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Technical Paper

The Evaluation Method of Surge on Motorcycles

We studied the mechanism of occurrence and evaluation of the surge that is produced in motorcycles equipped with 2-stroke cycle engines by simultaneously measuring chassis behavior and combustion. When modal analysis was performed by measuring the acceleration of each chassis component while placing the test vehicle on a chassis dynamo, it was found that pitching, in which the tires serve as springs, and resonance, generated from the rear suspension spring, occurred simultaneously during surge generation. The major component that is felt physically is pitching. Although a certain degree of correlation was observed between fluctuations in combustion and occurrence of pitching, since the drive line contains a large amount of back lash, the system has a high degree of non-linearity, thus making it difficult to obtain a well-defined correlation.
Technical Paper

Piston Friction Losses in High-Speed Engines

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of the piston shape and weight on the friction losses. The motoring test was conducted on pistons with various shapes, rigidities, and weights at 3000-16000 rpm. The test results suggested that the piston friction loss would be abruptly increased mainly because of the increase in the skirt friction caused by the change of the piston attitude. Then, the piston behavioral simulation was conducted using a two-dimensional rigid model in consideration of the skirt rigidity, which proved the above suggestion. This paper consists of the paper presented at 1990 JSAE Autumn Convention and the results of the investigation we conducted based on the calculation of piston behavioral simulation.
Technical Paper

Development of Pollution-Free Rapid Plating System

It is in the plating process that the worst bottleneck occurs in plant automation. We, however, have succeeded in making our plating process free from pollution and compact, allowing us to install this system within a production line and consequently establish a continuous production line resulting in a decrease in plating cost to about 1/2 of the previous cost. We have achieved an excellent chrome plating speed of 60µ/min, by placing an anode relatively close to the part to be plated and by sending the plating solution into the space between the two by means of a pump. This provides a plating speed 100 times faster than with conventional methods, while improving the quality of the plating coat considerably. The system is optimum for functional platings, and can be used for the plating of shock absorber rods, engine valves, engine cylinders, etc.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Cyclic Variations of Combustion in High Compression Ratio Boosted D.I.S.I. Engine by Ion-Current Probes and CFD

Regarding S.I. gasoline engine, it is one of the most important matters to eliminate cyclic variation of combustion. Especially with high compression ratio and high boosted engine, the difficulties increase more. This paper describes the analysis of combustion process precisely by using many ion-current probes and CFD with the unique approaches. The number of used ion-current probes is 80 and they are mounted on whole combustion chamber wall especially including moving intake and exhaust valve faces. Thus cyclic variations of flame propagation can be measured precisely under high compression ratio and high boosted conditions in a multi-cylinder engine. In addition, CFD combustion simulation is conducted through full four strokes of continuous nine cycles. Moreover air motion and pressure vibration in intake and exhaust manifolds in whole cycles are considered. These unique approaches have made CFD result correspond to the measurement result of cyclic variations of actual combustion.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study of Connecting Rod Big Ends

Connecting rod design factors, such as geometric shape, capscrew torque and materials can significantly affect bore distortion and assembly stress. In this paper, experiments using different materials were conducted on several connecting rod big-ends with various shapes, bosses and bolts. The results show that the distortion of the big-end bore and the bolt stress are influenced considerably by the big-end shape, the bolt axial tension and the material under inertia force. It was also observed that the bolt bending stress and the load separating the big-end joint surface could be calculated with high accuracy using three-dimensional FEM in the initial connecting rod design.
Journal Article

Development of Fracture-Split Connecting Rods Made of Titanium Alloy for Use on Supersport Motorcycles

A connecting rod made of titanium alloy is effective for lower fuel consumption and higher power output comparing to a steel one because the titanium connecting rod enables to reduce the weight of both of reciprocating and rotating parts in an entire engine substantially. But up to now, it has been adopted only to expensive and small-lot production models because a material cost is high, a processing is difficult and a wear on a sliding area should be prevented. In order to adopt the titanium connecting rods into a more types of motorcycles, appropriate materials, processing methods and surface treatment were considered. Hot forging process was applied not only to reduce a machining volume but also to enhance a material strength and stiffness. And the fracture-splitting (FS) method for the big-end of the titanium connecting rod was put into a practical use.
Technical Paper

On the Theory of Orthogonal Engine Mount System and Its Application to Motorcycles

By orthogonalizing the primary inertia moment vector produced by an engine with many engine vectors, a new engine mounting method called “the orthogonal engine mount system” was designed. This paper explains its theoretical background. In addition, a motorcycle with a two-cylinder engine incorporating this system was analyzed by means of modal analysis and building block approach techniques to determine the effectiveness of the orthogonal engine mount system.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Multi-Valve Four Cycle Engine Design-The Benefit of Five-Valve Technology

THE MULTI-VALVE FOUR STROKE CYCLE engine design trend is Coward increased engine power and higher fuel efficiency. While a four-valve system is the most common direction, problems occur when the valve area is widened by increasing the cylinder bore for a higher engine output. The layout of four larger valves causes the combustion chamber shape to flatten and the combustion time period to increase. In pursuit of the optimum multi-valve engine we have studied four, five, six and seven-valve per cylinder design. Performance targets and design constraints led us toward the successful five-valve engine technology. This technology develops high engine torque and efficient combustion over a wide range of engine speeds.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Fuel Consumption with Variable Exhaust Port Timing in a Two-Stroke Gasoline Engine

In this study, an improvement of fuel consumption by changing the exhaust timing of a two-stroke engine has been made. The study results revealed that a remarkable improvement of fuel economy is possible by controlling the exhaust timing according to the engine speed. The reason for the better fuel economy was clarified through an analysis of exhaust gases, theoretical cycle calculations, and an analysis of combustion pressure. As an example of actual application, the results of tests made on an engine equipped with Yamaha power Valve System (YPVS), which is a variable exhaust timing mechanism using a tabor-shaped valve, will also be discussed.
Technical Paper

Prototype of Centralized Control System Utilizing Optical Communication for Motorcycles

A centralized control system utilizing optical communication has been developed. Except for the ignition system, almost all electrical functions are under the centralized control. As a method of simplifying wire harness, the time division multiplex communication system using optical communication is adopted. As a result, this new system has made it possible to reduce the number of wires in wire harness from 174 to 123, that of connectors from 60 to 50, and the weight of the wire harness from 1,600 g to 1,350 g. In addition, this system has allowed to reduce the control units (relays) from 11 to 2 (excluding the ignition system).
Technical Paper

Application of Chaos Theory to Engine Systems

We focus on the control issue for engine systems from the perspective of chaos theory, which is based on the fact that engine systems have a low-dimensional chaotic dynamics. Two approaches are discussed: controlling chaos and harnessing chaos, respectively. We apply Pyragas' chaos control method to an actual engine system. The experimental results show that the chaotic motion of an engine system may be stabilized to a periodic motion. Alternatively, harnessing chaos for engine systems is addressed, which regards chaos as an essential dynamic mode for the engine.
Technical Paper

Visual Study Focused on the Combustion Problem in Gasoline Direct Injection Engine

Combustion phenomena inside the actual Gasoline-Direct-Injection (GDI) engines have been drawing high attention to its emission characteristics as well as its potential to deal with ultra lean mixture. Although the detailed observation is necessary for its improvement, combustion visualization seems to be strangely overlooked for some reason. This study focuses on the direct observation of GDI combustion to clarify the difficulties behind GDI concept by using a test engine of an actual “wall-guided” configuration and by comparing GDI spray quality with diesel spray in a high-pressure constant volume bomb. The results show that some of the problems about GDI combustion seem to be rather essential than easily conquered, which suggests the necessity for another combustion concept.
Technical Paper

Fuel Injection System for Small Motorcycles

Attempts have been made to develop an electronically controlled fuel injection system that is ideal for small motorcycles, cost-efficient, compact, and electric power-saving while maintaining accuracy. For reducing the number of sensors and cost, highly accurate methods have been developed for the measurement of intake air mass, detection of acceleration, distinction of engine stroke, and estimation of atmospheric pressure without using a throttle position sensor, cam timing sensor, and barometric sensor in such a manner as to carry out sampling with the intake manifold pressure of single-cylinder engines synchronizing with the crank angle. For compactness and electric power saving, an injector and in-tank fuel pump module have been developed for small motorcycles.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Two-Stroke Engine Performance with the Yamaha Power Valve System (YPVS)

In two-stroke engines, the exhaust port timing has a great effect on engine performance characteristics. If the exhaust port timing can be varied in response to variations in the engine speed, an extensive improvement of performance can be realized. The Yamaha Power Valve System (YPVS) increases engine output with a valve which operates in the exhaust passage; this valve controls exhaust port timing in response to engine speed, despite the extremely high thermal load encountered in the exhaust passage. This literature deals with the construction and operation principles of YPVS and its effect on the increase of engine output. Also discussed is a series of tests and measurements made on the delivery ratio and trapping efficiency in order to elucidate why engine output is increased.
Technical Paper

Flow, Combustion and Emissions in a Five-Valve Research Gasoline Engine

The in-cylinder flow, mixture distribution, combustion and exhaust emissions in a research, five-valve purpose-built gasoline engine are discussed on the basis of measurements obtained using laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV), fast spark-plug hydrocarbon sampling, flame imaging and NOx/HC emissions using fast chemiluminescent and flame ionisation detectors/analysers. These measurements have been complemented by steady flow testing of various cylinder head configurations, involving single- and three-valve operation, in terms of flow capacity and in-cylinder tumble strength.
Technical Paper

Reduction of Friction Loss through the Use of Rolling Big-End Bearings

We compared motoring friction loss, output performance at WOT (wide open throttle) and specific fuel consumption of big-end bearings on engines having identical specifications between the case of using plain bearings and rolling bearings to investigate the effect of the lubricating oil supply rate on these parameters in an attempt to improve output through reduction of friction loss for big-end bearings of small, high-output motorcycle engines. Testing was performed using a 125 cc, 4-cycle, single cylinder engine at high engine speeds mainly above 10,000 rpm.
Technical Paper

Improving the Fuel Consumption of Small Motorcycle Engine with YMJET-FI

A construction of the technology concerning fuel consumption improvement is an important problem not only for the four-wheeled vehicle but also for the motorcycle in recent years when petroleum resources are depleted rapidly. Yamaha originally developed a new fuel injection system (YMJET-FI) and applied the system to a single cylinder, water-cooled and small-displacement engine. In this paper, we would introduce the results of improving the fuel economy with keeping high performance. Improvements were noted in three matters, namely, in the lower load range, 1.Strengthening of in-cylinder flow, 2.Atomization of fuel spray, and 3.Reduction of wall film quantity.
Technical Paper

Influence of Injection and Flame Propagation on Combustion in Motorcycle Engine - Investigation by Visualization Technique

This paper reports visualization of behavior of spray, wall film, and initial flame propagation in an SI engine with port fuel injection system for motorcycle in order to directly investigate their influences on combustion and relations among them. Borescopes were used to visualize the flame propagation in the combustion chamber and wall film in the intake port. Various injection systems and injection parameters were tested: injection direction, timing, and size of droplets to investigate the effect of mixture formation. It is concluded that combustion stability under low load condition is greatly influenced by mixture inhomogeneity in the combustion chamber whose evidence is the luminous emission. It is caused by direct induction of considerable amount of liquid fuel with large size of droplets into combustion chamber or too inhomogeneous mixture in the intake port.
Technical Paper

Development of CVT Shift Dynamic Simulation Model with Elastic Rubber V-Belt

This paper presents a practical simulation model of the rubber V-belt CVT which is widely used as a low cost driveline element for small displacement motorcycles. The characteristic of this CVT is determined by the axial force balance between driver and driven pulleys, and the elastic force of a rubber V-belt. Because these axial and elastic forces are calculated by the kinematic and FEM analysis, a large-scale simulation model which costs long execution time for the calculation is needed to estimate the characteristic of CVT. This calculation uses the one-dimensional simulation model built up with MATLAB and SIMULINK environment, so that it was possible to get the calculation result with relatively low execution time. The elastic deformation of the rubber V-Belt was calculated by a simple spring model which was verified by experiments and FEM.
Technical Paper

Development of Advanced Propeller Damper (Shift Dampener System)

Generally, the gearshift mechanism for outboard motors shifts into forward or reverse gear without using the synchromesh arrangement (dog clutch engagement)(See Fig.1). This type of shift mechanism has advantages in simple structure and in saving space and cost, but at the same time, this is often the source of problem due to the abrasion caused by the hitting of gear against the dog clutch before the engagement, as well as large gearshift shock and noise. In addition, the outboard motor horsepower is getting bigger in recent years. As they are equipped with bigger and heavier engines and propellers, the shifting shock and noise tend to become more severe. For this reason, the improvement in this aspect is required. We looked into the way to reduce the shock and noise by means of propellers, because the propeller can be mounted and replaced easily, which allows the effective improvement to be spread to the outboard motors already in the market.