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Jet Blast Windshield Rain Removal Systems for Commercial Transport Aircraft

1997-10-01
HISTORICAL
AIR805B
The purpose of this information report is to present factors which affect the design and development of jet blast windshield rain removal systems for commercial transport aircraft. A satisfactory analytical approach to the design of these systems has not yet been developed. Although detailed performance data are available for some test configurations, rain removal systems will generally be unique to specific aircraft. This, then, requires a preliminary design for the system based on available empirical data to be followed with an extensive laboratory development program.
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Air Conditioning of Aircraft Cargo

1997-10-01
CURRENT
AIR806B
The report presents air conditioning data for aircraft cargo which is affected by temperature, humidity, ventilation rate and atmospheric pressure. The major emphasis is on conditioning of perishable products and warm-blooded animals. The report also covers topics peculiar to cargo aircraft or which are related to the handling of cargo.
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HEAT TRANSFER PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH AEROSPACE VEHICLES

1978-04-01
CURRENT
AIR732
The discipline of heat transfer concerns itself basically with the three modes of transferring thermal energy (convection, conduction, and radiation) and their inter-relations. In any phase of aerospace vehicle design, the importance of any of these basic modes will vary depending upon the natural and induced environment the mission imposes as well as the vehicle configuration.
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Electrical and Electronic Equipment Cooling in Commercial Transports

1992-09-01
CURRENT
AIR64B
This document considers the cooling of equipment installed in equipment centers, which usually consist of rack-mounted equipment and panel mounted equipment in the flight deck. In instances where these two locations result in different requirements, these are identified. For purposes of this document, the cooled equipment is referred to generally as E/E equipment, denoting that both electrical and electronic equipment is considered, or as an E/E equipment line-replaceable-unit (LRU). The majority of cooled equipment takes the form of LRUs. This document primarily relates to E/E equipment which is designed to use forced air cooling in order to maintain the equipment within acceptable environmental limits, in order to maintain equipment operating performance (within acceptable tolerances), and to maintain reliability. Cooling may be applied internally or externally to the case of the item of E/E equipment.
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THERMOPHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF WORKING FLUIDS AND HEAT TRANSFER FLUIDS

1992-04-01
HISTORICAL
AIR1168/10
This AIR is arranged in the following two sections: 2E - Thermodynamic Characteristics of Working Fluids, which contains thermodynamic diagrams for a number of working fluids currently in use and supplied by various industrial firms. 2F - Properties of Heat Transfer Fluids, which contains data, primarily in graphical form, on fluids that are frequently used in fluid heat transfer loops. Other properties of the environment, gases, liquids, and solids, can be found, as follows, in AIR1168/9: 2A-Properties of the Natural Environment 2B-Properties of Gases 2C-Properties of Liquids 2D-Properties of Solids
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Thermophysical Characteristics of Working Fluids and Heat Transfer Fluids

2017-05-19
CURRENT
AIR1168/10A
This AIR is arranged in the following two sections: 2E - Thermodynamic Characteristics of Working Fluids, which contains thermodynamic diagrams for a number of working fluids currently in use and supplied by various industrial firms. 2F - Properties of Heat Transfer Fluids, which contains data, primarily in graphical form, on fluids that are frequently used in fluid heat transfer loops. Other properties of the environment, gases, liquids, and solids, can be found, as follows, in AIR1168/9: 2A-Properties of the Natural Environment 2B-Properties of Gases 2C-Properties of Liquids 2D-Properties of Solids
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Thermophysical Properties of the Natural Environment, Gases, Liquids, and Solids

1991-10-01
HISTORICAL
AIR1168/9
This AIR is arranged in the following four sections: 2A - Properties of the Natural Environment 2B - Properties of Gases 2C - Properties of Liquids 2D - Properties of Solids A summary of each section is given below. Section 2A - This section includes currently applicable earth atmosphere standards (Refs. 101 and 103) and data on the near-Earth environment. Limited data on Mars and Venus reflected solar and planetary-emitted radiation and on micrometeorite data are also included. For space vehicle applications, environmental models are of two general types: orbital and reentry. For orbital models, variable properties such as time and solar flux are usually averaged. Reentry atmospheres are chiefly a function of location and altitude, and selection may be based on reentry location. Variation with latitude is an important local effect (Ref. 106). The electromagnetic solar radiation data in this section are for altitudes above the Earth’s atmosphere.
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Aerothermodynamic Test Instrumentation and Measurement

1990-02-01
HISTORICAL
AIR1168/5
Like the technologies to which it contributes, the science of instrumentation seems to be expanding to unlimited proportions. In considering instrumentation techniques, primary emphasis was given in this section to the fundamentals of pressure, temperature, and flow measurement. Accent was placed on common measurement methods, such as manometers, thermocouples, and head meters, rather than on difficult and specialized techniques. Icing, humidity, velocity, and other special measurements were touched on briefly. Many of the references cited were survey articles or texts containing excellent bibliographies to assist a more detailed study where required.
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Aerothermodynamic Test Instrumentation and Measurement

2011-07-25
CURRENT
AIR1168/5A
Like the technologies to which it contributes, the science of instrumentation seems to be expanding to unlimited proportions. In considering instrumentation techniques, primary emphasis was given in this section to the fundamentals of pressure, temperature, and flow measurement. Accent was placed on common measurement methods, such as manometers, thermocouples, and head meters, rather than on difficult and specialized techniques. Icing, humidity, velocity, and other special measurements were touched on briefly. Many of the references cited were survey articles or texts containing excellent bibliographies to assist a more detailed study where required.
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Heat and Mass Transfer and Air-Water Mixtures

2001-08-01
HISTORICAL
AIR1168/2
Heat transfer is the transport of thermal energy from one point to another. Heat is transferred only under the influence of a temperature gradient or temperature difference. The direction of heat transfer is always from the point at the higher temperature to the point at the lower temperature, in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics. The fundamental modes of heat transfer are conduction, convection, and radiation. Conduction is the net transfer of energy within a fluid or solid occurring by the collisions of molecules, atoms, or electrons. Convection is the transfer of energy resulting from fluid motion. Convection involves the processes of conduction, fluid motion, and mass transfer. Radiation is the transfer of energy from one point to another in the absence of a transporting medium. In practical applications several modes of heat transfer occur simultaneously.
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Heat and Mass Transfer and Air-Water Mixtures

2011-07-25
CURRENT
AIR1168/2A
Heat transfer is the transport of thermal energy from one point to another. Heat is transferred only under the influence of a temperature gradient or temperature difference. The direction of heat transfer is always from the point at the higher temperature to the point at the lower temperature, in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics. The fundamental modes of heat transfer are conduction, convection, and radiation. Conduction is the net transfer of energy within a fluid or solid occurring by the collisions of molecules, atoms, or electrons. Convection is the transfer of energy resulting from fluid motion. Convection involves the processes of conduction, fluid motion, and mass transfer. Radiation is the transfer of energy from one point to another in the absence of a transporting medium. In practical applications several modes of heat transfer occur simultaneously.
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Spacecraft Life Support Systems

2012-10-15
CURRENT
AIR1168/14A
A life support system (LSS) is usually defined as a system that provides elements necessary for maintaining human life and health in the state required for performing a prescribed mission. The LSS, depending upon specific design requirements, will provide pressure, temperature, and composition of local atmosphere, food, and water. It may or may not collect, dispose, or reprocess wastes such as carbon dioxide, water vapor, urine, and feces. It can be seen from the preceding definition that LSS requirements may differ widely, depending on the mission specified, such as operation in Earth orbit or lunar mission. In all cases the time of operation is an important design factor. An LSS is sometimes briefly defined as a system providing atmospheric control and water, waste, and thermal management.
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Spacecraft Life Support Systems

1994-01-01
HISTORICAL
AIR1168/14
A life support system (LSS) is usually defined as a system that provides elements necessary for maintaining human life and health in the state required for performing a prescribed mission. The LSS, depending upon specific design requirements, will provide pressure, temperature, and composition of local atmosphere, food, and water. It may or may not collect, dispose, or reprocess wastes such as carbon dioxide, water vapor, urine, and feces. It can be seen from the preceding definition that LSS requirements may differ widely, depending on the mission specified, such as operation in Earth orbit or lunar mission. In all cases the time of operation is an important design factor. An LSS is sometimes briefly defined as a system providing atmospheric control and water, waste, and thermal management.
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Spacecraft Equipment Environmental Control

1999-11-01
HISTORICAL
AIR1168/13
This part of the manual presents methods for arriving at a solution to the problem of spacecraft inflight equipment environmental control. The temperature aspect of this problem may be defined as the maintenance of a proper balance and integration of the following thermal loads: equipment-generated, personnel-generated, and transmission through external boundary. Achievement of such a thermal energy balance involves the investigation of three specific areas: 1 Establishment of design requirements. 2 Evaluation of properties of materials. 3 Development of analytical approach. The solution to the problem of vehicle and/or equipment pressurization, which is the second half of major environmental control functions, is also treated in this section. Pressurization in this case may be defined as the task associated with the storage and control of a pressurizing fluid, leakage control, and repressurization.
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Spacecraft Equipment Environmental Control

2011-07-25
CURRENT
AIR1168/13A
This part of the manual presents methods for arriving at a solution to the problem of spacecraft inflight equipment environmental control. The temperature aspect of this problem may be defined as the maintenance of a proper balance and integration of the following thermal loads: equipment-generated, personnel-generated, and transmission through external boundary. Achievement of such a thermal energy balance involves the investigation of three specific areas: 1 Establishment of design requirements. 2 Evaluation of properties of materials. 3 Development of analytical approach. The solution to the problem of vehicle and/or equipment pressurization, which is the second half of major environmental control functions, is also treated in this section. Pressurization in this case may be defined as the task associated with the storage and control of a pressurizing fluid, leakage control, and repressurization.
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Airborne Chemicals in Aircraft Cabins

2005-02-09
CURRENT
AIR4766/2
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) provides information on aircraft cabin air quality, including: Airborne contaminant gases, vapors, and aerosols. Identified potential sources. Comfort, health and safety issues. Airborne chemical measurement. Regulations and standards. Operating conditions and equipment that may cause aircraft cabin contamination by airborne chemicals (including Failure Conditions and normal Commercial Practices). Airborne chemical control systems. It does not deal with airflow requirements.
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NBC Protection Considerations for ECS Design

2014-07-01
CURRENT
AIR4362A
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) provides Nuclear, Biological and Chemical (NBC) protection considerations for environmental control system (ECS) design. It is intended to familiarize the ECS designer with the subject in order to know what information will be required to do an ECS design where NBC protection is a requirement. This is not intended to be a thorough discussion of NBC protection. Such a document would be large and would be classified. Topics of NBC protection that are more pertinent to the ECS designer are discussed in more detail. Those of peripheral interest, but of which the ECS designer should be aware are briefly discussed. Only radiological aspects of nuclear blast are discussed. The term CBR (Chemical, Biological, and Radiological) has been used to contrast with NBC to indicate that only the radiological aspects of a nuclear blast are being discussed.
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