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Technical Paper

Vehicle Braking System Calculation and Simulation Software Platform

2012-09-24
2012-01-1895
The brake performance is one of the most important performances in the automotive active safety, and it is the main measure of automotive active safety. Thus, to develop a platform for the braking system is quite significant. Based on the object-oriented technology, the platform for braking system is developed by making use of Visual C++ 6.0 development tool. By using the VC++ development tool and doing secondary development on other softwares, the software possesses powerful features, such as brake plan selection, performance calculation, parametric modeling, finite element analysis and kinematics simulation, etc. An initial brake system can be designed, calculated and analyzed all in one. The living instance shows that the platform has friendly user interfaces, powerful functions and it can improve the precision and efficiency of brake design. The platform has been of great applied value and can also positively promote the design automation of vehicle's braking system.
Technical Paper

A Modeling Study of the Effects of Butanol Addition on Aromatic Species in Premixed Butane Flames

2016-04-05
2016-01-0574
The motivation of the present work was to understand the mechanism by which alcohols produce less aromatic species in their combustion process than an equal amount of hydrocarbon with similar molecular structure does. Due to its numerous advantages over short-chain alcohols, butanol has been considered very promising in soot reduction. Excluding the influence of spray, vaporization and mixing process in engine cases, an adiabatic constant-pressure reactor model was applied to investigate the effect of butanol additives on aromatic species, which are known to be soot precursors, in fuel-rich butane flames. To keep the carbon flux constant, 5% and 10% oxygen by mass of the fuel were added to butane using butanol additive, respectively. Based on the soot reduction effects proposed in literature, effects on temperature, key radical concentrations and the carbon removal from the pathway to aromatic species were considered to identify the major mechanism of reduction in aromatic species.
Technical Paper

The Research of Solar Organic Rankine Evaporation Cycle System for Vehicle

2016-04-05
2016-01-1268
With the help of organic working medium absorbing the solar energy for steam electric power generation, green energy can be provided to automotive accessories so as to improve the vehicle energy efficiency. In the hot summer, the exhausted heat resulting from cars’ directly exposing to the sun can be used to cool and ventilate the passenger compartment. Considering the space occupied by the system in the combination of both practical features for solar heat source--low power and poor stability-- a compact evaporation structure was designed to enhance the solar utilization efficiency. In the research, the heat source of power and temperature variation range was determined by the available solar roof with photo-thermal conversion model. Then started from the ratio of exhausted heat utilization corresponding to evaporator’s characteristic parameter, the performance analysis was made in the different working conditions.
Technical Paper

Driving Fatigue Detection based on Blink Frequency and Eyes Movement

2017-03-28
2017-01-1443
The development of the vehicle quantity and the transportation system accompanies the rise of traffic accidents. Statistics shows that nearly 35-45% traffic accidents are due to drivers’ fatigue. If the driver’s fatigue status could be judged in advance and reminded accurately, the driving safety could be further improved. In this research, the blink frequency and eyes movement information are monitored and the statistical method was used to assess the status of the driving fatigue. The main tasks include locating the edge of the human eyes, obtaining the distance between the upper and lower eyelids for calculating the frequency of the driver's blink. The velocity and position of eyes movement are calculated by detecting the pupils’ movement. The normal eyes movement model is established and the corresponding database is updated constantly by monitoring the driver blink frequency and eyes movement during a certain period of time.
Technical Paper

Pavement Characteristic Judgment Method Based on Vehicle Speed Change

2018-04-03
2018-01-1088
The road feature has an important influence on the safe speed of the unmanned vehicle and the safe space between two vehicles. Real-time access to the features of the road ahead of time and timely adjustment of engine torque are significant to unmanned driving. Most of the researches nowadays make full use of vehicle sensor technology and environment perception technology. Vehicle sensor is widely used to collect the features of the road. While in this paper, a new type of road feature extraction is proposed based on vehicle speed change. Under the premise of less sensor installed, vehicle speed-time data series is collected. The pavement parameters can be estimated with vehicle speed. Based on the vehicle dynamics, this paper studies the relationship between vehicle speed and rolling resistance. Different road features have different influences on road friction resistance.
Technical Paper

Passenger Cabin’s Parking Cooling System Based on TEC and Air Conditioning Condensate Water

2019-04-02
2019-01-1066
In the passenger cabin of the parking under the summer sun, the air’s average temperature will reach about 60°C. Such temperature can cause discomfort to the person who has just entered the passenger cabin, also can damage components of the passenger cabin. The reason for this phenomenon is because it is not convective with the outside air. Some vehicles use the electric power to drive the blower in order to ventilate, but the air’s temperature of cabin is so high that the blower’s effect of ventilation is limited. The system proposes to use solar energy to drive the automobile blower and the thermoelectric cooler(TEC) in order to cool the cabin’s air, and use the air-conditioning condensate water collected during the driving process to cool the TEC’s hot end to improve the cooling efficiency.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Simulation Research of Dual Clutch Transmission Based On Fuzzy Control

2007-08-05
2007-01-3754
Dual-Clutch-Transmission (DCT) is one kind new automatic transmission which has double clutch structure. The most important unit of DCT is Transmission-Control-Module (TCM).In the development process of TCM, simulation is an important research tools. We have analyzed the DCT principle of work, established its mathematical model, created the charge and discharge oil models of typical wet dual clutch transmission, established the control logic to unify and separate double clutch in turn, and also designed out the shift control using fuzzy control using MATLAB/Simulink software. Utilizing engine model, driver model, the DCT model, the TCM model, the vehicle model, established the vehicle simulation model, and implemented simulation; Result indicated that, the established model can correctly reflect the torque and speed change when shifted gears and can correctly realize the automatic shift gears.
Technical Paper

Analysis and Evaluation of the Urban Bus Driving Cycle on Fuel Economy

2007-07-23
2007-01-2073
On-road testing of driving performance of the urban bus was carried out, and a representative urban bus driving cycle was developed after on-road testing, according to the test results. Then, the vehicle simulation software AVL CRUISE was used to simulate the dynamic behavior of the urban bus. It involves the simulation of complete drive train system and the driver behavior. The model is validated by comparing the results of the simulation to the results of the field test. Then the developed driving cycle is evaluated by fuel consumption resulted from the simulation and engine bench test on fuel economy.
Technical Paper

The Application of the PUREM SCR System on YC6L350-40 HD Diesel Engine

2007-07-23
2007-01-1935
In order to meet the Euro IV HD diesel engine emission standard legislation limits, an efficient SCR system is adopted for PM optimized YC6L350-40 HD diesel engine serving in China. This paper presents tests made on the engine. The engine had base NOx emission of 8.8g/kwh over the ESC and 8.7g/kwh over the ETC. Outfitted with a 24.7 liter 300cpsi SCR catalyst, the engine NOx emission dropped to 3.2g/kwh over the ESC and 3.5g/kwh over the ETC.
Technical Paper

Intelligent Control of Metal-belt CVT Based on Fuzzy Logic

2009-04-20
2009-01-1535
Operating level of a metal-belt CVT mainly rest with the ECU. Conventional control strategies which were obtained from tests or PID controller can not correspond to the driver’s intention or provide various driving environments. It is considered that control targets of metal-belt CVT could be distinguished by a speed ratio, line pressure and starting element till now. Running performance of automobile with a CVT mainly depends on the speed ratio control. An adapted fuzzy logic ratio control algorithm is suggested and optimized. A throttle position and its changing rate will be inputs of the FLC to meet the driver’s intention and make the intelligent control come true. A fuzzy logic line pressure control algorithm is also suggested and optimized corresponding to the complicated high line pressure control.
Technical Paper

Strength Analysis and Structural Optimization of Lever of Air Disc Brake

2014-09-28
2014-01-2507
Air disc brake (ADB) is the execution unit of automobile brake, which plays a vital role in traffic safety. Lever is a very important driving as well as stress part of ADB. However, seldom periodical or thesis has given specifications about the lever. In this paper, working principle of the lever is illustrated in detail. Finite element analysis (FEA) of the lever is conducted and some structural problems of the lever are found out. Finally, for the condition that the lever doesn't meet the strength requirement, topography optimization is introduced to improve the shape of lever. Simulation results show that the strength of the lever improved obviously with the optimization, and analysis method as well as optimization method in this paper is feasible.
Technical Paper

The Application of Superelement Modeling Method in Vehicle Body Dynamics Simulation

2016-09-27
2016-01-8050
In this paper, we propose a method of dynamics simulation and analysis based on superelement modeling to increase the efficiency of dynamics simulation for vehicle body structure. Using this method, a certain multi-purpose vehicle (MPV) body structure was divided into several subsystems, and the modal parameters and frequency response functions of which were obtained through superelement condensation, residual structure solution, and superelement data restoration. The study shows that compared to the traditional modeling method, the computational time for vehicle body modal analysis can be reduced by 6.9% without reducing accuracy; for the purpose of structural optimization, the computational time can be reduced by 87.7% for frequency response analyses of optimizations; consistency between simulation and testing can be achieved on peak frequency points and general trends for the vibration frequency responses of interior front row floors under accelerating conditions.
Technical Paper

Fuzzy Control of Semi-active Air Suspension for Cab Based on Genetic Algorithms

2008-10-07
2008-01-2681
Semi-active suspension has been widely applied in commercial vehicle suspension in order to get good riding comfortableness. Fuzzy logic control (FLC) has been widely applied in the field of kinetic control because control rule of FLC is easy to understand. But the gain of fuzzy rules and adjustment of membership functions usually depend on experts' experiences and repeated experiments, thus the fuzzy rules and membership functions has strong subjectivity, also are easily affected by environment of experiments, so the main problem of fuzzy logic controller design is selection and optimization of fuzzy rules and membership functions. Genetic Algorithms (GA) is the algorithm that searches the optimal solution through simulating natural evolutionary process and is one of the evolution algorithms which have most extensive impact.
Technical Paper

Strength Analysis and Modal Analysis of Hydraulic Retarder

2009-10-06
2009-01-2896
Hydraulic retarder is one of main auxiliary braking devices of the vehicle. When the vehicle is braking, a great pressure from high-speed fluid is received by hydraulic retarder blades. It is difficult to predict rational hydraulic retarder strength, owing to the complexity of the internal flow of oil. An optimal calculation way of hydraulic retarder strength is proposed based on CFD and FEA, concluding a reasonable result. The 3-D model of hydraulic retarder is built in the general CAD software. The model of fluid passage is extracted, according to the condition when the whole flow passage is filled with oil, and imported to CFD software. The inner flow field of hydraulic retarder is analyzed and the hydraulic surface pressure distribution of the hydraulic retarder blade is obtained at the highest rotary speed of turbine wheel.
Technical Paper

Electro-Hydraulic Integrated Circuits (EHIC) an Introduction

1993-09-01
932400
This paper introduces two new types of basic components (an Electro-Hydraulic Tube and a Hydraulic Tube) which when connected in an appropriate manner can control flow and pressure for many applications; in addition, one of the devices is readily interfacable to a microprocessor for external control. Some background information about the basic concept and the operation of the two components is introduced. Some of the experimental characteristics will be illustrated and several basic circuit examples will be presented to show how the concept can be implemented. The Electro-Hydraulic Integrated Block (EHIB) and Circuit (EHIC) will be introduced followed by a discussion of the advantages and potential of the EHIC concept.
Technical Paper

An Integrated Flow Divider/Combiner Valve Design, Part 1

1992-09-01
921741
A flow divider valve is a device which allows a single stream of fluid to be split into two paths according to a predetermined ratio and independent of variations or differences in the load pressures. A flow combiner valve combines two paths of fluid into one stream such that the ratio of the flow rates coming into the valve remains independent of any variation or difference between the inlet pressures. This paper describes the design, operation and performance of an integrated flow divider/combiner valve. This design maintains the small flow dividing/combining error of high precision valves (less than 1.5% at rated flow) but incorporates the shuttle valve into the main spool system. This new design reduces the weight of the valve by 20% reducing the cost by approximately 10%. The new structure simplifies the construction of high precision valves and reduces a source of flow dividing/combining error (leakage).
Technical Paper

The Driving Behavior Data Acquisition and Identification Based on Vehicle Bus

2016-09-14
2016-01-1888
This research is based on the Controller Area Network (CAN) bus, and briefly analyzed its communication protocol with reference to the layered model of Open System Interconnect Reference Model (OSI). Subsequently, a data acquisition system was designed and developed including a Vehicle Communication Interface (VCI) and a laptop. After the overall architecture was built, the communication mechanism of the VCI was studied. Furthermore, the lap top app was built using the layered design followed by the implementation of a scheme for data collection and experimentation involving the test driving of a real car on road. Finally, the driving style was identified by means of fuzzy reasoning and solving ambiguity based on fuzzy theory; via training the acceleration sample and forecast using the excellent learning and generalization ability of Support Vector Machine (SVM) for high-dimensional, finite samples.
Technical Paper

Multidisciplinary Design Optimization of BEV Body Structure

2015-01-14
2015-26-0229
Blade Electric Vehicle (BEV) with a light body plays an important role in saving the energy and reducing the exhaust emission. However, reducing the body weight need to meet the heterogeneous attributes such as structural, safety and NVH (Noise, Vibration and Harshness) performance. With the rapid development of finite element (FE) analysis technology, simulation analysis is widely used for researching the complex engineering design problem. Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO) of a BEV body is a challenging but meaningful task in the automotive lightweight. In present research, the MDO is introduced to optimize a BEV Body-in-White (BIW).
Technical Paper

Study on Diesel-LPG Dual Fuel Engines

2001-09-24
2001-01-3679
A new type of dual fuel supply system has been developed. This system is able to economically convert conventional diesel engines into dual-fuel engines like LPG/Diesel engines and CNG/Diesel engines, which are capable of either using single diesel fuel or using dual-fuel including both diesel and CNG fuel or both diesel and LPG fuel. These diesel-LPG engines have been applied to the diesel buses in the public transportation of Guangzhou city, one of the biggest cities in China, owning to their low soot emissions, excellent operating performances and extremely low cost as well. Compared with the diesel baseline engine, it was found that there were a significant reduction in soot emission and an improvement of the fuel consumption with the diesel-LPG engine. Also the strategy on LPG content is discussed in order to meet the demands for soot emission, fuel economy, transient performance and output power at the same time.
Technical Paper

The Performance Study of Air-Friction Reduction System for Hydraulic Retarder

2014-09-30
2014-01-2283
The hydraulic retarder, which is an auxiliary brake device for enhancing traffic safety, has been widely used in kinds of heavy commercial vehicles. When the vehicle equipped with the retarder is traveling in non-braking state, the transmission loss would be caused because of the stirring air between working wheels of the rotor and the stator no matter if the retarder connects in parallel or in series with the transmission [1]. This paper introduces an elaborate hydraulic retarder air-friction reduction system (AFRS) which consists of a vacuum generating module and pneumatic control module. AFRS works to reduce the air friction by decreasing the gas density between working wheels when the retarder is in non-braking state. The pneumatic control model of hydraulic retarder is built first. Then various driving conditions are considered to verify the performance of the AFRS. The stability of the AFRS is analyzed based on the complete driveline model.
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