel system. CNG operation in an engine designed for gasoline typically suffers from reduced power, due in part to displacement of air by gaseous fuel.
Technical Paper

Transient Emissions Tests of Cummins N-14 Natural Gas Engine

1995-11-01
952653
A heavy-duty engine testing project involving Cummins Engine Company, Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), and West Virginia University (WVU) has been completed. This project evaluated the transient exhaust gas emissions rate of Cummins N-14 heavy-duty diesel engines converted to natural gas. Three heavy-duty N-14 diesel engines were converted to run on natural gas using a lean burn strategy by SwRI and are in field service in Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control District (SBAPCD). Two of the engines were tested under a steady-state cycle that simulates the U.S. heavy-duty transient cycle. The third engine was tested at the WVU Engine Research Laboratory following the U.S. Federal Test Procedure (FTP). However, at WVU, lean burn combustion strategy was shifted rich of stoichiometric during idling time of the FTP test. This may have caused the engine to produce more total hydrocarbons (THC) and carbon monoxide (CO).
Technical Paper

Speciation of Hydrocarbon Emissions from a Medium Duty Diesel Engine

1996-02-01
960322
Growing concern over ground-level ozone and its role in smog formation has resulted in extensive investigation into identifying ozone sources. Motor vehicle exhaust, specifically oxides of nitrogen and hydrocarbons, have been identified as major ozone precursors in urban areas. Past research has concentrated on assessing the impact of emissions from gasoline fueled light duty vehicles. However, little work has been done on identifying ozone precursors from medium and heavy duty diesel fueled vehicles. This paper presents the results of testing performed on a Navistar T 444E 190 horsepower diesel engine which is certified as a light/heavy-duty emissions classification and is used in medium duty trucks up to 11,800 kg (26,000 lb) GVW. Regulated emissions and speciated hydrocarbon emissions were collected using a filter, bag and Tenax adsorption cartridges for both steady state and transient engine operation.
Technical Paper

Comparative Emissions from Natural Gas and Diesel Buses

1995-12-01
952746
Data has been gathered using the West Virginia University Heavy Duty Transportable Emissions Laboratories from buses operating on diesel and a variety of alternate fuels in the field. Typically, the transportable chassis dynamo meter is set up at a local transit agency and the selected buses are tested using the fuel in the vehicle at the time of the test. The dynamometer may be set up to operate indoors or outdoors depending on the space available at the site. Samples of the fuels being used at the site are collected and sent to the laboratory for analysis and this information is then sent together with emissions data to the Alternate Fuels Data Center at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Emissions data are acquired from buses using the Central Business District cycle reported in SAE Standard J1376; this cycle has 14 ramps with 20 mph (32.2 km/h) peaks, separated by idle periods.
Technical Paper

Performance of a High Speed Engine with Dual Fuel Capability

1994-03-01
940517
Concern over dwindling oil supplies has led to the adoption of alternate fuels to power fleet vehicles. However, during the interim period when alternate fuel supply stations are few and far between, dual fuel engines prove a necessity. In the light duty arena, these engines are typically gasoline engines modified to accommodate compressed natural gas (CNG) as an alternate fuel, but they are seldom optimized with both fuels in mind. A Saturn 1.9 liter 4 cylinder dual overhead cam engine was selected as a base for developing an optimized gasoline/CNG powerplant. Baseline data on power and steady state emissions (CO2, CO, NOx, HC) were found using the standard Saturn controller. In addition to monitoring standard sensor measurements, real-time pressure traces were taken for up to 256 cycles using a modified head with embedded PCB piezoelectric pressure transducers.
Technical Paper

Hydrodynamic Mobility Analysis of the Vane Lift Mechanism for the Rand Cam™ Engine

1995-02-01
950450
In this paper, a new method for the hydro-dynamic analysis of a sliding cylinder in a fully lubricated parallel track is presented. The method is an extension of Booker's “Mobility Method” (developed for cylindrical journal bearings) to the case of sliding cylinders, in which the clearance between the track and the cylinder, the viscosity of the lubricant, the radius and length of the pin, the sliding velocity and the applied transverse load determine the hydrodynamic behavior of the cylinder. In the Rand Cam™ Engine [1]*, the axicycloidal motion of vanes is driven by a rotor and a cylindrical cam, and one of the alternative designs to provide this function is based on a cylindrical pin sliding within a track which follows the profile of the motion of the main cams of the engine. This function is very important for the engine, since it separates the load bearing function from the sealing function left to the apex-like seals.
Technical Paper

Heavy Duty Testing Cycles: Survey and Comparison

1994-11-01
942263
The need to assess the effect of exhaust gas emissions from heavy duty vehicles (buses and trucks) on emission inventories is urgent. Exhaust gas emissions measured during the fuel economy measurement test procedures that are used in different countries sometimes do not represent the in-use vehicle emissions. Since both local and imported vehicles are running on the roads, it is thought that studying the testing cycles of the major vehicle manufacturer countries is worthy. Standard vehicle testing cycles on chassis dynamometer from the United States, Canada, European Community Market, and Japan1 are considered in this study. Each of the tested cycles is categorized as either actual or synthesized cycle and its representativness of the observed driving patterns is investigated. A total of fourteen parameters are chosen to characterize any given driving cycle and the cycles under investigation were compared using these parameters.
Technical Paper

Sampling Strategies for Characterization of the Reactive Components of Heavy Duty Diesel Exhaust Emissions

1994-11-01
942262
Techniques have been developed to sample and speciate dilute heavy duty diesel exhaust to determine the specific reactivities and the ozone forming potential. While the Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program (AQIRP) has conducted a comprehensive investigation to develop data on potential improvements in vehicle emissions and air quality from reformulated gasoline and various other alternative fuels. However, the development of sampling protocols and speciation of heavy duty diesel exhaust is still in its infancy [1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6]. This paper focuses on the first phase of the heavy duty diesel speciation program, that involves the development of a unique set of sampling protocols for the gas phase, semi-volatile and particulate matter from the exhaust of engines operating on different types of diesel fuel. Effects of sampling trains, sampling temperatures, semi-volatile adsorbents and driving cycles are being investigated.
Technical Paper

Chassis Test Cycles for Assessing Emissions from Heavy Duty Trucks

1994-10-01
941946
Recent interest in the effect of engine life on vehicle emissions, particularly those from alternately fueled engines, has led to a need to test heavy duty trucks in the field over their lifetime. West Virginia University has constructed two transportable laboratories capable of measuring emissions as a vehicle is driven through a transient test schedule. Although the central business district (CBD) cycle is well accepted for bus testing, no time-based schedule suited to the testing of class 8 trucks with unsynchronized transmissions is available. The Federal Test Procedure for certifying heavy duty engines can be translated with some difficulty into a flat road chassis cycle although original data clearly incorporated unpredictable braking and inclines. Two methods were attempted for this purpose, but only an energy conservation method proved practical.
Technical Paper

Natural Gas and Diesel Transit Bus Emissions: Review and Recent Data

1997-11-17
973203
Natural Gas engines are viewed as an alternative to diesel power in the quest to reduce heavy duty vehicle emissions in polluted urban areas. In particular, it is acknowledged that natural gas has the potential to reduce the inventory of particulate matter, and this has encouraged the use of natural gas engines in transit bus applications. Extensive data on natural gas and diesel bus emissions have been gathered using two Transportable Heavy Duty Vehicle Emissions Testing Laboratories, that employ chassis dynamometers to simulate bus inertia and road load. Most of the natural gas buses tested prior to 1997 were powered by Cummins L-10 engines, which were lean-burn and employed a mechanical mixer for fuel introduction. The Central Business District (CBD) cycle was used as the test schedule.
Technical Paper

Hydrocarbon Speciation of a Lean Burn Spark Ignited Engine

1997-10-01
972971
A research program at West Virginia University sought to identify and quantify the individual hydrocarbon species present in alternative fuel exhaust. Compressed natural gas (CNG) has been one of the most widely researched fuels proposed to replace liquid petroleum fuels. Regulated CNG non-methane hydrocarbon emissions are often lower than hydrocarbon emissions from conventional liquid fuels because of the absence of heavier hydrocarbons in the fuel. Reducing NOx and non-methane organic gas (NMOG) emission levels reduces the ozone forming potential (OFP) of the exhaust gases. A Hercules GTA 3.7 liter medium duty CNG engine was operated at seven load and speed set points using local supply CNG gas. The engine was operated at several rated, intermediate and idle speed set points. The engine was operated while the air/fuel ratio value was varied.
Technical Paper

A Controller for a Spark Ignition Engine with Bi-Fuel Capability

1994-10-01
942004
A bi-fuel engine with the ability to run optimally on both compressed natural gas (CNG) and gasoline is being developed. Such bi-fuel automotive engines are necessary to bridge the gap between gasoline and natural gas as an alternative fuel while natural gas fueling stations are not yet common enough to make a dedicated natural gas vehicle practical. As an example of modern progressive engine design, a Saturn 1.9 liter 4-cylinder dual overhead cam (DOHC) engine has been selected as a base powerplant for this development. Many previous natural gas conversions have made compromises in engine control strategies, including mapped open-loop methods, or resorting to translating the signals to or from the original controller. The engine control system described here, however, employs adaptive closed-loop control, optimizing fuel delivery and spark timing for both fuels.
Technical Paper

Turbocharging a Bi-Fuel Engine for Performance Equivalent to Gasoline

1994-10-01
942003
A bi-fuel engine capable of operating either on compressed natural gas (CNG) or gasoline is being developed for the transition to alternative fuel usage. A Saturn 1.9 liter 4-cylinder engine was selected as a base powerplant. A control system that allows closed-loop optimization of both fuel delivery and spark timing was developed. Stock performance and emissions of the engine, as well as performance and emissions with the new controller on gasoline and CNG, have been documented. CNG operation in an engine designed for gasoline results in power loss because of the lower volumetric efficiency with gaseous fuel use, yet such an engine does not take advantage of the higher knock resistance of CNG. It is the goal of this research to use the knock resistance of CNG to recover the associated power loss. The two methods considered for this include turbocharging with a variable boost wastegate and raising the compression ratio while employing variable valve timing.
Technical Paper

Effect of Fuel Composition on the Operation of a Lean Burn Natural Gas Engine

1995-10-01
952560
With the implementation of a closed loop fuel control system, operation of lean-burn natural gas engines can be optimized in terms of reducing emissions while maximizing efficiency. Such a system would compensate for variations in fuel composition, but also would correct for variations in volumetric efficiency due to immediate engine history and long-term engine component wear. Present day engine controllers perform well when they are operated with the same gas composition for which they were calibrated, but because fuel composition varies geographically as well as seasonally, some method of compensation is required. A closed loop control system on a medium-duty lean-burn engine will enhance performance by maintaining the desired air-fuel ratio to eliminate any unwanted rich or lean excursions (relative to the desired air-fuel ratio) that produce excess engine-out emissions. Such a system can also guard against internal engine damage due to overheating and/or engine knock.
Technical Paper

A Performance Study of Iso-Butanol-, Methanol-, and Ethanol-Gasoline Blends Using a Single Cylinder Engine

1993-11-01
932953
The objective of this study was to evaluate iso-butanol (C4H9OH) as an alternative fuel for spark ignition engines. Unlike methanol (CH3OH) and ethanol (C2H5OH), iso-butanol has not been extensively studied in the past as either a fuel blend candidate with gasoline or straight fuel. The performance of a single cylinder engine (ASTM=CFR) was studied using alcohol-gasoline blends under different input parameters. The engine operating conditions were: three carburetor settings (three different fuel flow rates), spark timings of 5°, 10°, 15°, 20°, and 25° BTDC, and a range of compression ratios from a minimum of 7.5 to a maximum of 15 in steps of one depending on knock. The fuels tested were alcohol-gasoline blends having 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% of iso-butanol, ethanol, and methanol. And also as a baseline fuel, pure gasoline (93 ON) was used. The engine was run at a constant speed of 800 RPM.
Technical Paper

Emissions Comparisons of Twenty-Six Heavy-Duty Vehicles Operated on Conventional and Alternative Fuels

1993-11-01
932952
Gaseous and particulate emissions from heavy-duty vehicles are affected by fuel types, vehicle/engine parameters, driving characteristics, and environmental conditions. Transient chassis tests were conducted on twenty-six heavy-duty vehicles fueled with methanol, compressed natural gas (CNG), #1 diesel, and #2 diesel, using West Virginia University (WVU) Transportable Heavy-Duty Vehicle Emissions Testing Laboratory. The vehicles were operated on the central business district (CBD) testing cycle, and regulated emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), total hydrocarbon (HC), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and particulate matter (PM) were measured. Comparisons of regulated emissions results revealed that the vehicles powered on methanol and CNG produced much lower particulate emissions than the conventionally fueled vehicles.
Technical Paper

Solid State Electrochemical Cell for NOx Reduction

1992-08-03
929418
An electrochemical cell is presented which reduces NOx emissions from a vehicle fueled by dedicated natural gas. The cell is comprised of a honeycomb shaped ceramic which is chemically coated with an electrically conductive material in two distinct regions which serve as electrodes such that, with the application of a voltage potential, a cathode and anode are formed. As the exhaust gas flows through the inner channels of the cell, the electrochemical reduction of NOx at the cathode yields nitrogen gas and oxide ions. The nitrogen continues to flow through the cell while the oxide ions dissolve in the solid electrolyte. At the anodic zone, oxide ions are converted to oxygen gas. The pressure drop across the cell was experimentally measured to insure that the back pressure created by the cell does not create a significant reduction in the efficiency of the engine.
Technical Paper

Determination of Heavy-Duty Vehicle Energy Consumption by a Chassis Dynamometer

1992-11-01
922435
The federal emission standards for heavy duty vehicle engines require the exhaust emissions to be measured and calculated in unit form as grams per break horse-power-hour (g/bhp-hr). Correct emission results not only depend on the precise emission measurement but also rely on the correct determination of vehicle energy consumption. A Transportable Heavy-Duty Vehicle Emission Testing Laboratory (THDVETL) designed and constructed at West Virginia University provides accurate vehicle emissions measurements in grams over a test cycle. This paper contributes a method for measuring the energy consumption (bhp-hr) over the test cycle by a chassis dynamometer. Comparisons of analytical and experimental results show that an acceptable agreement is reached and that the THDVETL provides accurate responses as the vehicle is operated under transient loads and speeds. This testing laboratory will have particular value in comparing the behavior of vehicles operating on alternative fuels.
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