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Technical Paper

Vehicle Braking System Calculation and Simulation Software Platform

The brake performance is one of the most important performances in the automotive active safety, and it is the main measure of automotive active safety. Thus, to develop a platform for the braking system is quite significant. Based on the object-oriented technology, the platform for braking system is developed by making use of Visual C++ 6.0 development tool. By using the VC++ development tool and doing secondary development on other softwares, the software possesses powerful features, such as brake plan selection, performance calculation, parametric modeling, finite element analysis and kinematics simulation, etc. An initial brake system can be designed, calculated and analyzed all in one. The living instance shows that the platform has friendly user interfaces, powerful functions and it can improve the precision and efficiency of brake design. The platform has been of great applied value and can also positively promote the design automation of vehicle's braking system.
Technical Paper

The Combined Braking Energy Management Strategy to Maximize Energy Recovery

Eddy current retarder (ECR) shares a large market of auxiliary brakes in China, but shortcomings of the short continuous braking time and the high additional energy consumption are also obvious. The propose of combined braking partakes the braking torque of ECR. However, the existed serial-parallel braking strategy could hardly balance well the relationship between the braking stability and the energy recovery efficiency. This research puts forward an energy management strategy of combined braking system which aims to maximize energy recovery while ensure the brake stability. The motor speed, the braking request and the state of charge (SoC) of the storage module are analyzed synthetically to calculate the reasonable braking torque distribution proportion. And the recovered energy is priority for using in the braking unit to reduce the additional energy consumption in this strategy.
Technical Paper

Study on the Thermal-Magnetic Coupling Characteristics of Integrated Eddy Current Retarder

As an auxiliary braking device of heavy-duty vehicle, eddy current retarder can reduce the brake failure due to the high temperature of the main brake. Nevertheless, the eddy current retarder will generate high temperature locally during the working process of it, leading to the decline of the brake power. The study on the heating characteristics of eddy current retarder is advantageous to the layout and parameter design of the liquid cooling channel of the retarder body and prolong the effective time of the auxiliary brake. In this research, a new kind of integrated eddy current retarder has been established. The thermal-magnetic coupling characteristics are studied and the laws of variation in torque output of auxiliary brake affected by the body temperature of retarder are analyzed. The boundary conditions are provided for the construction of the cooling channel. Firstly, the distribution of magnetic field and the characteristics of eddy current are simulated.
Technical Paper

Driving Fatigue Detection based on Blink Frequency and Eyes Movement

The development of the vehicle quantity and the transportation system accompanies the rise of traffic accidents. Statistics shows that nearly 35-45% traffic accidents are due to drivers’ fatigue. If the driver’s fatigue status could be judged in advance and reminded accurately, the driving safety could be further improved. In this research, the blink frequency and eyes movement information are monitored and the statistical method was used to assess the status of the driving fatigue. The main tasks include locating the edge of the human eyes, obtaining the distance between the upper and lower eyelids for calculating the frequency of the driver's blink. The velocity and position of eyes movement are calculated by detecting the pupils’ movement. The normal eyes movement model is established and the corresponding database is updated constantly by monitoring the driver blink frequency and eyes movement during a certain period of time.
Technical Paper

Pavement Characteristic Judgment Method Based on Vehicle Speed Change

The road feature has an important influence on the safe speed of the unmanned vehicle and the safe space between two vehicles. Real-time access to the features of the road ahead of time and timely adjustment of engine torque are significant to unmanned driving. Most of the researches nowadays make full use of vehicle sensor technology and environment perception technology. Vehicle sensor is widely used to collect the features of the road. While in this paper, a new type of road feature extraction is proposed based on vehicle speed change. Under the premise of less sensor installed, vehicle speed-time data series is collected. The pavement parameters can be estimated with vehicle speed. Based on the vehicle dynamics, this paper studies the relationship between vehicle speed and rolling resistance. Different road features have different influences on road friction resistance.
Technical Paper

Study about the Simulation of Vehicle-Pedestrian Collision and Protection

Based on the multi-body system, the work research the injury index of the mathematics models of pedestrian, by simulating the motion of the pedestrian impacted by vehicle using MADYMO. Compared with the article published, verify the dependability of this simulated test. Based on the dependability, Carry on sensitivity analysis to design parameter of the automobile. Research on the pedestrian protection by the vehicle by revising the sensitive design parameter. By simulating the pedestrian impacted by the vehicle which installing the hood raise structure, search on the injury index. Compared with the original injury index, we can find that the hood raise structure be propitious to the pedestrian.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Simulation Research of Dual Clutch Transmission Based On Fuzzy Control

Dual-Clutch-Transmission (DCT) is one kind new automatic transmission which has double clutch structure. The most important unit of DCT is Transmission-Control-Module (TCM).In the development process of TCM, simulation is an important research tools. We have analyzed the DCT principle of work, established its mathematical model, created the charge and discharge oil models of typical wet dual clutch transmission, established the control logic to unify and separate double clutch in turn, and also designed out the shift control using fuzzy control using MATLAB/Simulink software. Utilizing engine model, driver model, the DCT model, the TCM model, the vehicle model, established the vehicle simulation model, and implemented simulation; Result indicated that, the established model can correctly reflect the torque and speed change when shifted gears and can correctly realize the automatic shift gears.
Technical Paper

Analysis and Evaluation of the Urban Bus Driving Cycle on Fuel Economy

On-road testing of driving performance of the urban bus was carried out, and a representative urban bus driving cycle was developed after on-road testing, according to the test results. Then, the vehicle simulation software AVL CRUISE was used to simulate the dynamic behavior of the urban bus. It involves the simulation of complete drive train system and the driver behavior. The model is validated by comparing the results of the simulation to the results of the field test. Then the developed driving cycle is evaluated by fuel consumption resulted from the simulation and engine bench test on fuel economy.
Technical Paper

Fuzzy Control of Semi-active Air Suspension for Cab Based on Genetic Algorithms

Semi-active suspension has been widely applied in commercial vehicle suspension in order to get good riding comfortableness. Fuzzy logic control (FLC) has been widely applied in the field of kinetic control because control rule of FLC is easy to understand. But the gain of fuzzy rules and adjustment of membership functions usually depend on experts' experiences and repeated experiments, thus the fuzzy rules and membership functions has strong subjectivity, also are easily affected by environment of experiments, so the main problem of fuzzy logic controller design is selection and optimization of fuzzy rules and membership functions. Genetic Algorithms (GA) is the algorithm that searches the optimal solution through simulating natural evolutionary process and is one of the evolution algorithms which have most extensive impact.
Technical Paper

The Research on the Temperature Control Stability of Hydraulic Retarder Oil Based on Organic Rankine Cycle

The hydraulic retarder is an auxiliary braking device generally equipped on commercial vehicles. Its oil temperature change influences the brake performance of hydraulic retarder. The Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) is a good means to recover exhausted heat. Moreover, it can cool oil and stably control oil temperature with the help of heat absorption related with evaporation. Comprehensively considering the heat-producing characteristics of hydraulic retarder and the temperature control demand, the aimed boundary conditions are determined. Also the changing rules about the working medium flow rate are obtained. In this work, the heat-producing properties of hydraulic retarder under different conditions and the oil external circulating performance is firstly analyzed. By researching the system’s adaptation to the limiting conditions, the aimed temperature to control is prescribed.
Technical Paper

Color Variable Speed Limit Sign Visibility for the Freeway Exit Driving Safety

Typical vehicle speed deceleration occurs at the freeway exit due to the driving direction change. Well conducting the driver to control the velocity could enhance the vehicle maneuverability and give drivers more response time when running into potential dangerous conditions. The freeway exit speed limit sign (ESLS) is an effect way to remind the driver to slow down the vehicle. The ESLS visibility is significant to guarantee the driving safety. This research focuses on the color variable ESLS system, which is placed at the same location with the traditional speed limit sign. With this system, the driver could receive the updated speed limit recommendation in advance and without distraction produced by eyes contract change over the dashboard and the front sight. First, the mathematical model of the drivetrain and the engine brake is built for typical motor vehicles. The vehicle braking characteristics with various initial speeds in the deceleration area are studied.
Technical Paper

Safe Travelling Speed of Commercial Vehicles on Curves Based on Vehicle-Road Collaboration

Mountain road winding and bumpy, traffic accidents caused by speeding frequently happened, mainly concentrated on curves. The present curve warning system research are based on Charge-coupled Device, but the existing obstacles, weather , driving at night and road conditions directly affect the accuracy and applicability. The research is of predictability to identify the curves based on the geographic information and can told the driver road information and safety speed ahead of the road according to the commercial vehicle characteristic of load, and the characteristics of the mass center to reduce the incidence of accidents. In this paper, the main research contents include: to estimate forward bend curvature through the node classification method based on the digital map.
Technical Paper

Strength Analysis and Modal Analysis of Hydraulic Retarder

Hydraulic retarder is one of main auxiliary braking devices of the vehicle. When the vehicle is braking, a great pressure from high-speed fluid is received by hydraulic retarder blades. It is difficult to predict rational hydraulic retarder strength, owing to the complexity of the internal flow of oil. An optimal calculation way of hydraulic retarder strength is proposed based on CFD and FEA, concluding a reasonable result. The 3-D model of hydraulic retarder is built in the general CAD software. The model of fluid passage is extracted, according to the condition when the whole flow passage is filled with oil, and imported to CFD software. The inner flow field of hydraulic retarder is analyzed and the hydraulic surface pressure distribution of the hydraulic retarder blade is obtained at the highest rotary speed of turbine wheel.
Technical Paper

The Driving Behavior Data Acquisition and Identification Based on Vehicle Bus

This research is based on the Controller Area Network (CAN) bus, and briefly analyzed its communication protocol with reference to the layered model of Open System Interconnect Reference Model (OSI). Subsequently, a data acquisition system was designed and developed including a Vehicle Communication Interface (VCI) and a laptop. After the overall architecture was built, the communication mechanism of the VCI was studied. Furthermore, the lap top app was built using the layered design followed by the implementation of a scheme for data collection and experimentation involving the test driving of a real car on road. Finally, the driving style was identified by means of fuzzy reasoning and solving ambiguity based on fuzzy theory; via training the acceleration sample and forecast using the excellent learning and generalization ability of Support Vector Machine (SVM) for high-dimensional, finite samples.
Technical Paper

The Performance Study of Air-Friction Reduction System for Hydraulic Retarder

The hydraulic retarder, which is an auxiliary brake device for enhancing traffic safety, has been widely used in kinds of heavy commercial vehicles. When the vehicle equipped with the retarder is traveling in non-braking state, the transmission loss would be caused because of the stirring air between working wheels of the rotor and the stator no matter if the retarder connects in parallel or in series with the transmission [1]. This paper introduces an elaborate hydraulic retarder air-friction reduction system (AFRS) which consists of a vacuum generating module and pneumatic control module. AFRS works to reduce the air friction by decreasing the gas density between working wheels when the retarder is in non-braking state. The pneumatic control model of hydraulic retarder is built first. Then various driving conditions are considered to verify the performance of the AFRS. The stability of the AFRS is analyzed based on the complete driveline model.
Technical Paper

Research on Torsional Characteristic of Separate Frame Construction for a Light Off-Road Vehicle

A key problem of designing a light off-road vehicle with separate frame construction is to improve its torsional characteristic, which has a significant influence on the performance of the vehicle. Inevitably, a certain distortion of the body would be produced by the vibration and impact passing from the road. In present research, an analysis model of light off-road vehicle is established based on the theories and methods of finite element (FEM). The static stiffness of the body is simulated and the deformation of openings on the body, mainly the windows and the doors of the vehicle is studied. On the working conditions of torsion and braking combination, torsion and cornering combination, diagonal dangling, ultimate torsion of unilateral wheels and diagonal wheels, the static strength of separate frame construction is studied as well. The stress concentration regions are obtained according to the results of simulation.
Journal Article

A Novel Indirect Health Indicator Extraction Based on Charging Data for Lithium-Ion Batteries Remaining Useful Life Prognostics

In order to solve the environmental pollution and energy crisis, Electric Vehicles (EVs) have been developed rapidly. Lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery is the key power supply equipment for EVs, and the scientific and accurate prediction of its Remaining Useful Life (RUL) has become a hot topic in the field of new energy research. The internal resistance and capacity are often used to characterize the Li-ion battery State of Health (SOH) from which RUL is obtained. However, in practical applications, it is difficult to obtain internal resistance and capacity information by using the non-intrusive measurement method. Therefore, it is necessary to extract the measurable parameters to characterize the degradation of Li-ion battery. At present, the methods of extracting health indicators based on measurable parameters have gained preliminary results, but most of them are derived from the Li-ion battery discharging data.
Journal Article

Research on Driving Posture Comfort Based on Relation between Drivers' Joint Angles and Joint Torques

Driving comfort is one of the most important indexes for automobile comfort. Driving posture comfort is closely related to the drivers' joint angles and joint torques. In present research, a new method is proposed to identify the most comfortable driving posture based on studying the relation between drivers' joint angles and joint torques. In order to truly reflect a driving situation, the accurate human driving model of 50 percent of the size of Chinese male is established according to the human body database of RAMSIS firstly. Biomechanical model based on accurate human driving model is also developed to analyze and obtain dynamic equations of human driving model by employing Kane method. The joint torque-angle curves of drivers' upper and lower limbs during holding wheel or pedal operation can be obtained through dynamic simulation in the MATLAB. Through curve-fitting analysis, the minimum joint torque of a driver' limb and the optimal joint angel can be found.
Journal Article

Cracking Failure Analysis and Optimization on Exhaust Manifold of Engine with CFD-FEA Coupling

For fracture cracks that occurred in the tight coupling exhaust manifold durability test of a four-cylinder gasoline engine with EGR channel, causes and solutions for fracture failure were found with the help of CFD and FEA numerical simulations. Wall temperature and heat transfer coefficient of the exhaust manifold inside wall were first accurately obtained through the thermal-fluid coupling analysis, then thermal modal and thermoplastic analysis were acquired by using the finite element method, on account of the bolt pretightening force and the contact relationship between flange face and cylinder head. Results showed that the first-order natural frequency did not meet the design requirements, which was the main reason of fatigue fracture. However, when the first-order natural frequency was rising, the delta equivalent plastic strain was increasing quickly as well.
Journal Article

Study on the Unsteady Heat Transfer of Engine Exhaust Manifold Based on the Analysis Method of Serial

In order to predict the thermal fatigue life of the internal combustion engine exhaust manifold effectively, it was necessary to accurately obtain the unsteady heat transfer process between hot streams and exhaust manifold all the time. This paper began with the establishment of unsteady coupled heat transfer model by using serial coupling method of CFD and FEA numerical simulations, then the bidirectional thermal coupling analysis between fluid and structure was realized, as a result, the difficulty that the transient thermal boundary conditions were applied to the solid boundary was solved. What's more, the specific coupling mode, the physical quantities delivery method on the coupling interface and the surface mesh match were studied. On this basis, the differences between strong coupling method and portioned treatment for solving steady thermal stress numerical analysis were compared, and a more convenient and rapid method for solving static thermal stress was found.