Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Search Results

Technical Paper

The Development of a Fourth Generation Hybrid Electric Vehicle at West Virginia University

2001-03-05
2001-01-0682
As a part of the FutureTruck 2000 advanced technology student vehicle competition sponsored by the US Department of Energy and General Motors, West Virginia University has converted a full-size sport utility vehicle into a high fuel efficiency, low emissions vehicle. The environmental impact of the Chevrolet Suburban SUV, in terms of both greenhouse gas emissions and exhaust emissions, was reduced through hybridization without losing any of the functionality and utility of the base vehicle. The approach taken was one of using a high efficiency, state-of-the-art direct injection, turbocharged diesel engine coupled to a high output electric traction motor for power assist and to recover regenerative braking energy. The vehicle employs a state-of-the-art combination lean NOx catalyst, oxidation catalyst and particulate filter to ensure low exhaust emissions.
Technical Paper

Emissions from Trucks and Buses Powered by Cummins L-10 Natural Gas Engines

1998-05-04
981393
Both field research and certification data show that the lean burn natural gas powered spark ignition engines offer particulate matter (PM) reduction with respect to equivalent diesel power plants. Concerns over PM inventory make these engines attractive despite the loss of fuel economy associated with throttled operation. Early versions of the Cummins L-10 natural gas engines employed a mixer to establish air/fuel ratio. Emissions measurements by the West Virginia University Transportable Heavy Duty Emissions Testing Laboratories on Cummins L-10 powered transit buses revealed the potential to offer low emissions of PM and oxides of nitrogen, (NOx) but variations in the mixture could cause emissions of NOx, carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons to rise. This was readily corrected through mixer repair or readjustment. Newer versions of the L-10 engine employ a more sophisticated fueling scheme with feedback control from a wide range oxygen sensor.
Technical Paper

Continuously Varying Exhaust Outlet Diameter to Improve Efficiency and Emissions of a Small SI Natural Gas Two-Stroke Engine by Internal EGR

2018-04-03
2018-01-0985
With continuously increasing concern for the emissions from two-stroke engines including regulated hydrocarbon (HC) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions, non-road engines are implementing proven technologies from the on-road market. For example, four stroke diesel generators now include additional internal exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) via an intake/exhaust valve passage. EGR can offer benefits of reduced HC, NOx, and may even improve combustion stability and fuel efficiency. In addition, there is particular interest in use of natural gas as fuel for home power generation. This paper examines exhaust throttling applied to the Helmholtz resonator of a two-stroke, port injected, natural gas engine. The 34 cc engine was air cooled and operated at wide-open throttle (WOT) conditions at an engine speed of 5400 RPM with fueling adjusted to achieve maximum brake torque. Exhaust throttling served as a method to decrease the effective diameter of the outlet of the convergent cone.
Technical Paper

and Repeatability of Transient Heat Release Analysis for Heavy Duty Diesel Engines

2009-04-20
2009-01-1125
Reduced emissions, improved fuel economy, and improved performance are a priority for manufacturers of internal combustion engines. However, these three goals are normally interrelated and difficult to optimize simultaneously. Studying the experimental heat release provides a useful tool for combustion optimization. Heavy-duty diesel engines are inherently transient, even during steady state operation engine controls can vary due to exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) or aftertreatment requirements. This paper examines the heat release and the derived combustion characteristics during steady state and transient operation for a 1992 DDC series 60 engine and a 2004 Cummins ISM 370 engine. In-cylinder pressure was collected during repeat steady state SET and the heavy-duty transient FTP test cycles.
Technical Paper

PM Concentration and Size Distributions from a Heavy-duty Diesel Engine Programmed with Different Engine-out Calibrations to Meet the 2010 Emission Limits

2009-04-20
2009-01-1183
The temporary deactivation of the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) device due to malfunction requires the engine control to engage multiple engine-out calibrations. Further, it is expected that emitted particles will be different in composition, size and morphology when an engine, which meets the 2010 particulate matter (PM) gravimetric limits, is programmed with multiple maps. This study investigated the correlation between SCR-out/engine-out PM emissions from an 11-liter Volvo engine. Measurement of PM concentrations and size distributions were conducted under steady state and transient cycles. Ion Chromatograph analysis on gravimetric filters at the SCR-out has revealed the presence of sulfates. Two different PM size-distributions were generated over a single engine test mode in the accumulation mode region with the aid of a design of experiment (DOE) tool. The SCR-out PM size distributions were found to correlate with the two engine-out distributions.
Technical Paper

Emissions of NOx, NH3 and Fuel Consumption Using High and Low Engine-Out NOx Calibrations to Meet 2010 Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Emission Standards

2009-04-20
2009-01-0909
For engine operations involving low load conditions for an extended amount of time, the exhaust temperature may be lower than that necessary to initiate the urea hydrolyzation. This would necessitate that the controller interrupt the urea supply to prevent catalyst fouling by products of ammonia decomposition. Therefore, it is necessary for the engine controller to have multiple calibrations available in regions of engine operation where the aftertreatment does not perform well, so that optimal exhaust conditions are guaranteed during the wide variety of engine operations. In this study the test engine was equipped with a catalyzed diesel particulate filter (DPF) and a selective catalytic reduction system (SCR), and programmed with two different engine calibrations, namely the low-NOx and the low fuel consumption (low-FC).
Technical Paper

Nano Particulate Matter Evolution in a CFR1065 Dilution Tunnel

2009-11-02
2009-01-2672
Dual primary full-flow dilution tunnels represent an integral part of a heavy-duty transportable emissions measurement laboratory designed and constructed to comply with US Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 40 Part 1065 requirements. Few data exist to characterize the evolution of particulate matter (PM) in full scale dilution tunnels, particularly at very low PM mass levels. Size distributions of ultra-fine particles in diesel exhaust from a naturally aspirated, 2.4 liter, 40 kW ISUZU C240 diesel engine equipped with a diesel particulate filter (DPF) were studied in one set of standard primary and secondary dilution tunnels with varied dilution ratios. Particle size distribution data, during steady-state engine operation, were collected using a Cambustion DMS500 Fast Particulate Spectrometer. Measurements were made at four positions that spanned the tunnel cross section after the mixing orifice plate for the primary dilution tunnel and at the outlet of the secondary dilution tunnel.
Technical Paper

Application of Two Fuel Cells in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

2008-10-06
2008-01-2418
Fuel economy is an important issue in urban driving cycle where vehicles are required to operate most of the time at lower power than the average demand. High power fuel cells operate economically at higher loads. Hence, conventional combination of a high power fuel cell and an additional storage device such as ultracapacitor or battery units does not necessarily provide an economic configuration. This paper offers a new configuration that consists of two fuel cells combined with a battery unit to provide a fuel efficient source of power for hybrid electric fuel cell vehicles in urban driving applications. The control algorithm and power management strategy for a combination of two downsized fuel cells and a storage device is provided and its performance of operation is compared with traditional topologies.
Technical Paper

Fresh and Aged SCRT Systems Retrofitted on a MY 1998 Class-8 Tractor: Investigation on In-use Emissions

2011-09-11
2011-24-0175
In order to comply with stringent 2010 US-Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on-road, Heavy-Duty Diesel (HDD) emissions regulations, the Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) aftertreatment system has been judged by a multitude of engine manufacturers as the primary technology for mitigating emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx). As virtually stand-alone aftertreatment systems, SCR technology further represents a very flexible and efficient solution for retrofitting legacy diesel engines as the most straightforward means of cost-effective compliance attainment. However, the addition of a reducing agent injection system as well as the inherent operation limitations of the SCR system due to required catalyst bed temperatures introduce new, unique problems, most notably that of ammonia (NH₃) slip.
Technical Paper

ExhAUST: DPF Model for Real-Time Applications

2011-09-11
2011-24-0183
Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs) are well assessed exhaust aftertreatment devices currently equipping almost every modern diesel engine to comply with the most stringent emission standards. However, an accurate estimation of soot content (loading) is critical to managing the regeneration of DPFs in order to attain optimal behavior of the whole engine-after-treatment assembly, and minimize fuel consumption. Real-time models can be used to address challenges posed by advanced control systems, such as the integration of the DPF with the engine or other critical aftertreatment components or to develop model-based OBD sensors. One of the major hurdles in such applications is the accurate estimation of engine Particulate Matter (PM) emissions as a function of time. Such data would be required as input data for any kind of accurate models. The most accurate way consists of employing soot sensors to gather the real transient soot emissions signal, which will serve as an input to the model.
Technical Paper

Advanced Modeling of Diesel Particulate Filters to Predict Soot Accumulation and Pressure Drop

2011-09-11
2011-24-0187
Diesel particulate filters (DPFs) are recognized as the most efficient technology for particulate matter (PM) reduction, with filtration efficiencies in excess of 90%. Design guidelines for DPFs typically are: high removal efficiency, low pressure drop, high durability and capacity to resist high temperature excursions during regeneration events. The collected mass inside the trap needs to be periodically oxidized to regenerate the DPF. Thus, an in-depth understanding of filtration and regeneration mechanisms, together with the ability of predicting actual DPF conditions, could play a key role in optimizing the duration and number of regeneration events in case of active DPFs. Thus, the correct estimation of soot loading during operation is imperative for effectively controlling the whole engine-DPF assembly and simultaneously avoidingany system failure due to a malfunctioning DPF. A viable way to solve this problem is to use DPF models.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Lightweighting Design Alternatives for Automotive Components

2011-09-13
2011-01-2287
Gasoline-powered vehicles compose the vast majority of all light-duty vehicles in the United States. Improving fuel economy is currently a topic of great interest due to the rapid rise in gasoline costs as well as new fuel-economy and greenhouse-gas emissions standards. The Chevrolet Silverado is currently one of the top selling trucks in the U.S. and has been previously modeled using the commercial finite element code LS-DYNA by the National Crash Analysis Center (NCAC). This state-of the art model was employed to examine alternative weight saving configurations using material alternatives and replacement of traditional steel with composite panels. Detailed mass distribution analysis demonstrated the chassis assembly to be an ideal candidate for weight reduction and was redesigned using Aluminum 7075-T6 Alloy and Magnesium Alloy HM41A-F.
Technical Paper

E-KERS Energy Management Crucial to Improved Fuel Economy

2016-09-18
2016-01-1947
The operation of a conventional passenger car is characterised by increasing or maintaining the kinetic energy, when accelerating or cruising the vehicle, and reducing the kinetic energy by using the brakes. While the energy taken by the friction brakes to slow the vehicle is dissipated into heat, the introduction of Kinetic Energy Recovery Systems (KERS) has permitted the recovery of part of the braking energy. This reduces the amount of energy needed from the internal combustion engine (ICE). The contribution reviews the latest developments in electric KERS (E-KERS), with emphasis to round trip efficiency wheels to wheels and electrification of the powertrain. The contribution considers the opportunity to connect the E-KERS traction battery to other electric machines, such as an electrically assisted turbocharger (E-TC) connected to a motor/generator unit, or an electric water pump (EWP), to further optimise the vehicle operation.
Technical Paper

The Influence of High Reactivity Fuel Properties on Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition Combustion

2017-09-04
2017-24-0080
Reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) is a form of dual-fuel combustion that exploits the reactivity difference between two fuels to control combustion phasing. This combustion approach limits the formation of oxides of nitrogen (NOX) and soot while retaining high thermal efficiency. The research presented herein was performed to determine the influences that high reactivity (diesel) fuel properties have on RCCI combustion characteristics, exhaust emissions, fuel efficiency, and the operable load range. A 4-cylinder, 1.9 liter, light-duty compression-ignition (CI) engine was converted to run on diesel fuel (high reactivity fuel) and compressed natural gas (CNG) (low reactivity fuel). The engine was operated at 2100 revolutions per minute (RPM), and at two different loads, 3.6 bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) and 6 bar BMEP.
Technical Paper

The Optimization of MOP Control Strategy for a Range-Extended Electric Vehicle Based on GA

2017-10-08
2017-01-2464
The range-extended electric vehicle (REEV) is a complex nonlinear system powered by internal combustion engine and electricity stored in battery. This research proposed a Multiple Operation Points (MOP) control strategy of REVV based on operation features of REEV and the universal characteristic curve of the engine. The switching logic rules of MOP strategy are designed for the desired transition of the operation mode, which makes the engine running at high efficiency region. A Genetic algorithm (GA) is adapted to search the optimal solution. The fuel consumption is defined as the target cost function. The demand power of engine is defined as optimal variable. The state of charge (SOC) and vehicle speed are selected as the state variables. The dynamic performance of vehicle and cycling life of battery is set as the constraints. The optimal switching parameters are obtained based on this control strategy. Finally, a dynamic simulation model of REEV is developed in Matlab/Simulink.
Technical Paper

Final Operability and Chassis Emissions Results from a Fleet of Class 6 Trucks Operating on Gas-to-Liquid Fuel and Catalyzed Diesel Particle Filters

2005-10-24
2005-01-3769
Six 2001 International Class 6 trucks participated in a project to determine the impact of gas-to-liquid (GTL) fuel and catalyzed diesel particle filters (DPFs) on emissions and operations from December 2003 through August 2004. The vehicles operated in Southern California and were nominally identical. Three vehicles operated “as-is” on California Air Resources Board (CARB) specification diesel fuel and no emission control devices. Three vehicles were retrofit with Johnson Matthey CCRT® (Catalyzed Continuously Regenerating Technology) filters and fueled with Shell GTL Fuel. Two rounds of emissions tests were conducted on a chassis dynamometer over the City Suburban Heavy Vehicle Route (CSHVR) and the New York City Bus (NYCB) cycle. The CARB-fueled vehicles served as the baseline, while the GTL-fueled vehicles were tested with and without the CCRT filters. Results from the first round of testing have been reported previously (see 2004-01-2959).
Technical Paper

Celebrating the Exclaim!

2003-03-03
2003-01-1260
West Virginia University redesigned a 2002 Ford Explorer and created a diesel electric hybrid vehicle to satisfy the goals of the 2002 FutureTruck competition. These goals were to demonstrate a 25% improvement in fuel economy, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, to achieve California ULEV emissions, to demonstrate 1/8-mile acceleration of 11.5 seconds or less, and to maintain vehicular comforts and performance. West Virginia University's 2002 hybrid sport utility vehicle (SUV), the Exclaim!, meets or exceeds these goals. Using a post-transmission parallel configuration, WVU integrated a 2.5L Detroit Diesel Corporation engine along with a Unique Mobility 75kW electric motor to replace the stock drivetrain. With an emphasis on maintaining performance, WVU strived to improve areas where SUVs have traditionally performed poorly: fuel economy and emissions. Using regenerative braking, fuel economy has been significantly improved.
Technical Paper

Chassis Dynamometer Emission Measurements from Refuse Trucks Using Dual-Fuel™ Natural Gas Engines

2003-11-10
2003-01-3366
Emissions from 10 refuse trucks equipped with Caterpillar C-10 engines were measured on West Virginia University's (WVU) Transportable Emissions Laboratory in Riverside, California. The engines all used a commercially available Dual-Fuel™ natural gas (DFNG) system supplied by Clean Air Partners Inc. (CAP), and some were also equipped with catalyzed particulate filters (CPFs), also from CAP. The DFNG system introduces natural gas with the intake air and then ignites the gas with a small injection of diesel fuel directly into the cylinder to initiate combustion. Emissions were measured over a modified version of a test cycle (the William H. Martin cycle) previously developed by WVU. The cycle attempts to duplicate a typical curbside refuse collection truck and includes three modes: highway-to-landfill delivery, curbside collection, and compaction. Emissions were compared to similar trucks that used Caterpillar C-10 diesels equipped with Engelhard's DPX catalyzed particulate filters.
Technical Paper

Technological Evaluation of Fuel Efficiency Improvement Concepts to Meet Future Regulatory Requirements in the North American Market

2002-10-21
2002-01-2809
As fuel economy and emissions regulations increase in stringence, automakers face ever increasing difficulty in meeting government imposed standards. In this paper a study of fuel economy improving techniques used to meet these regulations, notably Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE), and the upper limit on the effectiveness of these techniques is presented. The effects of external vehicle improvements, such as lightweighting, rolling resistance and aerodynamic improvements were investigated to illustrate the limitations of these methods to dramatically improve overall vehicle efficiency. Engine efficiency improvements, including the effects of compression ignition (unthrottled) versus spark ignition (throttled) engine types were examined. Other engine efficiency areas that were investigated were the implementation of cylinder deactivation and gasoline direct injection engines.
Technical Paper

An Emission and Performance Comparison of the Natural Gas Cummins Westport Inc. C-Gas Plus Versus Diesel in Heavy-Duty Trucks

2002-10-21
2002-01-2737
Cummins Westport Inc. (CWI) released for production the latest version of its C8.3G natural gas engine, the C Gas Plus, in July 2001. This engine has increased ratings for horsepower and torque, a full-authority engine controller, wide tolerance to natural gas fuel (the minimum methane number is 65), and improved diagnostics capability. The C Gas Plus also meets the California Air Resources Board optional low-NOx (2.0 g/bhp-h) emission standard for automotive and urban buses. Two pre-production C Gas Plus engines were operated in a Viking Freight fleet for 12 months as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuels Utilization Program. In-use exhaust emissions, fuel economy, and fuel cost were collected and compared with similar 1997 Cummins C8.3 diesel tractors. CWI and the West Virginia University developed an ad-hoc test cycle to simulate the Viking Freight fleet duty cycle from in-service data collected with data loggers.
X