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Aircraft Inflight Icing Terminology

2002-09-17
HISTORICAL
AIR5504
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) provides definitions for terms commonly used in aircraft inflight icing system design and analysis, research, and operations. Some general thermodynamic terms are included that are frequently used in icing analysis, but this document is not meant to be an inclusive list of such terms.
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Icing Technology Bibliography

2007-04-11
HISTORICAL
AIR4015B
This Icing Technology Bibliography is a compendium of references from the open literature that were published prior to the original 1987 issuance of the AIR, including both national and foreign sources. Due to the generality of the subject, and the difficulty of fully investigating every available source, the Bibliography in this document is not intended to be complete.
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Icing Technology Bibliography

2013-03-15
CURRENT
AIR4015D
This Icing Technology Bibliography is a compendium of references from the open literature that were published prior to the original 1987 issuance of the AIR, including both national and foreign sources. Due to the generality of the subject, and the difficulty of fully investigating every available source, the Bibliography in this document is not intended to be complete.
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Aircraft Inflight Ice Detectors and Icing Rate Measuring Instruments

2018-06-11
WIP
AIR4367B
This document provides information regarding ice detector technology, design and operating requirements. The SAE document AS5498 provides detailed information regarding the requirements, specifications, qualification, and certification of icing detection systems. This document is not meant to replace AS5498 but to enhance it by considering unique aspects of sensing technology and in particular those that may not be certificated at the time of this revision. To that end an effort has been made not to duplicate information contained in AS5498. Icing rate information is included where applicable. The primary application is associated with ice forming on the leading edges of airfoils and inlets while the aircraft is in flight. Information related to detection of ice over cold fuel tanks and icing at low velocity operation is included. The material is primarily applicable to fixed-wing aircraft. Unique requirements for engine inlets and rotorcraft are also provided.
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Aircraft Inflight Ice Detectors and Icing Rate Measuring Instruments

2007-07-09
CURRENT
AIR4367A
This document provides information regarding ice detector technology, design and operating requirements. The SAE document AS5498 provides detailed information regarding the requirements, specifications, qualification, and certification of icing detection systems. This document is not meant to replace AS5498 but to enhance it by considering unique aspects of sensing technology and in particular those that may not be certificated at the time of this revision. To that end an effort has been made not to duplicate information contained in AS5498. Icing rate information is included where applicable. The primary application is associated with ice forming on the leading edges of airfoils and inlets while the aircraft is in flight. Information related to detection of ice over cold fuel tanks and icing at low velocity operation is included. The material is primarily applicable to fixed-wing aircraft. Unique requirements for engine inlets and rotorcraft are also provided.
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AIRCRAFT ICE DETECTORS AND ICING RATE MEASURING INSTRUMENTS

1995-04-01
HISTORICAL
AIR4367
This document provides information regarding ice detector technology, and design and operating requirements. Icing rate information is included where applicable. The primary application is associated with ice forming on the leading edges of airfoils and inlets with significant forward velocities. Information related to detection of ice at static conditions, ice over cold fuel tanks, and icing at low velocity operation is also included. The material is primarily applicable to transport and light aircraft. Special consideration for rotorcraft is appended separately.
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Icing Wind Tunnel Interfacility Comparison Tests

2012-10-03
HISTORICAL
AIR5666
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) presents and discusses the results of tests of three models in six icing wind tunnels in North America and Europe. This testing activity was initiated by the Facility Standardization Panel of the SAE AC-9C Aircraft Icing Technology Subcommittee. The objective of the testing activity was to establish a benchmark that compared ice shapes produced by icing wind tunnels available for use by the aviation industry and to use that benchmark as a basis for dialogue between facility owners to improve the state-of-the-art of icing wind tunnel technology.
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Icing Wind Tunnel Interfacility Comparison Tests

2018-10-16
CURRENT
AIR5666A
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) presents and discusses the results of tests of three models in six icing wind tunnels in North America and Europe. This testing activity was initiated by the Facility Standardization Panel of the SAE AC-9C Aircraft Icing Technology Subcommittee. The objective of the testing activity was to establish a benchmark that compared ice shapes produced by icing wind tunnels available for use by the aviation industry and to use that benchmark as a basis for dialogue between facility owners to improve the state-of-the-art of icing wind tunnel technology.
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Aircraft Inflight Icing Terminology

2018-09-27
WIP
ARP5624A
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) provides recommended definitions for terms commonly used in aircraft inflight icing system design and analysis, research, and operations. Some general thermodynamic terms are included that are frequently used in icing analysis, but this document is not meant to be an inclusive list of such terms.
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Aircraft Inflight Icing Terminology

2008-03-03
CURRENT
ARP5624
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) provides recommended definitions for terms commonly used in aircraft inflight icing system design and analysis, research, and operations. Some general thermodynamic terms are included that are frequently used in icing analysis, but this document is not meant to be an inclusive list of such terms.
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Calibration and Acceptance of Icing Wind Tunnels

2015-10-23
WIP
ARP5905A
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) document provides recommended practices for the calibration and acceptance of icing wind tunnels to be used in testing of aircraft components and systems and for the development of simulated ice shapes. This document is not applicable to air-breathing propulsion test facilities configured for the purposes of engine icing tests. Use of facilities as part of an aircraft's ice protection Certification Plan should be reviewed and accepted by the applicable regulatory agency prior to testing. Following acceptance of a test plan, data generated in these facilities may be submitted to regulatory agencies for use in the certification of aircraft ice protection systems and components. Certain types of tests may be appropriate in facilities with capabilities that are not as rigorously characterized as by the practices defined herein, and the acceptability of these tests should be coordinated with the applicable regulatory agency.
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Minimum Operational Performance Specification for Inflight Icing Detection Systems

2001-10-01
HISTORICAL
AS5498
The objective of this Minimum Operational Performance Specification is to specify the minimum performance of onboard inflight icing detection systems. Throughout the document, these devices are referred to as Flight Icing Detection Systems (FIDS). These systems are intended to either provide information which indicates the presence of ice accreted in flight on monitored surfaces or indicate the presence of icing conditions in the atmosphere. They may operate the airplane anti-ice/ deice systems. Detection of ice accreted on the ground is not considered in this document but can be found in ED-104. This MOPS was written for the use of FIDS on airplanes only, as defined in paragraph 1.5. Use on other aircraft may require additional considerations. Chapter 1 of this document provides information required to understand the need for the equipment characteristics and tests defined in the remaining chapters.
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Droplet Sizing Instrumentation Used in Icing Facilities

1995-03-01
CURRENT
AIR4906
A review of droplet sizing instruments used for icing research is presented. These instruments include the Forward Scattering Spectrometer Probe, the Optical Array Probe, the Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer, the Malvern Particle Size Analyzer, the oil slide technique, and the rotating multicylinder. The report focuses on the theory of operation of these instruments and practical considerations when using them in icing facilities.
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Droplet Impingement and Ice Accretion Computer Codes

2003-10-16
CURRENT
ARP5903
This document provides information, guidelines, and practices for the application, use, and administration of two-dimensional and three-dimensional droplet impingement and ice accretion computer codes. The codes provide computational simulations of inflight icing that predict droplet trajectory, water loading, and ice accretion on aircraft components. These ice accretion characteristics are used during the aircraft design and certification process.
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SAE Aerospace Applied Thermodynamics Manual Ice, Rain, Fog, and Frost Protection

2016-08-29
CURRENT
AIR1168/4B
This section presents the basic equations for computing ice protection requirements for nontransparent and transparent surfaces and for fog and frost protection of windshields. Simplified graphical presentations suitable for preliminary design and a description of various types of ice, fog, frost, and rain protection systems are also presented.
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SAE Aerospace Applied Thermodynamics Manual Ice, Rain, Fog, and Frost Protection

2014-01-14
HISTORICAL
AIR1168/4A
This section presents the basic equations for computing ice protection requirements for nontransparent and transparent surfaces and for fog and frost protection of windshields. Simplified graphical presentations suitable for preliminary design and a description of various types of ice, fog, frost, and rain protection systems are also presented.
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Rotor Blade Electrothermal Ice Protection Design Considerations

2019-06-14
WIP
AIR1667B
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) identifies and summarizes the various factors that should be considered during design, development, certification, or testing of helicopter rotor blade ice protection systems. Although various concepts of ice protection are mentioned in this report, the text is limited generally to those factors associated with design and substantiation of cyclic electrothermal ice protection systems as applicable to the protection of helicopter rotor blades. Other systems are described briefly in Appendix A. Applications consider main rotor blades, conventional tail rotor blades, and other types of antitorque devices. The information contained in this report is also limited to the identification of factors that should be considered and why the factor is important. Specific design, analysis and test methodologies are not included. For additional information refer to the references listed in 2.1.
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ROTOR BLADE ELECTROTHERMAL ICE PROTECTION DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

1989-10-01
HISTORICAL
AIR1667
This Aerospace Information Report (AIR) identifies and summarizes the various factors that should be considered during design, development, certification, or testing of helicopter rotor blade ice protection. Although various concepts of ice protection are mentioned in this report, the text is limited generally to those factors associated with design and substantiation of cyclic electrothermal ice protection systems as applicable to the protection of helicopter rotor blades. Other systems are described briefly in Appendix A. Applications consider main rotor blades, conventional tail rotor blades, and other types of antitorque devices. The information contained in this report is also limited to the identification of factors that should be considered and why the factor is important. Specific design, analysis and test methodologies are not included. For additional information refer to the references in Section 7.
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Rotor Blade Electrothermal Ice Protection Design Considerations

2002-09-30
CURRENT
AIR1667A
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) identifies and summarizes the various factors that should be considered during design, development, certification, or testing of helicopter rotor blade ice protection systems. Although various concepts of ice protection are mentioned in this report, the text is limited generally to those factors associated with design and substantiation of cyclic electrothermal ice protection systems as applicable to the protection of helicopter rotor blades. Other systems are described briefly in Appendix A. Applications consider main rotor blades, conventional tail rotor blades, and other types of antitorque devices. The information contained in this report is also limited to the identification of factors that should be considered and why the factor is important. Specific design, analysis and test methodologies are not included. For additional information refer to the references listed in 2.1.
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Airborne Icing Tankers

2002-10-21
CURRENT
ARP5904
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) document establishes criteria and recommended practices for the use of airborne icing tankers to aid in design and certification of aircraft ice protection systems and components. Several icing tankers are described, along with their capabilities and suggested use. Sample data for these tanker spray systems are included, shown with 14 CFR Parts 25 and 29, Appendix C icing envelopes for continuous maximum and intermittent maximum icing conditions. (Note: In the remainder of this document, the phrase “Appendix C icing envelopes” will be used for brevity.) This ARP is intended as a guide toward standard practice and is subject to change to keep pace with experience and technical advances.
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