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Technical Paper

Low Temperature Combustion with Thermo-Chemical Recuperation

The key to overcoming Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) load range limitations is based on suitable control over the thermo-chemical properties of the in-cylinder charge. The proposed alternative to achieve the required control of LTC is the use of two separate fuel streams to regulate timing and heat release at specific operational points, where the secondary fuel, with different autoignition characteristics, is a reformed product of the primary fuel in the tank. It is proposed in this paper that the secondary fuel is produced using Thermo-Chemical Recuperation (TCR) with steam/fuel reforming. The steam/fuel mixture is heated by sensible heat from the engine exhaust gases in the recuperative reformer, where the original hydrocarbon reacts with water to form a hydrogen rich gas mixture. An equilibrium model developed by Gas Technology Institute (GTI) for n-heptane steam reforming was applied to estimate reformed fuel composition at different reforming temperatures.
Technical Paper

Emission Reductions and Operational Experiences With Heavy Duty Diesel Fleet Vehicles Retrofitted with Continuously Regenerated Diesel Particulate Filters in Southern California

Particulate emission control from diesel engines is one of the major concerns in the urban areas in California. Recently, regulations have been proposed for stringent PM emission requirements from both existing and new diesel engines. As a result, particulate emission control from urban diesel engines using advanced particulate filter technology is being evaluated at several locations in California. Although ceramic based particle filters are well known for high PM reductions, the lack of effective and durable regeneration system has limited their applications. The continuously regenerated diesel particulate filter (CRDPF) technology discussed in this presentation, solves this problem by catalytically oxidizing NO present in the diesel exhaust to NO2 which is utilized to continuously combust the engine soot under the typical diesel engine operating condition.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Error Analysis Investigation into Dilution Factor Equations

As emission regulations become increasingly strict, the need for more accurate sampling systems becomes essential. When calculating emissions from a dilution system, a correction is made to remove the effects of contaminants in the dilution air. The dilution air correction was explored to determine why this correction is needed, when this correction is important, and what methods are available for calculating the dilution factor (DF). An experimental and error analysis investigation into the standard and recently proposed methods for calculating the DF was conducted. Five steady state modes were run on a 1992 Detroit Diesel engine series 60 and the DF from eleven different equations were investigated. The effects of an inaccurate dilution air correction on calculated fuel flow from a carbon balance and the mass emissions was analyzed. The dilution air correction was shown to be important only for hydrocarbons, particulate matter (PM), and CO2.
Technical Paper

An Investigation into the Emissions Reduction Performance of an SCR System Over Two Years' In-Use Heavy-Duty Vehicle Operation

Increasingly stringent oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) regulations worldwide have prompted considerable activity in developing emission control technology to reduce the emissions of these two constituents from heavy-duty diesel engines. NOx has come under particular scrutiny by regulators in the US and in Europe with the promulgation of very stringent regulation by both the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the European Union (EU). In response, heavy-duty engine manufacturers are considering Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) as a potential NOx reduction option. While SCR performance has been well established through engine dynamometer evaluation under laboratory conditions, there exists little data characterizing SCR performance under real-world operating conditions over time. This project evaluated the field performance of ten SCR units installed on heavy-duty Class 8 highway and refuse trucks.
Technical Paper

Emissions from a Legacy Diesel Engine Exercised through the ACES Engine Test Schedule

Most transient heavy duty diesel emissions data in the USA have been acquired using the Federal Test Procedure (FTP), a heavy-duty diesel engine transient test schedule described in the US Code of Federal Regulations. The FTP includes both urban and freeway operation and does not provide data separated by driving mode (such as rural, urban, freeway). Recently, a four-mode engine test schedule was created for use in the Advanced Collaborative Emission Study (ACES), and was demonstrated on a 2004 engine equipped with cooled Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR). In the present work, the authors examined emissions using these ACES modes (Creep, Cruise, Transient and High-speed Cruise) and the FTP from a Detroit Diesel Corporation (DDC) Series 60 1992 12.7 liter pre-EGR engine. The engine emissions were measured using full exhaust dilution, continuous measurement of gaseous species, and filter-based Particulate Matter (PM) measurement.
Technical Paper

An Emission and Performance Comparison of the Natural Gas Cummins Westport Inc. C-Gas Plus Versus Diesel in Heavy-Duty Trucks

Cummins Westport Inc. (CWI) released for production the latest version of its C8.3G natural gas engine, the C Gas Plus, in July 2001. This engine has increased ratings for horsepower and torque, a full-authority engine controller, wide tolerance to natural gas fuel (the minimum methane number is 65), and improved diagnostics capability. The C Gas Plus also meets the California Air Resources Board optional low-NOx (2.0 g/bhp-h) emission standard for automotive and urban buses. Two pre-production C Gas Plus engines were operated in a Viking Freight fleet for 12 months as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuels Utilization Program. In-use exhaust emissions, fuel economy, and fuel cost were collected and compared with similar 1997 Cummins C8.3 diesel tractors. CWI and the West Virginia University developed an ad-hoc test cycle to simulate the Viking Freight fleet duty cycle from in-service data collected with data loggers.
Technical Paper

Quantification of Energy Pathways and Gas Exchange of a Small Port Injection SI Two-Stroke Natural Gas Engine Operating on Different Exhaust Configurations

This paper examines the energy pathways of a 29cc air-cooled two-stroke engine operating on natural gas with different exhaust geometries. The engine was operated at wide-open-throttle at a constant speed of 5400 RPM with ignition adjusted to yield maximum brake torque while the fueling was adjusted to examine both rich and lean combustion. The exhaust configurations examined included an off-the-shelf (OTS) model and two other custom models designed on Helmholtz resonance theory. The custom designs included both single and multi-cone features. Out of the three exhaust systems tested, the model with maximum trapping efficiency showed a higher overall efficiency due to lower fuel short-circuiting and heat transfer. The heat transfer rate was shown to be 10% lower on the new designs relative to OTS model.
Technical Paper

Continuously Varying Exhaust Outlet Diameter to Improve Efficiency and Emissions of a Small SI Natural Gas Two-Stroke Engine by Internal EGR

With continuously increasing concern for the emissions from two-stroke engines including regulated hydrocarbon (HC) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions, non-road engines are implementing proven technologies from the on-road market. For example, four stroke diesel generators now include additional internal exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) via an intake/exhaust valve passage. EGR can offer benefits of reduced HC, NOx, and may even improve combustion stability and fuel efficiency. In addition, there is particular interest in use of natural gas as fuel for home power generation. This paper examines exhaust throttling applied to the Helmholtz resonator of a two-stroke, port injected, natural gas engine. The 34 cc engine was air cooled and operated at wide-open throttle (WOT) conditions at an engine speed of 5400 RPM with fueling adjusted to achieve maximum brake torque. Exhaust throttling served as a method to decrease the effective diameter of the outlet of the convergent cone.
Technical Paper

Quantification of Windage and Vibrational Losses in Flexure Springs of a One kW Two-Stroke Free Piston Linear Engine Alternator

Methods to quantify the energy losses within linear motion devices that included flexural springs as the main suspension component were investigated. The methods were applied to a two-stroke free-piston linear engine alternator (LEA) as a case study that incorporated flexure springs to add stiffness to the mass-spring system. Use of flexure springs is an enabling mechanism for improving the efficiency and lifespan in linear applications e.g. linear engines and generators, cryocoolers, and linear Stirling engines. The energy loss due to vibrations and windage effects of flexure springs in a free piston LEA was investigated to quantify possible energy losses. A transient finite element solver was used to determine the effects of higher modes of vibration frequencies of the flexure arms at an operational frequency of 65 Hz. Also, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solver was used to determine the effects of drag force on the moving surfaces of flexures at high frequencies.
Technical Paper

Diesel and CNG Transit Bus Emissions Characterization by Two Chassis Dynamometer Laboratories: Results and Issues

Emissions of six 32 passenger transit buses were characterized using one of the West Virginia University (WVU) Transportable Heavy Duty Emissions Testing Laboratories, and the fixed base chassis dynamometer at the Colorado Institute for Fuels and High Altitude Engine Research (CIFER). Three of the buses were powered with 1997 ISB 5.9 liter Cummins diesel engines, and three were powered with the 1997 5.9 liter Cummins natural gas (NG) counterpart. The NG engines were LEV certified. Objectives were to contrast the emissions performance of the diesel and NG units, and to compare results from the two laboratories. Both laboratories found that oxides of nitrogen and particulate matter (PM) emissions were substantially lower for the natural gas buses than for the diesel buses. It was observed that by varying the rapidity of pedal movement during accelerations in the Central Business District cycle (CBD), CO and PM emissions from the diesel buses could be varied by a factor of three or more.
Technical Paper

Potential Applications of the Stiller-Smith Mechanism in internal Combustion Engine Designs

With few exceptions most internal combustion engines use a slider-crank mechanism to convert reciprocating piston motion into a usable rotational output. One such exception is the Stiller-Smith Mechanism which utilizes a kinematic inversion of a Scotch yoke called an elliptic trammel. The device uses rigid connecting rods and a floating/eccentric gear train for motion conversion and force transmission. The mechanism exhibits advantages over the slider-crank for application in internal combustion engines in areas such as balancing, size, thermal efficiency, and low heat rejection. An overview of potential advantages of an engine utilizing the Stiller-Smith Mechanism is presented.
Technical Paper

On-Road Use of Fischer-Tropsch Diesel Blends

Alternative compression ignition engine fuels are of interest both to reduce emissions and to reduce U.S. petroleum fuel demand. A Malaysian Fischer-Tropsch gas-to-liquid fuel was compared with California #2 diesel by characterizing emissions from over the road Class 8 tractors with Caterpillar 3176 engines, using a chassis dynamometer and full scale dilution tunnel. The 5-Mile route was employed as the test schedule, with a test weight of 42,000 lb. Levels of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) were reduced by an average of 12% and particulate matter (PM) by 25% for the Fischer-Tropsch fuel over the California diesel fuel. Another distillate fuel produced catalytically from Fischer-Tropsch products originally derived from natural gas by Mossgas was also compared with 49-state #2 diesel by characterizing emissions from Detroit Diesel 6V-92 powered transit buses, three of them equipped with catalytic converters and rebuilt engines, and three without.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of the Heat Release Rate in a Sinusoidal Spark Ignition Engine

Compression and power stroke cycles for a 4 stroke cycle spark ignition engine modified by extending the connecting rod to simulate purely sinusoidal piston motion are analyzed over a range of operating speeds and are compared with those of a similar conventional engine. Heat release rate is estimated for both engines using a simple Wiebe function with the functional parameters found via a simplex curve fitting method used in conjunction with experimental pressure curves. It is shown that the functional parameters which represent the combustion and the duration of fuel burn are slightly larger over the range of operation in the sinusoidal engine while the shape factor remains largely the same. However, the pressure-crank angle curves are sufficiently similar such that conventional slider-crank curves can be used to model sinusoidal engines, which was the motivation behind this research.
Journal Article

Summary of In-use NOx Emissions from Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

As part of the 1998 Consent Decrees concerning alternative ignition strategies between the six settling heavy-duty diesel engine manufacturers and the United States government, the engine manufacturers agreed to perform in-use emissions measurements of their engines. As part of the Consent Decrees, pre- (Phase III, pre-2000 engines) and post- (Phase IV, 2001 to 2003 engines) Consent Decree engines used in over-the-road vehicles were tested to examine the emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and carbon dioxide (CO2). A summary of the emissions of NOx and CO2 and fuel consumption from the Phase III and Phase IV engines are presented for 30 second “Not-to-Exceed” (NTE) window brake-specific values. There were approximately 700 Phase III tests and 850 Phase IV tests evaluated in this study, incorporating over 170 different heavy duty diesel engines spanning 1994 to 2003 model years. Test vehicles were operated over city, suburban, and highway routes.
Technical Paper

Examination of a Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck Chassis Dynamometer Schedule

Repeatable measurement of real-world heavy-duty diesel truck emissions requires the use of a chassis dynamometer with a test schedule that reasonably represents actual truck use. A new Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck (HHDDT) schedule has been created that consists of four modes, termed Idle, Creep, Transient and Cruise. The effect of driving style on emissions from the Transient Mode was studied by driving a 400 hp Mack tractor at 56,000 lbs. test weight in fashions termed “Medium”, “Good”, “Bad”, “Casual” and “Aggressive”. Although there were noticeable differences in the actual speed vs. time trace for these five styles, emissions of the important species oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM), varied little with a coefficient of variation (COV) of 5.13% on NOX and 10.68% on PM. Typical NOx values for the HHDDT Transient mode ranged from 19.9 g/mile to 22.75 g/mile. The Transient mode which was the most difficult mode to drive, proved to be repeatable.
Journal Article

Diesel Exhaust Aftertreatment with Scrubber Process: NOx Destruction

Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions, produced by engines that burn fuels with atmospheric air, are known to cause negative health and environmental effects. Increasingly stringent emissions regulations for marine engines have caused newer engines to be developed with inherent NOx reduction technologies. Older marine engines typically have a useful life of over 20 years and produce a disproportionate amount of NOx emissions when compared with their newer counterparts. Wet scrubbing as an aftertreatment method for emissions reduction was applied to ocean-going marine vessels for the reduction of sulfur oxides (SOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions. The gaseous absorption process was explored in the laboratory as an option for reducing NOx emissions from older diesel engines of harbor craft operating in ports of Houston and Galveston. A scrubber system was designed, constructed, and evaluated to provide the basis for a real-world design.
Journal Article

Fundamental Analysis of Spring-Varied, Free Piston, Otto Engine Device

Conventional crank-based engines are limited by mechanical, thermal, and combustion inefficiencies. The free piston of a linear engine generator reduces frictional losses by avoiding the rotational motion and crankshaft linkages. Instead, electrical power is generated by the oscillation of a translator through a linear stator. Because the free piston is not geometrically constrained, dead center positions are not specifically known. This results in a struggle against adverse events like misfire, stall, over-fueling, or rapid load changes. It is the belief that incorporating springs will have the dual benefit of increasing frequency and providing a restoring force to aid in greater cycle to cycle stability. For dual free piston linear engines the addition of springs has not been fully explored, despite growing interest and literature.
Technical Paper

Nano Particulate Matter Evolution in a CFR1065 Dilution Tunnel

Dual primary full-flow dilution tunnels represent an integral part of a heavy-duty transportable emissions measurement laboratory designed and constructed to comply with US Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 40 Part 1065 requirements. Few data exist to characterize the evolution of particulate matter (PM) in full scale dilution tunnels, particularly at very low PM mass levels. Size distributions of ultra-fine particles in diesel exhaust from a naturally aspirated, 2.4 liter, 40 kW ISUZU C240 diesel engine equipped with a diesel particulate filter (DPF) were studied in one set of standard primary and secondary dilution tunnels with varied dilution ratios. Particle size distribution data, during steady-state engine operation, were collected using a Cambustion DMS500 Fast Particulate Spectrometer. Measurements were made at four positions that spanned the tunnel cross section after the mixing orifice plate for the primary dilution tunnel and at the outlet of the secondary dilution tunnel.
Technical Paper

Celebrating the Exclaim!

West Virginia University redesigned a 2002 Ford Explorer and created a diesel electric hybrid vehicle to satisfy the goals of the 2002 FutureTruck competition. These goals were to demonstrate a 25% improvement in fuel economy, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, to achieve California ULEV emissions, to demonstrate 1/8-mile acceleration of 11.5 seconds or less, and to maintain vehicular comforts and performance. West Virginia University's 2002 hybrid sport utility vehicle (SUV), the Exclaim!, meets or exceeds these goals. Using a post-transmission parallel configuration, WVU integrated a 2.5L Detroit Diesel Corporation engine along with a Unique Mobility 75kW electric motor to replace the stock drivetrain. With an emphasis on maintaining performance, WVU strived to improve areas where SUVs have traditionally performed poorly: fuel economy and emissions. Using regenerative braking, fuel economy has been significantly improved.
Technical Paper

Inference of Torque and Power from Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines for On-Road Emissions Monitoring

Increased concerns about the emissions produced from mobile sources have placed an emphasis on the in-use monitoring of on- and off-road vehicles. Measuring the emissions emitted from an in-use vehicle during its operation provides for a rich dataset that is generally too expensive and too time consuming to reproduce in a laboratory setting. Many portable systems have been developed and implemented in the past to acquire in-use emissions data for spark ignited and compression ignited engines. However, the majority of these systems only measured the concentration levels of the exhaust constituents and or reported the results in time-specific (g/s) and or distance-specific (g/km) mass units through knowledge of the exhaust flow. For heavy-duty engines, it is desirable to report the in-use emission levels in brake-specific mass units (g/kW-hr) since that is how the emission levels are reported from engine dynamometer certification testing.