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Technical Paper

Evaluation of Air Bag Field Performance

1995-02-01
950869
This investigation encompasses a comprehensive evaluation of air bag field performance, in comparison with the no restraint, or other restraint conditions. The paper at hand addresses: Cars, Exposure, Occupants, Restraints, & Protection provided by the restraints. A companion paper addresses the injury patterns of car occupants. The findings of the investigation are based on two primary sources of national coverage: (i) the field crash experience contained in the records of NHTSA's NASS/CDS 1988-1992; and (ii) the fatal accident experience contained in NHTSA's FARS 1991-1993. The investigation focuses on car drivers. Because of the relatively late and limited introduction of air bags, all other light vehicle populations are either not represented, or represented by a very meager sample in the sources cited above.
Technical Paper

Injury Patterns of Car Occupants Under Air Bag Deployment

1995-02-01
950867
This investigation addresses and evaluates the injury patterns of car occupants, as a function of air bag deployment with or without belt use. A companion paper provides a comprehensive evaluation of air bag field performance, in comparison with the no restraint,or other restraint conditions,concerning: Cars, Exposure, Occupants, Restraints, & Protection provided by the restraints. The findings reported in this investigation are based exclusively on the data contained in the records of NHTSA's NASS/CDS1988-1992. The investigation focuses on car drivers. Because of the relatively late and limited introduction of air bags, all other light vehicle populations are either not represented, or represented by a very meager sample in the sources cited above.
Technical Paper

Chest and Abdominal Injuries Suffered by Restraint Occupants

1995-02-01
950657
This paper is based on the crash and casualty experience compiled by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's (NHTSA) National Accident Sampling System, Crashworthiness Data (NASS/CDS 1988-1992), and by the William Lehman Injury Research Center (University of Miami/Jackson Memorial Hospital/Ryder Trauma Center) crash data files. The NASS/CDS files provide data on injuries to occupants in all types of tow-away crashes. The William Lehman Injury Research Center files provide detailed crash analysis and injury documentation of more than 100 restrained occupants with injuries from frontal crashes. These files provide a basis for recognizing injury patterns among restrained occupants and postulating their causes. The purpose of this paper is to report on an observed pattern of liver and spleen injuries suffered by drivers wearing shoulder belts without the lap belt fastened.
Technical Paper

Injuries Sustained by Air Bag Protected Drivers

1996-02-01
960660
The William Lehman Injury Research Center has conducted multi-disciplinary investigations of fifty crashes involving drivers protected by air bags. In all cases, serious injuries were suspected. Nine cases involved fatal injuries. These cases are not representative of crashes in general. However, when used in conjunction with NASS/CDS they provide insight into the most severe injuries in crashes of vehicles equipped with air bags. A comparison with data from the National Accident Sampling System; Crashworthiness Data System (NASS/CDS) shows that head injury and abdominal injury make up a larger fraction in the Lehman data than in NASS/CDS. Examination of fatal cases indicates that head injuries are frequently caused by intruding structure or by unfavorable occupant kinematics among the unrestrained population.
Technical Paper

Safety Performance of Motor Vehicle Seats

1993-03-01
930348
Comfort and safety are major considerations in the design of occupant seats in motor vehicles. In rear impacts, the seat is the principal component of the occupant restraint system. However, it also contributes to occupant restraint in frontal. and side impacts, and rollovers. To determine how well automobile seats protect occupants from injuries in rear impacts, crash data from the national accident files in the united states were analyzed. The distributions and causes of injuries in rear impacts were categorized according to injured body region and source of injury. In addition, forty-nine selected accident cases were reviewed, to determined how the seat performed in crashes. Finally, rear impact crash tests of passenger cars were analyzed to determine dummy motion and seat performance. Non-contact injuries were associated with the largest portion of injury harm. The seat and frontal components were the two largest sources of contact injury harm.
Technical Paper

Simulated Sensitivities of Auto Fuel Economy, Performance and Emissions

1976-02-01
760157
The subject is treated on the basis of detailed engineering test data regarding components and parameters of 1975 autos. The applicability of the simulation approach is examined by extensive comparisons with integrated vehicle test results. It is found that fuel economy, for the EPA driving schedules, is adequately simulated with 5% to 10% uncertainties. Uncertainties of the same magnitude are also encountered in performance simulations. Larger uncertainties are evident in the simulation of emissions. NOx prediction has an uncertainty up to 25% but no significant bias, while CO and HC are very substantially over-predicted and under-predicted respectively. Excepting HC and CO, several applications are made in the evaluation of sensitivities to various auto components and parameters. Evaluations are made of changes in auto weight, engine displacement and rear axle ratio, considered individually and in combinations.
Technical Paper

Concise Description of Auto Fuel Economy and Performance in Recent Model Years

1976-02-01
760045
The subject is treated by statistical and engineering analyses applied to extensive measurements of fuel economy and acceleration performance. Fuel economy data are provided by the EPA certification lists for the four years 1973 to 1976. The performance data are track measurements of 0 to 60 MPH acceleration times for 1974 and 1975 vehicles, as reported in the popular automotive literature. Several relations, supported by engineering analyses, are selected for making least-squares fits to the extensive measurements. The pivotal variables include: inertia weight, horsepower, engine displacement and rear axle ratio, individually and in combinations. Satisfactory fits are made by power factorial forms and the resulting algorithms have standard errors of estimate in the vicinity of 10% for fuel economy and in the range 10% to 15% for acceleration time.
Technical Paper

Problems in Crash Avoidance and in Crash Avoidance Research

1983-02-01
830560
This paper presents the methodology and results of an analysis of the available information on motor vehicle accident occurrence which could be used to provide a basis for establishing priorities for future Government and private sector work directed at enhanced crash avoidance or mitigation. The work was stimulated by several factors: (1) the absence of a recent and updated framework for problem evaluation; (2) motor vehicles have changed substantially in the past several years; (3) the quantity and quality of accident data and vehicle accident avoidance performance information have increased very substantially over the past 5 years; and (4) Government policies and the amount of Government and private sector resources available for future work have changed. This study takes the Agency's automated files on accident experience as the baseline information on motor vehicle involvement in accidents of all types.
Technical Paper

Discerning the State of Crashworthiness in the Accident Experience

1985-01-01
856069
This paper addresses the risks of occupant casualties in highway accidents. Such risks are determined from U.S. accident experience in the past 10 years. Risks are analyzed as a function of vehicle type, car market class, make, nameplate, and model year for crashes of various impact types and various severities. Both absolute risks, per unit exposure, and relative risks are addressed. The influence of many exposure variables is examined and necessary adjustments, to a common set of exposure conditions, are made. The control variables for this purpose are: calendar year and car age; occupant's seating position, restraint status, and age; time and place of travel; and various roadway characteristics. Adjusted risks are reviewed versus major characteristics of cars as implied by make, nameplate, and model year. Occupant ejections and rollovers receive special attention due to their risk sensitivity to car class
Technical Paper

Harm Causation and Ranking in Car Crashes

1985-02-25
850090
This paper addresses the crash protection of occupants of the car fleet in transition from the late 1970's to the early 1980's. Three files of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration are used: the NASS 1979 to 1983, the PARS 1979 to 1983, and the NCSS 1977 to 1979. Fatalities, injured survivors by severity, and all accident involved car occupants are addressed. Risks of crash and injury outcomes are determined and analyzed as a function of risk influencing factors, especially factors that may vary significantly during the time period under consideration. Ejection risks and ejection patterns are addressed explicitly. Harm, an earlier introduced human casualty integrator, and harm distributions are extensively examined and updated with respect to earlier results. Harm and harm pattern changes, whether statistical fluctuations or systematic variations, are analyzed.
Technical Paper

A Search for Priorities in Crash Protection

1982-02-01
820242
This paper presents the methodology and results of an analysis of the available information on motor vehicle safety which could be used to provide a basis for establishing priorities for future Government and private sector efforts directed at enhanced crash protection. The work was stimulated by several factors: (1) 5 years have elapsed since the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) published a plan for motor vehicle safety research and development, (2) motor vehicles have changed substantially over the past several years, (3) the quantity and quality of accident data and vehicle crash performance information have increased dramatically over the past 5 years, and (4) Government policies and the amount of Government and private sector resources available for future efforts are changing.
Technical Paper

Relationships Between Crash Casualties and Crash Attributes

1997-02-24
970393
This work addresses and evaluates the likelihood of human casualty in highway crashes, projected on the basis of field crash data that may become available electronically by sensors at crash time, and/or observed at the crash scene by emergency attendants. Termed collectively as a “crash signature”, such data are treated as predictors and are selected from: crash severity, general area of damage, direction of force, occurrence of rollover, intrusion, vehicle crush and its specific horizontal location, collision partner, vehicle class and size, occupant age, gender, restraint use and type, seating position, and other. Crash signatures are converted into responses such as: (a) the likelihood of the most severe outcome, fatality or survived injury, by severity AIS per occupant; and (b) the same per vehicle. Cars are the vehicles selected for this investigation.
Technical Paper

Heart Injuries Among Restrained Occupants in Frontal Crashes

1997-02-24
970392
The William Lehman Injury Research Center has conducted multi-disciplinary investigations of one hundred seventy-eight crashes involving adult occupants protected by safety belts and air bags. In all cases, serious injuries were suspected. Nine cases involved serious heart injuries. These cases are not representative of crashes in general. However, when used in conjunction with National Accident Sampling System; Crashworthiness Data System (NASS/CDS) they provide insight into the most severe injuries suffered by restrained occupants in frontal crashes. Heart injuries are rare, but when they occur they are usually life threatening. NASS/CDS shows that heart injuries comprise about 0.2% of the injuries in frontal tow-away crashes. In the NHTSA file of Special Crash Investigations (SCI) of air bag cases, heart injuries are reported in 1% of the occupants over 15 years of age. Twenty-five percent of the fatally injured occupants had heart injuries, and 83% of those with heart injury died.
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