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Technical Paper

Water and Heat Balance in a Fuel Cell Vehicle with a Sodium Borohydride Hydrogen Fuel Processor

2003-06-23
2003-01-2271
The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) collaborated with Millennium Cell and DaimlerChrysler to study heat and water management in a sodium borohydride (NaBH4) storage/processor used to supply hydrogen to a fuel cell in an automotive application. Knowledge of heat and water flows in this system is necessary to maximize the storage concentration of NaBH4, which increases vehicle range. This work helps evaluate the NaBH4 system's potential to meet the FreedomCAR program technical target of 6 wt% hydrogen for hydrogen storage technologies. This paper also illustrates the advantages of integrating the NaBH4 hydrogen processor with the fuel cell.
Technical Paper

A Modular Battery Management System for HEVs

2002-06-03
2002-01-1918
Proper electric and thermal management of an HEV battery pack, consisting of many modules of cells, is imperative. During operation, voltage and temperature differences in the modules/cells can lead to electrical imbalances from module to module and decrease pack performance by as much as 25%. An active battery management system (BMS) is a must to monitor, control, and balance the pack. The University of Toledo, with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy and in collaboration with DaimlerChrysler and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory has developed a modular battery management system for HEVs. This modular unit is a 2nd generation system, as compared to a previous 1st generation centralized system. This 2nd generation prototype can balance a battery pack based on cell-to-cell measurements and active equalization. The system was designed to work with several battery types, including lithium ion, NiMH, or lead acid.
Journal Article

A Second Life for Electric Vehicle Batteries: Answering Questions on Battery Degradation and Value

2015-04-14
2015-01-1306
Battery second use-putting used plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) batteries into secondary service following their automotive tenure-has been proposed as a means to decrease the cost of PEVs while providing low cost energy storage to other fields (e.g., electric utility markets). To understand the value of used automotive batteries, however, we must first answer several key questions related to battery degradation, including: How long will PEV batteries last in automotive service? How healthy will PEV batteries be when they leave automotive service? How long will retired PEV batteries last in second-use service? How well can we best predict the second-use lifetime of a used automotive battery? Under the support of the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory has developed a methodology and the requisite tools to answer these questions, including the Battery Lifetime Simulation Tool (BLAST).
Technical Paper

A Techno-Economic Analysis of PEV Battery Second Use: Repurposed-Battery Selling Price and Commercial and Industrial End-User Value

2012-04-16
2012-01-0349
Accelerated market penetration of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) is presently restricted by the high cost of batteries. Deployment of grid-connected energy storage, which could increase the reliability, efficiency, and cleanliness of the grid, is similarly inhibited by the cost of batteries. Research, development, and manufacturing are underway to reduce cost by lowering material costs, enhance process efficiencies, and increase production volumes. Another approach under consideration is to recover a fraction of the battery cost after the battery has been retired from vehicular service via reuse in other applications, where it may still have sufficient performance to meet the requirements of other energy-storage applications.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Life Across Geographies and Drive Cycles

2012-04-16
2012-01-0666
In a laboratory environment, it is cost prohibitive to run automotive battery aging experiments across a wide range of possible ambient environment, drive cycle, and charging scenarios. Because worst-case scenarios drive the conservative sizing of electric-drive vehicle batteries, it is useful to understand how and why those scenarios arise and what design or control actions might be taken to mitigate them. In an effort to explore this problem, this paper applies a semi-empirical life model of the graphite/nickel-cobalt-aluminum lithium-ion chemistry to investigate calendar degradation for various geographic environments and simplified cycling scenarios. The life model is then applied to analyze complex cycling conditions using battery charge/discharge profiles generated from simulations of plug-in electric hybrid vehicles (PHEV10 and PHEV40) vehicles across 782 single-day driving cycles taken from a Texas travel survey.
Technical Paper

A Techno-Economic Analysis of BEV Service Providers Offering Battery Swapping Services

2013-04-08
2013-01-0500
Battery electric vehicles (BEVs) offer the potential to reduce both oil imports and greenhouse gas emissions, but high upfront costs, battery-limited vehicle range, and concern over high battery replacement costs may discourage potential buyers. A subscription model in which a service provider owns the battery and supplies access to battery swapping infrastructure could reduce upfront and battery replacement costs with a predictable monthly fee, while expanding BEV range. Assessing the costs and benefits of such a proposal are complicated by many factors, including customer drive patterns, the amount of required infrastructure, battery life, etc. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory has applied its Battery Ownership Model to compare the economics and utility of BEV battery swapping service plan options to more traditional direct ownership options.
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