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Compilation of Freezing Brake Experience and Potential Designs and Operating Procedures to Prevent Its Occurrence

2016-05-24
CURRENT
AIR4762A
This Aerospace Information Report (AIR) describes conditions under which freezing (frozen) brakes can occur and describes operating procedures which have been used to prevent or lessen the severity or probability of brake freezing. This document also identifies design features that some manufacturers implement to minimize the occurrence of freezing brakes. This document is not an Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) and therefore does not make recommendations based on a consensus of the industry. However, part of this document’s purpose is to describe the design and operational practices that some are using to minimize the risk of frozen brakes. NOTE: The following information is based upon experience gained across a wide-range of aircraft types and operational profiles, and should NOT take precedence over Aircraft Flight Manual or Flight Operations Procedures.
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Use of Structural Carbon Heat Sink Brakes on Aircraft

1996-05-01
CURRENT
AIR1934A
The purpose of this document is to relate areas where carbon brake technology may differ from traditional steel brake technology in design and performance. Carbon brakes have been used on military aircraft for many years and are now frequently used on newly commercial developed aircraft. This document presents some of the lessons learned.
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Usaf Aircraft Wheels

1992-01-01
HISTORICAL
AIR4012
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) documents general technical data associated with many of the wheels used in the Air Force.
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USAF Aircraft Wheels

2006-02-09
HISTORICAL
AIR4012B
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) documents general technical data associated with many of the wheels used in the Air Force.
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USAF Aircraft Wheels

2012-07-19
CURRENT
AIR4012C
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) documents general technical data associated with many of the wheels used in the Air Force.
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Military Service Experience - Aircraft Wheels

1995-11-01
HISTORICAL
AIR4012A
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) is intended to provide general background on aircraft wheel service lives on military aircraft and wheel laboratory test requirements as specified by military procurement agencies or aircraft manufacturers. Wheel service life in this document refers to the lowest life wheel half or flange in a wheel assembly measured in years (excluding bearing, bolt, and other removals). This information is intended as a reference guide for those responsible for specifying original equipment (OE) wheel laboratory test requirements.
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INFORMATION ON ANTISKID SYSTEMS

1988-01-01
HISTORICAL
AIR1739
This Aerospace Information Report (AIR) has been prepared by a panel of the SAE A-5 Committee and is presented to document the design approaches and service experience from various applications of antiskid systems. This experience includes commercial and military applications.
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Information on Antiskid Systems

2012-02-15
CURRENT
AIR1739B
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) has been prepared by a panel of the SAE A-5A Committee and is presented to document the design approaches and service experience from various applications of antiskid systems. This experience includes commercial and military applications.
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Information on Antiskid Systems

1999-06-01
HISTORICAL
AIR1739A
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) has been prepared by a panel of the SAE A-5A Committee and is presented to document the design approaches and service experience from various applications of antiskid systems. This experience includes commercial and military applications.
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Carbon Brake Contamination and Oxidation

2016-04-12
CURRENT
AIR5490A
This document provides information on contamination and its effects on brakes having carbon-carbon composite friction materials (carbon). Carbon is hygroscopic and porous, and therefore readily absorbs liquids and contaminants. Some of the contaminants can impact intended performance of the brake. This document is intended to raise awareness of the effects of carbon brake contamination and provide information on industry practices for its prevention. Although not addressed in this report, contaminants can cause problems with other landing system components including tires.
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Carbon Brake Contamination

2002-12-19
HISTORICAL
AIR5490
This document provides information on contamination and its effects on brakes having carbon-carbon composite friction materials (carbon). Carbon is hygroscopic and porous, and therefore readily absorbs liquids and contaminants. Some of the contaminants can impact intended performance of the brake. This document is intended to raise awareness of the effects of carbon brake contamination and provide recommendations for its prevention. Although not addressed in this report, contaminants can cause problems with other landing system components including tires.
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Test Method for Catalytic Carbon Brake Disk Oxidation

2013-03-11
WIP
AIR5567B
The scope of the test method is to provide stakeholders including fluid manufacturers, brake manufacturers, aircraft constructors, aircraft operators and airworthiness authorities with a relative assessment of the effect of deicing chemicals on carbon oxidation. This simple test is only designed to assess the relative effects of runway deicing chemicals by measuring mass change of contaminated and bare carbon samples tested under the same conditions. It is not possible to set a general acceptance threshold oxidation limit based on this test method because carbon brake stack oxidation is a function of heat sink design and the operating envirnoment.
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Test Method for Catalytic Carbon Brake Disk Oxidation

2010-06-24
CURRENT
AIR5567A
The scope of the test method is to provide stakeholders including fluid manufacturers, airport operators, brake manufacturers, aircraft constructors, aircraft operators and airworthiness authorities with a relative assessment of the effect of deicing chemicals on carbon oxidation. This simple test is only designed to assess the relative effects of runway deicing chemicals by measuring mass change of contaminated and bare carbon samples tested under the same conditions. It is not possible to set a general acceptance threshold oxidation limit based on this test method because carbon brake stack oxidation is a function of heat sink design and the operating environment.
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Test Method for Catalytic Carbon Brake Disk Oxidation

2009-05-13
HISTORICAL
AIR5567
The scope of the test method is to provide stakeholders including fluid manufacturers, brake manufacturers, aircraft constructors, aircraft operators and airworthiness authorities with a relative assessment of the effect of deicing chemicals on carbon oxidation. This simple test is only designed to assess the relative effects of runway deicing chemicals by measuring mass change of contaminated and bare carbon samples tested under the same conditions. It is not possible to set a general acceptance threshold oxidation limit based on this test method because carbon brake stack oxidation is a function of heat sink design and the operating envirnoment.
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Information on Electric Brakes

2007-03-05
CURRENT
AIR5937
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) describes the design, operation, and attributes of electrical braking systems for both military and commercial aircraft. At this time, the document focuses only on brakes utilizing electromechanical actuators (EMAs), as that is the present state of the art. As such, the discussions herein assume that EMAs can simply replace the hydraulic actuation portion of typical brake system leaving things such as the wheel and heat sink unchanged. Furthermore, the document provides detail information from the perspective of brake system design and operation. The document also addresses failure modes, certification issues, and past development efforts. Details on the design and control of electric motors, gear train design, ball or roller screw selection are available in the reference documents and elsewhere, but are outside the scope of this document.
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Information on Parking Brake Systems

2015-07-17
CURRENT
AIR6441
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) provides information on the parking brake system design for a variety of aircraft including part 23, 25, 27, and 29. The document includes a discussion of key technical issues with parking brakes. This document does NOT provide recommended practices for parking brake system design.
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