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Standard

Electrical and Electronic Equipment Cooling in Commercial Transports

1992-09-01
CURRENT
AIR64B
This document considers the cooling of equipment installed in equipment centers, which usually consist of rack-mounted equipment and panel mounted equipment in the flight deck. In instances where these two locations result in different requirements, these are identified. For purposes of this document, the cooled equipment is referred to generally as E/E equipment, denoting that both electrical and electronic equipment is considered, or as an E/E equipment line-replaceable-unit (LRU). The majority of cooled equipment takes the form of LRUs. This document primarily relates to E/E equipment which is designed to use forced air cooling in order to maintain the equipment within acceptable environmental limits, in order to maintain equipment operating performance (within acceptable tolerances), and to maintain reliability. Cooling may be applied internally or externally to the case of the item of E/E equipment.
Standard

FAULT ISOLATION IN ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL SYSTEMS OF COMMERCIAL TRANSPORTS

1977-08-01
HISTORICAL
AIR1266
This AIR outlines concepts for the design and use of fault isolation equipment that have general application. However, the specific concern applies only to use with Environmental Control Systems in commercial transports. In particular, automatic Built In Test Equipment (BITE) with manual initiation and software programs are covered as systems already in use.
Standard

Fault Isolation in Environmental Control Systems of Commercial Transports

1993-11-01
CURRENT
AIR1266A
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) outlines concepts for the design and use of fault isolation equipment that have general application. The specific focus is on fault isolation of environmental control systems (ECS) in commercial transports. Presented are general fault isolation purposes, design principles, and demonstration of compliance criteria. These are followed by three design examples to aid in understanding the design principles. Future trends in built-in-test-equipment (BITE) design are discussed, some of which represent concepts already being implemented on new equipment.
Standard

Transparent Area Washing Systems for Aircraft

1997-10-01
HISTORICAL
AIR1102A
This information report presents data and recommendations pertaining to the design and development of transparent area washing systems for aircraft.
Standard

The Control of Excess Humidity in Avionics Cooling

2010-06-17
CURRENT
ARP987B
This Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) outlines the causes and impacts of moisture and/or condensation in avionics equipment and provides recommendations for corrective and preventative action.
Standard

Environmental Control Systems Terminology

2001-12-14
CURRENT
ARP147E
This ARP provides the definition of terms commonly used in aircraft environmental control system (ECS) design and analysis. Many of the terms may be used as guidelines for establishing standard ECS nomenclature. Some general thermodynamic terms are included that are frequently used in ECS analysis, but this document is not meant to be an inclusive list of such terms.
Standard

Heat Sinks for Airborne Vehicles

2002-09-16
HISTORICAL
AIR1957
This document summarizes types of heat sinks and considerations in relation to the general requirements of aircraft heat sources, and it provides information to achieve efficient utilization and management of these heat sinks. In this document, a heat sink is defined as a body or substance used for removal of the heat generated by hydrodynamic or thermodynamic processes. This document provides general data about airborne heat sources, heat sinks, and modes of heat transfer. The document also discusses approaches to control the use of heat sinks and techniques for analysis and verification of heat sink management. The heat sinks are for aircraft operating at subsonic and supersonic speeds.
Standard

Compartment Decompression Analysis

2017-01-05
CURRENT
AIR5661A
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) provides data and general analysis methods for calculation of internal and external, pressurized and unpressurized airplane compartment pressures during rapid discharge of cabin pressure. References to the applicable current FAA and EASA rules and advisory material are provided. While rules and interpretations can be expected to evolve, numerous airplanes have been approved under current and past rules that will have a continuing need for analysis of production and field modifications, alterations and repairs. The data and basic principles provided by this report are adaptable to any compartment decompression analysis requirement.
Standard

Compartment Decompression Analysis

2010-02-12
HISTORICAL
AIR5661
This report provides data and general analysis methods for calculation of internal and external, pressurized and unpressurized airplane compartment pressures during rapid discharge of cabin pressure. References to the applicable current FAA and EASA rules and advisory material are provided. While rules and interpretations can be expected to evolve, numerous airplanes have been approved under current and past rules that will have a continuing need for analysis of production and field modifications, alterations and repairs. The data and basic principles provided by this report are adaptable to any compartment decompression analysis requirement.
Standard

Guide for Qualification Testing of Aircraft Air Valves

2015-05-29
CURRENT
ARP986D
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) defines recommended analysis and test procedures for qualification of pneumatically, electrically, manually, and hydraulically actuated air valves. They may be further defined as valves that function in response to externally applied forces or in response to variations in upstream and/or downstream duct air conditions in order to maintain a calibrated duct air condition (e.g., air flow, air pressure, air temperature, air pressure ratio, or air shutoff). Qualification testing performed on the airplane to verify compatibility of the valve function and stability as part of a complete system is outside the scope of this document. Refer to ARP1270 for design and certification requirements for cabin pressurization control system components. As this document is only a guide, it does not supersede or relieve any requirements contained in detailed Customer specifications.
Standard

Engine Bleed Air Systems for Aircraft

2007-03-22
HISTORICAL
ARP1796A
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) discusses design philosophy, system and equipment requirements, installation environment and design considerations for military and commercial aircraft systems within the Air Transport Association (ATA) ATA 100 specification, Chapter 36, Pneumatic. This ATA system/chapter covers equipment used to deliver compressed air from a power source to connecting points for other systems such as air conditioning, pressurization, ice protection, cross-engine starting, air turbine motors, air driven hydraulic pumps, on board oxygen generating systems (OBOGS), on board inert gas generating systems (OBIGGS), and other pneumatic demands. The engine bleed air system includes components for preconditioning the compressed air (temperature, pressure or flow regulation), ducting to distribute high or low pressure air to the using systems, and sensors/instruments to indicate temperature and pressure levels within the system.
Standard

Engine Bleed Air Systems for Aircraft

2015-07-13
CURRENT
ARP1796B
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) discusses design philosophy, system and equipment requirements, installation environment and design considerations for military and commercial aircraft systems within the Air Transport Association (ATA) ATA 100 specification, Chapter 36, Pneumatic. This ATA system/chapter covers equipment used to deliver compressed air from a power source to connecting points for other systems such as air conditioning, pressurization, ice protection, cross-engine starting, air turbine motors, air driven hydraulic pumps, on board oxygen generating systems (OBOGS), on board inert gas generating systems (OBIGGS), and other pneumatic demands. The engine bleed air system includes components for preconditioning the compressed air (temperature, pressure or flow regulation), ducting to distribute high or low pressure air to the using systems, and sensors/instruments to indicate temperature and pressure levels within the system.
Standard

Environmental Control for Civil Supersonic Transport

1994-12-01
HISTORICAL
AIR746B
This document supplements ARP85, to extend its use in the design of ECS for supersonic transports. The ECS provides an environment controlled within specified operational limits of comfort and safety, for humans, animals, and equipment. These limits include pressure, temperature, humidity, conditioned air velocity, ventilation rate, thermal radiation, wall temperature, audible noise, vibration, and composition (ozone, contaminants, etc.) of the environment. The ECS is comprised of equipment, controls, and indicators that supply and distribute conditioned air to the occupied compartments. This system is defined within the ATA 100 specification, Chapter 21. It interfaces with the pneumatic system (Chapter 36 of ATA 100), at the inlet of the air conditioning system shutoff valves.
Standard

Environmental Control for Civil Supersonic Transport

2011-08-10
CURRENT
AIR746C
This document supplements ARP85, to extend its use in the design of ECS for supersonic transports. The ECS provides an environment controlled within specified operational limits of comfort and safety, for humans, animals, and equipment. These limits include pressure, temperature, humidity, conditioned air velocity, ventilation rate, thermal radiation, wall temperature, audible noise, vibration, and composition (ozone, contaminants, etc.) of the environment. The ECS is comprised of equipment, controls, and indicators that supply and distribute conditioned air to the occupied compartments. This system is defined within the ATA 100 specification, Chapter 21. It interfaces with the pneumatic system (Chapter 36 of ATA 100), at the inlet of the air conditioning system shutoff valves.
Standard

COOLING OF MODERN AIRBORNE ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT

1976-05-01
HISTORICAL
AIR1277
This document contains information on the cooling of modern airborne electronics, emphasizing the use of a heat exchange surface which separates coolant and component. It supplements the information contained in AIR 64 for the draw through method and in AIR 728 for high Mach Number aircraft. Report contents include basic methods, characteristics of coolants, application inside and outside of the "black box" use of thermostatic controls to improve reliability and system design. Characteristics of typical cooling components are treated sufficiently to permit selection and to estimate size and weight. While emphasis is placed herein on equipment cooling, section 9 dealing with thermal control of the environment, reminds the reader that some equipment will require heating for start up from a cold condition or as a means to control temperature within narrow limits (e.g. in a crystal oven). Property data and constants are also tabulated.
Standard

Cooling of Military Avionic Equipment

2005-02-09
CURRENT
AIR1277B
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) contains information on the thermal design requirements of airborne avionic systems used in military airborne applications. Methods are explored which are commonly used to provide thermal control of avionic systems. Both air and liquid cooled systems are discussed.
Standard

AIRCRAFT CABIN PRESSURIZATION CONTROL CRITERIA

1976-01-15
HISTORICAL
ARP1270
These recommendations cover the basic criteria for the design of aircraft cabin pressurization control systems as follows: (1) To ensure aircraft safety. (2) Physiology and limits which govern maximum permissible pressure time relations as related to aircraft passenger comfort. (3) General pressurization control system performance requirements designed to satisfy (2). (4) Technical considerations relevant to satisfying (3).
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