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Technical Paper

(Nano) Particles from 2-S Scooters: SOF / INSOF; Improvements of Aftertreatment; Toxicity

2007-04-16
2007-01-1089
Limited and non-regulated emissions of scooters were analysed during several annual research programs of the Swiss Federal Office of Environment (BAFU) *). Small scooters, which are very much used in the congested centers of several cities, are a remarkable source of air pollution. Therefore every effort to reduce the emissions is an important contribution to improve the air quality in urban centers. In the present work detailed investigations of particle emissions of different 2-stroke scooters with direct injection and with carburettor were performed. The nanoparticulate emissions were measured by means of SMPS, (CPC) and NanoMet. Also the particle mass emission (PM) was measured with the same method as for Diesel engines. Extensive analyses of PM-residuum for SOF/INSOF, PAH and toxicity equivalence (TEQ), were carried out in an international project network. Particle mass emission (PM) of 2-S Scooters consists mostly of SOF.
Technical Paper

Combinations of Technical Measures for Reduction of Particle Emissions & Toxicity of 2-S Scooters

2009-04-20
2009-01-0689
2- and 3-wheelers with 2-S propulsion are still a very serious source of air pollution worldwide in many urban areas. Therefore, every effort to reduce the emissions of those vehicles is an important contribution to improve the air quality. In the present work detailed investigations of regulated emissions and of particle emissions of 2-stroke scooters with direct injection and with carburator were performed. To demonstrate the emission reduction potentials some possibilities of emission improvements were grouped into steps. These technical measures were: ○ Higher tier lube oils ○ Lower oil dosing ○ Active oxidation catalyst ○ Supplementary filtration & oxidation devise (WFC) **) ○ Special fuel. Particle mass and nanoparticles (number), which are amply present in 2-stroke exhaust gas and which contribute strongly to the toxicity level are still unlimited by the international exhaust gas legislation. They were extensively investigated in the present project series.
Technical Paper

Influences of Different Exhaust Filter Configurations on Emissions of a 2-Stroke Scooter Peugeot TSDI

2011-09-11
2011-24-0203
Exhaust emissions measurements of a small 2-S Scooter Peugeot TSDI*), 50cc with different particle filters have been performed in this present work according to the measuring procedures, which were established in the previous research in the Swiss Scooter Network, [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9]. The investigated particle filtration materials were supplied from different manufacturers as samples without specifications and they were applied by the research laboratory in a special muffler able to be taken apart. The investigated scooter represented a modern (2002) 2-stroke technology with direct injection, with oxidation catalyst and with injection of the lube oil to the intake air. Since there is a special concern about the particle emissions of the small engines, the particle mass and nanoparticle measurements were systematically carried out. The nanoparticulate emissions were measured by means of SMPS (CPC) and NanoMet*).
Technical Paper

Investigations of Changes of the 2-Stroke Scooters Nanoparticles in the Exhaust- and CVS-System

2013-09-08
2013-24-0178
Nanoparticle emissions of two 2-stroke scooters were investigated along the exhaust and the CVS (Constant Volume Sampling) systems. Two configurations were tested: regular full-flow dilution configuration (denoted as “closed”) and also a modified sampling configuration (denoted as “open”). The scooters represent two distinct modern technologies. One scooter had direct injection TSDI*) (Two-Stroke Direct Injection). The other had a carburettor. Depending on the technology, the scooters produce different kind of aerosols (state-of-oxidation and SOF content). Moreover, the scooters were operated with and without oxidation catalyst. The tests were performed at two constant vehicular speeds (20 km/h and 40 km/h). The measuring procedures are those established during the previous research of the Swiss Scooter Network. The nanoparticulate emissions were measured using SMPS (Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer) and DC (Diffusion Charging) sensors.
Technical Paper

Diesel NO/NO2/NOX Emissions - New Experiences and Challenges

2007-04-16
2007-01-0321
During the VERT *) testing of different DPF systems it was remarked, that the oxidation catalyst converts sometimes a big part of NO to NO2, producing on the one hand a more toxic composition of the exhaust gases and causing on the other hand measuring artefacts, which tend to underestimate of NO2 and NOx by the cold NOx - measurement. The present work summarizes the experiences in this matter elaborated at the Laboratories for IC-Engines & Exhaust Emissions Control (AFHB) of the University of Applied Sciences Biel-Bienne, Switzerland, during several VERT activities and didactic projects on engine and chassis dynamometers in the years 2000-2006.
Technical Paper

Nanoparticle Filtration for Vehicle Cabins

2008-04-14
2008-01-0827
A filter system is presented which allows the reduction of the concentration of ultrafine particles in vehicle cabins to very low levels. The original ventilation system is switched to the recirculation mode and all cabin intake air is supplied via a retrofitted filter system. Tests with a variety of different vehicles (from passenger cars to coaches) show the efficiency of the system.
Technical Paper

Features of the Particulate Emission and Regenerations of Different DPF's on a Detroit Diesel 2-Stroke Bus Engine

2004-03-08
2004-01-0825
Different Diesel Particle Filters (DPF)*) were tested on a 2-Stroke Detroit-Diesel bus engine 6V 92 TA. The investigations focused on soot burden and regeneration of the DPF with special filter materials. Also examined was promoting the regeneration by: throttling, additive (FBC), oxidation catalytic converter upstream of DPF and the catalytic coating of the filter material. The metrics were the particulate matter emission, its composition and the nanoparticles. The most important results are: The average SOF content in the engine exhaust particulate matter is 77.6 % and the majority of it is emitted as bigger droplets The wire-mesh filter catalyst (WFC) - a novel emission reduction technology -substantially curtails the SOF and PM. WFC traps and oxidizes the oil droplets and produces a “dry” soot. This can be very advantageous for the DPF downstream of WFC. (WFC can be also very interesting for 2-S gasoline engines).
Technical Paper

PN-Emissions of Gasoline Cars MPI and Potentials of GPF

2018-04-03
2018-01-0363
Further efforts to reduce the air pollution from traffic are undertaken worldwide and the filtration of exhaust gas will also be increasingly applied on gasoline cars (GPF1 … gasoline particle filter). In the present paper, some results of investigations of nanoparticles from four MPI gasoline cars are represented. The measurements were performed at vehicle tailpipe and in CVS-tunnel. Moreover, two variants of GPF were investigated on a high-emitting modern vehicle, including analytics of PAH and attempts of soot loading in road application. The modern MPI vehicles can emit a considerable amount of PN, which in some cases attains the level of Diesel exhaust gas without DPF and can pass over the actual European limit value for GDI (6.0 x 1011 #/km). The GPF-technology offers in this respect further poten-tials to reduce the PN-emissions of traffic.
Technical Paper

Diesel Emissions with DPF & SCR and Toxic Potentials with BioDiesel (RME) Blend Fuels

2013-04-08
2013-01-0523
The use of alternative fuels and among them the biofuels of 1st generation - fatty acid methyl esters FAME's and pure plants oils - for propulsion of IC engines is an important objective in several countries in order to save the fossil fuels and to limit the CO₂ production. The properties of bio-fuels and bio-blend-fuels can vary and this has an impact on the operation and emissions of diesel engines and on the modern exhaust aftertreatment systems. The present paper represents the most important results obtained with RME at AFHB, EMPA and EC-JRC. Most of the activities were performed in the network project BioExDi (Biofuels, Exhaust Systems Diesel) in collaboration between industry and research institutes.
Technical Paper

NO2-Formation in Diesel Particle Filter Systems

2013-04-08
2013-01-0526
NO₂ is much more toxic than NO. The average proportion of NO₂ in exhaust gases of vehicles increases significantly due to the use of oxidation catalysts and catalytic coatings in the exhaust gas systems during the last decades combined with generalization of using low sulfur fuels. Diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC) and Pt-containing DPF coatings are widely used to support the regeneration of particle filters, being a source of strongly increased production of NO₂. The present work shows some examples and summarizes the experiences in this matter performed at the Laboratories for IC-Engines & Exhaust Emissions Control (AFHB) of the University of Applied Sciences Biel-Bienne, Switzerland, during some research activities on engine dynamometers in the years 2010-2012.
Technical Paper

Catalyst Aging and Effects on Particle Emissions of 2-Stroke Scooters

2008-04-14
2008-01-0455
An active oxidation catalyst is an efficient measure to reduce not only gaseous components (CO, HC), but also particle emissions (mostly oil condensates) of a small 2-stroke engine with lost oil lubrication. Since the 2- and 3-wheelers with 2-stroke propulsion are still a very serious source of air pollution worldwide in many urban areas, it is important to have a look on some consequences of an improperly working catalyst. The present paper shows some results of user-oriented aging of catalyst on the vehicle and results of limited emissions and unlimited (nano)particles during the catalysts screening tests. The works are a part of an international scooter network project, which was performed (2004 to 2007) in the Laboratories for IC-Engines & Exhaust Emission Control of the University of Applied Sciences, Biel, Switzerland with main support of the Swiss Federal Office of Environment (BAFU), Swiss Petrol Union (EV) and Swiss Lubes (VSS).
Technical Paper

Diesel Emission with DPF+SCR in VERTdePN - Testing & Potentials

2011-04-12
2011-01-1139
The most efficient way and the best available technology (BAT) to radically reduce the critical diesel emission components particles (PM&NP) and nitric oxides (NOx) are combined exhaust gas aftertreatment systems (DPF+SCR). SCR (selective catalytic reduction) is regarded as the most efficient deNOx-system, diesel particle filters are most efficient for soot abatement. Today, several suppliers offer combined systems for retrofitting of HD vehicles. The presented results are part of the work in the international network project VERT *) dePN (de-activation, de-contamination, disposal of particles and NOx), which has the objectives to establish test procedures and quality standards and to introduce the SCR-, or combined DPF+SCR-systems in the VERT verification procedure.
Technical Paper

Research on Particle Emissions of Modern 2-Stroke Scooters

2006-04-03
2006-01-1078
Limited and nonlimited emissions of scooters were analysed during several annual research programs of the Swiss Agency of Environment Forests and Landscape (SAEFL, BUWAL)*). Small scooters, which are very much used in the congested centers of several cities are a remarkable source of air pollution. Therefore every effort to reduce the emissions is an important contribution to improve the air quality in urban centers. In the present work detailed investigations of particle emissions of different 2-stroke scooters with direct injection and with carburetor were performed. The nanoparticulate emissions with different lube oils and fuels were measured by means of SMPS, (CPC) and NanoMet *). Also the particle mass emission (PM) was measured with the same method as for Diesel engines. Extensive analyses of PM-residuum for PAH & SOF/INSOF, as well as for VOC were carried out in an international project network.
Technical Paper

Investigations of NO2 in Legal Test Procedure for Diesel Passenger Cars

2015-09-06
2015-24-2510
As a result of increased use of catalytic exhaust aftertreatment systems of vehicles and the low-sulfur Diesel fuels there is an increasing share of nitrogen dioxide NO2 in the ambient air of several cities. This is in spite of lowering the summary nitric oxides NOx emissions from vehicles. NO2 is much more toxic than nitrogen monoxide NO and it will be specially considered in the next legal testing procedures. There are doubts about the accuracy of analyzing the reactive substances from diluted gas and this project has the objective to show how NO2 is changing as it travels down through the exhaust- and the CVS systems. For legal measurements of NO2 a WLTP-DTP subgroup (Worldwide Light Duty Test Procedures - Diesel Test Procedures) proposed different combinations of NOx-analyzers and analysis of NO and NOx. Some of these set-ups were tested in this work.
Technical Paper

Reliability of DPF-Systems: Experience with 6000 Applications of the Swiss Retrofit Fleet

2004-03-08
2004-01-0076
The Swiss 1998 Ordinance on Air Pollution Control (OAPC) mandates curtailment of carcinogenic Diesel particle emissions at construction sites [4]. In addition particle traps are compulsory at underground workplaces [3]. In compliance, more than 6,000 Diesel engines were retrofitted with different particle trap systems. Many traps surpassed 99% filtration efficiency, from the beginning, and secondary emissions were mostly prevented. However, trap failure due to mechanical and thermal damage was initially rather high at about 10%. By Y-2000 the failure rate was halved to about 6%. Thanks to focussed improvements, the Y-2003 statistics show yearly failures of “only” about 2%. The Swiss target is to retrofit 15,000 construction machines with traps, fully compliant with environmental directives, having 5,000 operating hours durability and failure rates below 1%. Construction machines have much higher PM-emission factors than trucks, and are operated more intensely than tractors.
Technical Paper

Emissions of small 2S-SI-Engine for Handheld Machinery-Nanoparticulates & Particulate Matter

2001-12-01
2001-01-1830
1 Small off-road 2-stroke SI-engines have very high pollutant emissions. The Swiss environmental protection agency (BUWAL) investigates the state of the technology and emissions with the scope to show the potential of improvements by means of the best available technology (BAT) and to motivate the consumers to use the more sophisticated equipment and cleaner fuels to protect their health and the environment. In the present work emission measurements of chainsaws were performed with a special concern of particulate emissions. Particulates were analysed by means of: gravimetry, SMPS, NanoMet and differential analysis of filter residue. The varied conditions were: A/F-ratio, lube-oil content and the fuel quality. It has been shown, that the particulate mass and the nanoparticle numbers, which both consisting almost exclusively of unburned lube-oil, attain very high values. They are strongly influenced by the mixture tuning and by the lube-oil content.
Technical Paper

DPF's Regeneration Procedures and Emissions with RME Blend Fuels

2012-04-16
2012-01-0844
The fatty acid methyl esters (FAME's) - in Europe mostly RME (Rapeseed methyl ester) - are used in several countries as alternative biogene diesel fuels in various blending ratios with fossil fuels (Bxx). Questions often arise about the influences of these biocomponents on the modern exhaust aftertreatment systems and especially on the regeneration of diesel particle filters (DPF). In the present work different regeneration procedures of DPF systems were investigated with biofuels B0, B20 & B100. The tested regeneration procedures were: - passive regenerations: DOC + CSF; CSF alone, and - active regenerations: standstill burner; fuel injections & DOC. During each regeneration on-line measurements of regulated and unregulated emission components (nanoparticles & FTIR) were conducted. It can be stated that the increased portion of RME in fuel provokes longer time periods to charge the filter with soot.
Technical Paper

Metal Oxide Particle Emissions from Diesel and Petrol Engines

2012-04-16
2012-01-0841
All internal combustion piston engines emit solid nanoparticles. Some are soot particles resulting from incomplete combustion of fuels, or lube oil. Some particles are metal compounds, most probably metal oxides. A major source of metal compound particles is engine abrasion. The lube oil transports these abraded particles into the combustion zone. There they are partially vaporized and ultrafine oxide particles formed through nucleation [1]. Other sources are the metallic additives to the lube oil, metallic additives in the fuel, and debris from the catalytic coatings in the exhaust-gas emission control devices. The formation process results in extremely fine particles, typically smaller than 50 nm. Thus they intrude through the alveolar membranes directly into the human organism. The consequent health risk necessitates a careful investigation of these emissions and effective curtailment.
Technical Paper

Emissions Concept for Vehicle Diesel Engine Supercharged with COMPREX®

1988-02-01
880008
The main components of vehicle diesel engine emissions are nitrogen oxides and particulates. The emissions concept adopted for pressure-wave supercharging with controlled EGR and particulate trap, focuses on both components. In conjunction with electronic EGR-control the spontaneous response of the supercharger achieves minimum deviations from optimum air excess values, even during transients. In the US city cycle an NOx reduction to 35 % of the reference emission, without sacrificing fuel economy was established. Featuring a particulate trap arranged between engine and supercharger this system increases the regeneration probability and as a result of the improved supercharsinp, efficiency achieves satisfactory transient behavior, Catalytic coating of the rotor constitutes an additional means of reducing emissions.
Technical Paper

VERTdePN Quality Test Procedures of DPF+SCR Systems

2014-04-01
2014-01-1579
The combined exhaust gas aftertreatment systems (DPF+SCR) are the most efficient way and the best available technology (BAT) to radically reduce the critical Diesel emission components particles (PM&NP) and nitric oxides (NOx). SCR (selective catalytic reduction) is regarded as the most efficient deNOx-system, diesel particle filters are most efficient for soot abatement. Today, several suppliers offer combined systems for retrofitting of HD vehicles. Quality standards for those quite complex systems and especially for retrofit systems are needed to enable decisions of several authorities and to estimate the potentials of improvements of the air quality in highly populated agglomerations. The present paper informs about the VERTdePN *) quality test procedures, which were developed in an international network project with the same name 2007-2011 (VERT … Verification of Emission Reduction Technologies; dePN … decontamination, disposal of PM / NP and of NOx).
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