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Technical Paper

Energy Dissipation and Recovery of Vehicle Shock Absorbers

This paper presented a brief derivation of the energy dissipation by vehicle shock absorbers. Analysis between energy dissipation and damping coefficient, the road displacement power spectral density, the vehicle speed and the tire stiffness was carried out. Then an energy recovery scheme was put forward, and the bench test proved that the energy harvest scheme is feasible. In the end, this paper provided detailed derivation of the characteristics of the hydraulic electromagnetic energy-regenerative shock absorber, which increases its feasibility and practicability.
Technical Paper

Application of Wavelet Analysis in Truck Cab Vibration Signal Processing

The basic principle of wavelet transform is presented and the method of wavelet theory is used in vibration signal analysis of vehicle in this paper. The vibration signals which generated in the locations such as cab floor, engine, transmission, band spring and frame under the usual work condition are measured by the vibration test system. The vibration signals are decomposed with the principle of wavelet decomposition at level six, and eigenvectors of signal energy are gained. According to the correlation coefficient of eigenvectors of signal energy distribution, two signals correlativity is determined. It could be an effective method that identificate the main vibration source.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Braking System Calculation and Simulation Software Platform

The brake performance is one of the most important performances in the automotive active safety, and it is the main measure of automotive active safety. Thus, to develop a platform for the braking system is quite significant. Based on the object-oriented technology, the platform for braking system is developed by making use of Visual C++ 6.0 development tool. By using the VC++ development tool and doing secondary development on other softwares, the software possesses powerful features, such as brake plan selection, performance calculation, parametric modeling, finite element analysis and kinematics simulation, etc. An initial brake system can be designed, calculated and analyzed all in one. The living instance shows that the platform has friendly user interfaces, powerful functions and it can improve the precision and efficiency of brake design. The platform has been of great applied value and can also positively promote the design automation of vehicle's braking system.
Technical Paper

The Combined Braking Energy Management Strategy to Maximize Energy Recovery

Eddy current retarder (ECR) shares a large market of auxiliary brakes in China, but shortcomings of the short continuous braking time and the high additional energy consumption are also obvious. The propose of combined braking partakes the braking torque of ECR. However, the existed serial-parallel braking strategy could hardly balance well the relationship between the braking stability and the energy recovery efficiency. This research puts forward an energy management strategy of combined braking system which aims to maximize energy recovery while ensure the brake stability. The motor speed, the braking request and the state of charge (SoC) of the storage module are analyzed synthetically to calculate the reasonable braking torque distribution proportion. And the recovered energy is priority for using in the braking unit to reduce the additional energy consumption in this strategy.
Technical Paper

Effect of Circumferential Magnetic Field on Braking Performance of a Direct Vane Magnetorheological Fluid Retarder

The hydraulic retarder used in commercial vehicles can provide hydraulic damping to generate braking torque, reducing the pressure of the braking system on the slope section and increasing the safety. In this paper, the magnetorheological fluid with fast magnetic field reflection characteristics is used to increase the response speed of the hydraulic retarder, which can effectively reduce the response time of the hydraulic retarder. In this paper, the influence of the change of circumferential magnetic field on the braking torque of the magnetorheological fluid retarder is studied.
Technical Paper

Modeling, Simulation and Experimental Analysis of Brake Pedal Feel for Passenger Car

Brake pedal feel plays an important role in the driver's comprehensive subjective feeling when braking, which directly affects the active safety and riding comfort of passenger car. A systematical mathematical model of the vehicle brake system is built in according with the structure and system characteristics of hydraulic servo brake system. A complete hydraulic servo brake system simulation model composed of brake pedal, vacuum booster, brake master cylinder, brake pipe, brake wheel cylinders, brake calipers is established in AMESim. The effects of rubber reaction plate stiffness, rubber valve opening, brake master cylinder piston, brake caliper, brake pipe deformation and friction liner deformation on brake pedal feel are considered in this model. The accuracy of this model is verified by real road vehicle tests under static and dynamic two different conditions.
Technical Paper

Development of Parametrically Integrated Software Platform for Passenger Car Brake System

The hydraulic servo brake system for passenger car plays a central role in occupant protection, which directly affects the automotive active safety and road handling. In this paper, an integrated parameterized software platform of hydraulic servo brake systems is proposed to realize fast and efficient braking system development. At first, according to the structure and working principle of the hydraulic servo brake system, the relationship among amount of fluid required for brake caliper, pedal feel and performance of the brake system is analyzed. Then, based on kinematics and dynamics of the hydraulic servo brake system, a simulation model for analyze pedal feel and amount of fluid required for brake caliper is built in AMESim, which is composed of brake pedal, vacuum booster, brake master cylinder, brake hoses and brake calipers, etc.
Technical Paper

Robust Model Predictive Control for Path Tracking of Autonomous Vehicle

Path tracking is one of the critical technologies in the autonomous vehicle. Its performance may be seriously affected by disturbance resulting from unpredictable environment like changes in road friction coefficient and parameter uncertainty such as cornering stiffness and mass caused by errors of measurement. Besides, since the vehicle system consisting of many systems is an extremely complex nonlinear system, it is almost impossible for us to establish a precise model of a vehicle especially when it is moving. These inevitable factors influence the control accuracy and even threaten the stability and safety of the vehicle system. This paper proposed a promising solution to this problem, robust MPC (Model Predictive Control) combined with the optimal preview controller for path tracking problems of an autonomous vehicle. The state space model in tracking error variables of a passenger vehicle used for path tracking application is established.
Technical Paper

Fuzzy Control of Semi-active Air Suspension for Cab Based on Genetic Algorithms

Semi-active suspension has been widely applied in commercial vehicle suspension in order to get good riding comfortableness. Fuzzy logic control (FLC) has been widely applied in the field of kinetic control because control rule of FLC is easy to understand. But the gain of fuzzy rules and adjustment of membership functions usually depend on experts' experiences and repeated experiments, thus the fuzzy rules and membership functions has strong subjectivity, also are easily affected by environment of experiments, so the main problem of fuzzy logic controller design is selection and optimization of fuzzy rules and membership functions. Genetic Algorithms (GA) is the algorithm that searches the optimal solution through simulating natural evolutionary process and is one of the evolution algorithms which have most extensive impact.
Technical Paper

Co-simulation Based Hydraulic Retarder Braking Control System

Hydraulic retarder has been widely applied on military vehicles and heavy commercial vehicles because of it could provide great brake torque and has lasting working time [1]. In order to reduce driver's frequent actions in braking process and prevent hydraulic retarder system from overheating, it is need to apply constant braking torque control, this control target has a strict requirement to hydraulic control system design. Many parameters often require repeated test to determine, which increases the R&D cost and extends the research cycle. This paper tries to find a time-efficient research method of hydraulic retarder control system through studying on a heavy military vehicle hydraulic retarder system. Hydraulic retarder model is set up through test data. The hydraulic control system is built based on AMESim. Controller model is set up based on PID control. The whole vehicle brake model is built based on MATLAB/Simulink.
Technical Paper

The Shock Absorber of Energy Recovery Using Electrorheological Fluid

When vehicle traveling on the bumpy road or vehicle acceleration and deceleration, which will cause the body vibration of vehicle, at the same time, a large part of energy would be absorbed by the shock absorber transforms the mechanical energy into heat energy dissipated. In order to recycle the energy of vibration and keep the stability of running car, this paper provides the shock absorber of energy recovery that recycling the energy dissipated from the traditional absorber. The shock absorber includes rod and rodless chamber cavity, the two parts contain oil outlet and oil inlet, which connected to a bridge type loop of hydraulic to make pulsating oil pressure towards one direction, when the shock absorber vibration causes pulsating oil pressure, it drives hydraulic pump operation. Because the output shaft of the hydraulic pump fixedly attached to the input shaft of generator, so the generator produces electricity for recycling energy[1].
Technical Paper

Differential Speed Steering Control for Four-Wheel Distributed Electric Vehicle

In order to perform differential control instead of the mechanical differential and improve the steering performance of distributed electric vehicles, a two-level differential speed steering control strategy is proposed. Firstly, an upper-layer controller to track the yaw rate is designed based on PID feedback and 3-D lookup table model, which could shorten the response time and reduce the impact of model parameters mismatch. Then, in order to improve the robustness to external disturbances and parameter uncertainties, a lower-layer controller to track the wheel speed is proposed based on integral sliding mode control. Moreover, three simulations are conducted to validate the proposed strategy. The first simulation results indicate that the driving torques of the inner and outer wheels are distributed properly to avoid wheel slip. In the second simulation, when the conventional steering system fails, the proposed control strategy could avoid vehicle losing steering function.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Modeling and State Estimation for Multi-In-Wheel-Motor-Driven Intelligent Vehicle

Dynamic modeling and state estimation are significant in the trajectory tracking and stability control of the intelligent vehicle. In order to meet the requirement of the stability control of the eight-in-wheel-motor-driven intelligent vehicle, a full vehicle dynamics model with 12 degrees of freedom, including the longitudinal, lateral, yaw and roll motion of the body, and rotational motion of 8 wheels, is established for the research of the intelligent vehicle in this paper. By simulation with MATLAB/SIMULINK and by comparison with the TruckSim software, the reliability and practicality of the dynamics model are verified. Based on the established dynamics model, an extended Kalman filter (EKF) state observer is proposed to estimate the vehicle sideslip angle, roll angle and yaw rate, which are the key parameters to the stability control of the intelligent vehicle.
Technical Paper

Relationship between Braking Force and Pedal Force of a Pedal Controlled Parallelized Energy-Recuperation Retarder System

Focusing the vehicle riding safety and global environmental problems, plenty of solutions on vehicle braking systems appeals during the recent period. Criteria and standards set up for commercial vehicles which should have equipped assisted braking systems were established by amounts of governments. Since eddy current retarders plays an important role in the area of assisted braking system, this article presents an energy-recuperation retarder, which is parallel connected with the driveline through a planet gear system. This paper offers a particular Energy-Recuperation Eddy Current Retarder (ERECR) system with a pedal control system and its characteristics is presented, either. Initially, the constitution of the energy-recuperation eddy current retarder system is established whereas the working principle of the energy-recuperation eddy current retarder is presented by modeling the system and simulation.
Technical Paper

Simulation based Evaluation of the Electro-Hydraulic Energy-Harvesting Suspension (EHEHS) for Off-Highway Vehicles

Nowadays, off-highway vehicles enjoyed a significant status in the national defense and civil construction. There is no doubt that the working conditions of off-highways are quite different from the conventional passenger cars, hence, their suspensions are particularly designed. Since the hydro-pneumatic suspension technology is maturely applied in engineering machinery, this paper presents a concept for a novel energy-harvesting device, which is applied in off-highway vehicles based on hydro-pneumatic suspension, namely, electro-hydraulic energy-harvesting suspension (EHEHS). The EHEHS took the fundamental of mechanism-electronic-hydraulic system, which consisted the following elements: a cylinder, 2 check valves, a hydro-pneumatic spring, a hydraulic motor, a DC motor, a processing circuit and a battery. In the EHEHS system, the cylinder is used to transmit the vibration energy into hydraulic energy, which is stored in hydro-pneumatic spring.
Technical Paper

The Research of the Adaptive Front Lighting System Based on GIS and GPS

Automotive Front Lighting System(AFS) can receive the steering signal and the vehicular speed signal to adjust the position of headlamps automatically. AFS will provide drivers more information of front road to protect drivers safe when driving at night. AFS works when there is a steering signal input. However, drivers often need the front road's information before they turn the steering wheel when vehicles are going to go through a sharp corner, AFS will not work in such a situation. This paper studied how to optimize the working time of AFS based on GIS (Geographic Information System) and GPS(Geographic Information System) to solve the problem. This paper analyzed the process of the vehicle is about to go through a corner. Low beams and high beams were discussed respectively.
Technical Paper

Study on the Effects of Magnetic Field on Magnetorheological Fluid Hydraulic Retarder Braking Torque

In order to ensure driving safety, heavy vehicles are often equipped with hydraulic retarder, which provides sustained, stable braking torque and converts the vehicle kinetic energy into heat taken away by the cooling system when traveling on a long downhill. The conventional hydraulic retarder braking torque is modulated by adjusting the liquid filling rate, which leads to slow response and difficult control. In this paper, a new kind of magnetorheological (MR) fluid hydraulic retarder is designed by replacing the traditional transmission oil with MR fluid and arranging the excitation coils outside the working chamber. The braking torque can be controlled by the fluid viscosity of MR fluid with the variation of magnetic field. Compared with the traditional hydraulic retarder, the system has the advantages of fast response, easy control and high adjustment sensitivity.
Technical Paper

Research and Simulation of Electro-Hydraulic Braking System Based on Integrated Master Cylinder

Analogous to a vacuum boosted system, Electro-Hydraulic Braking System (EHB) is free from engine vacuum and supplies a braking force proportional to driver input. The independence of engine vacuum makes it especially suitable to be used in electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). As a key component of EHB, master cylinder is driven by the pump rather than the vacuum booster. Even if the pump fails, the cylinder can also build proper pressure. Meanwhile, in order to maintain the pedal feeling, a pedal stroke simulator is applied in the system. In this paper, aiming at decreasing the size and cost of master cylinder and providing an ideal pedal feeling without compromise of performance, a new integrated master cylinder of EHB system is designed including two parts: master cylinder and pedal stroke simulator. The key components of the integrated master cylinder are motor pump, solenoid valves and composite springs.
Technical Paper

Simulation Research of a Hydraulic Interconnected Suspension Based on a Hydraulic Energy Regenerative Shock Absorber

The current paper proposes a hydraulic interconnected suspension system (HIS) based on a hydraulic energy-regenerative shock absorber (HESA) comparatively with the passive suspensions. The structure and working principles of the HIS system are introduced in order to investigate the damping performance and energy regeneration characteristics of the proposed system. Then, the dynamic characteristics of the HIS-HESA system have been investigated based on a 4-DOF longitudinal half vehicle model. In the simulation, two different road inputs were used in the dynamic characterization of the HIS-HESA; the warp sinusoidal excitation, and the random road signal. In addition, a comparative analysis was provided for the dynamic responses of the half vehicle model for both the HIS-HESA and the conventional suspension. Furthermore, a parametric analysis of the HIS-HESA has been carried out highlining the key parameters that have a remarkable effect on the HIS-HESA performance.
Technical Paper

The Research on Electrical Parking Brake System based on Frictional Model

The control forms of the vehicle have transformed from hydraulic or mechanical control to electrical control owing to the increasing demand of automotive safety and soaring development of electronic technology. Compared with the traditional mechanical parking brake system, the electrical control of brake named Electrical Parking Brake (EPB) System presents a variety of advantages. What's more, it shares common actuators and realizes the communication between electrical control systems to advance the vehicle industry to intellectualization. With such superiority, the EPB System has aroused much interest. But the difficulty in building the simulation model lies in the description of friction in screw-nut system of which the nonlinear component causes the hysteresis. However, almost all models found in the literature before are the static friction model with the limit of description of dynamic features like pre-sliding frictional features and parameters variation.