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Technical Paper

FUELLING A AGRICULTURE DIESEL ENGINE WITH DERIVATIVE OF PALM OIL

2004-01-16
2004-28-0039
As neat crude palm oil is not ideally suitable as a fuel for diesel engines because of its high viscosity; process of transesterification was adopted to develop methyl ester of palm oil that approximate the properties and performance of hydrocarbon-based diesel fuel. Various properties of the methyl ester of palm oil were evaluated and compared in relation with that of neat diesel. The prepared methyl ester of palm oil, blended in different concentrations with neat diesel was then subjected to performance and emission tests in order to evaluate its suitability in diesel engine. The data thus generated were compared with base line data generated from neat diesel. An optimal blend of 10-20% methyl ester of palm oil with neat diesel exhibited best performance and smooth engine operation without any symptoms of undesired combustion phenomenon. This suggests use of 10-20% of biodiesel developed from palm oil in diesel engine with out any difficulty.
Technical Paper

Study of Performance and Emissions Parameters of Single Cylinder Diesel Engine Fuelled with Micro Emulsion of Jatropha Oil and Ethanol

2017-10-08
2017-01-2331
The use of alternative fuel has many advantages and the main ones are its renewability, biodegradability with better quality exhaust gas emission, which do not contribute to raise the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. The use of non-edible vegetables oils as an alternative fuels for diesel engine is accelerated by the energy crisis due to depletion of resources and increase in environmental problems. In Asian countries like India, great need of edible oil as a food so cannot use these oils as alternative fuels for diesel engine. However there are many issues related to the use of vegetable oils in diesel engine that is high viscosity, low calorific value, high self-ignition temperature etc. Jatropha curcas has been promoted in India as a sustainable substitute to diesel fuel. This research prepared micro emulsions of ethanol and Jatropha vegetable oil in different ratio and find out the physico-chemical parameters to compare with mineral diesel oil.
Technical Paper

Potential Utilization of CNG in Stationary HCCI Engine

2013-10-14
2013-01-2508
Internal combustion engines are extensively used in every field of life in today's world. Diesel engines being more efficient are preferred in the industrial and transportation sector in comparison to spark ignition engines for their higher efficiency, versatility and ruggedness. The major emissions of diesel engines are oxides of nitrogen (NOx), particulate matter (PM), carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO). Among these emissions, oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and the particulate matter are the reasons of serious concern. For reduction of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter simultaneously, the use of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) have provided a sustainable solution in the present scenario. Further, the use of CNG in HCCI engine along with pilot diesel injection; the emissions have been decreased drastically. Homogeneous mixing of fuel and air leads to cleaner combustion and lower emissions.
Technical Paper

Scope of Regenerative (Magnetic) Braking in the Production of Electricity in Automobiles

2013-10-14
2013-01-2543
It is of common knowledge that tapping all the feasible sources of energy and systems which prevent losses is the need of the hour. Currently, many such systems have been developed including “REGENERATIVE BRAKING”. The usual method for regenerative braking includes using a dynamo attached to the crankshaft which gets charged when the wheel rotates during idling. However, this study aims at doing this differently by attaching the regenerative system at the wheels. Considering an example of wastage of energy, a 1000 kg car brakes from 36km/h (10m/s) to 18km/h (5m/s) about 150 times in a liter consumption of diesel. We can safely calculate wastage of 5625 KJ of kinetic energy. This paper aims to explore this immense potential source of energy recovery by producing & storing electricity using magnetic braking on wheels of automobiles.
Technical Paper

Performance Analyses of Diesel Engine at Different Injection Angles Using Water Diesel Emulsion

2013-09-17
2013-01-2170
Globally, transportation is the second largest energy consuming sector after the industrial sector and is completely dependent on petroleum products and alternative technologies. So, fossil fuel consumption for energy requirement is a primary concern and can be addressed with the fuel consumption reduction technologies. Transportation sector is mainly using diesel engines because of production of high thermal efficiency and higher torque at lower RPM. Therefore, diesel consumption should be targeted for future energy security and this can be primarily controlled by the petroleum fuel substitution techniques for existing diesel engines. Some of the fuel, which includes biodiesel, alcohol-diesel emulsions and diesel water emulsions etc. Among which the diesel water emulsion (DWE) is found to be most suitable fuel due to reduction in particulate matter and NOx emission, besides that it also improves the brake thermal efficiency.
Technical Paper

Performance Based Optimization of Intake and Injection Parameters of an Advanced Compressed Air Engine Kit

2017-03-28
2017-01-1291
The increment in the application of fossil fuels is leading the world into a catastrophic state both environmentally and economically. Current demand for fuels exceeds its imminent supply and rather sooner than later energy demands will have to shift towards non-conventional fuels to cope with the situation. With constant developments in the automotive sector, several solutions have been found but none have been as good as gasoline to substitute it in the commercial market. One such solution being compressed air might solve this global fuel crisis, which serves a glowing advantage of being cheaper and greener as it produces zero tail-pipe emissions, and can help in decreasing automobile’s contribution to global warming. Though the potential energy stored in the compressed air limits its application to light duty vehicles and still there will be a need for other alternative solutions for the heavy duty vehicles in order to relieve the pressure from the fossil fuels.
Technical Paper

Performance Evaluation and Emission Characteristics of Biodiesel-Alcohol-Diesel Blends Fuelled in VCR Engine

2016-10-17
2016-01-2265
The diesel engine has for many decades now assumed a leading role in both the medium and medium-large transport sector due to their high efficiency and ability to produce high torque at low RPM. Furthermore, energy diversification and petroleum independence are also required by each country. In response to this, biodiesel is being considered as a promising solution due to its high calorific value and lubricity conventional petroleum diesel. However, commercial use of biodiesel has been limited because of some drawbacks including corrosivity, instability of fuel properties, higher viscosity, etc. Biodiesel are known for lower CO, HC and PM emissions. But, on the flip side they produce higher NOx emissions. The addition of alcohol to biodiesel diesel blend can help in reducing high NOx produced by the biodiesel while improving some physical fuel properties.
Technical Paper

Performance and Emission Analysis of a CI Engine in Dual Mode with CNG and Karanja Oil Methyl Ester

2014-09-30
2014-01-2327
Rapid depletion of fossil fuels is urgently demanding an extensive research work to find out the viable alternative fuel for meeting sustainable energy demand without any environmental impact. In the future, our energy systems will need to be renewable, sustainable, efficient, cost-effective, convenient and safe. Therefore, researchers has shown interest towards alternative fuels like vegetable oils, alcohols, LPG, CNG, Producer gas, biogas in order to substitute conventional fuel i.e. diesel used in compression ignition (CI) engine. However, studies have suggested that trans-esterified vegetable oils retain quite similar physico-chemical properties comparable to diesel. Besides having several advantages, its use is restricted due to higher emissions i.e. NOx, CO, HC and deposits due to improper combustion. Hence, there is a need of cleaner fuel for diesel engines for the forthcoming stringent emissions norms and the fossil depletion.
Technical Paper

Tribological Performance of Lubricating Oil Contaminated with Fine Dust Particles

2014-09-30
2014-01-2334
The economics of operating internal combustion engines in cars, buses and other automotive equipment is heavily affected by friction and wear losses caused by abrasive contaminants. As such, dust is a universal pollutant of lubricating oils. Road dust consists of depositions from vehicular and industrial exhausts, tire and brake wear, dust from paved roads or potholes, and from construction sites. Present research investigates the influence of dust powder of size 5 μm-100 μm as contaminant in SAE 20W-40 lubricant on the relative motion of a plane surface over the other having circular surface in contact. A pin-on-disk setup as per ASTM G99 has been used to conduct the experiments, firstly at increasing rpm keeping constant load of 118 N, and secondly by increasing loads, keeping rpm constant at 1000. The contaminated lubricant has been used to study its influence on friction and wear rate at the interface of pin of 12 mm diameter and disk at track diameter of 98 mm.
Technical Paper

Transient Analysis of Natural Convection around a Pair of Circular Cylinders inside a Square Enclosure

2018-04-03
2018-01-0776
Heat exchangers are widely used in various transportation, industrial, or domestic applications such as thermal power plants, means of heating, transporting and air conditioning systems, electronic equipment and space vehicles. In all these applications improvements in the efficiency of the heat exchangers can lead to substantial cost, space and material savings. Hence considerable research work has been done in the past to seek effective ways to improve the efficiency of heat exchangers. In this paper the effect of natural convection is justified between exterior solid wall surfaces and the surrounding air inside the enclosure. Designing of electronic devices, heavy industrial equipments such as boilers, turbines etc. and building aerodynamics are some of the real world application associated with this study.
Technical Paper

Development of a Dedicated Hydrogen Port Injection Kit for Small Engines

2015-09-29
2015-01-2881
The danger posed by climate change and the striving for securities of energy supply are issues high on the political agenda these days. Governments are putting strategic plans in motion to decrease primary energy use, take carbon out of fuels and facilitate modal shifts. Man's energy requirements are touching astronomical heights. The natural resources of the Earth can no longer cope with it as their rate of consumption far outruns their rate of regeneration. The automotive sector is without a doubt a chief contributor to this mayhem as fossil fuel resources are fast depleting. The harmful emissions from vehicles using these fuels are destroying our forests and contaminating our water bodies and even the air that we breathe. The need of the hour is to look not only for new alternative energy resources but also clean energy resources. Hydrogen is expected to be one of the most important fuels in the near future to meet the stringent emission norms.
Technical Paper

Utilization of Blends of Biodiesel and Higher Alcohols in a Small Capacity Diesel Engine

2019-04-02
2019-01-0580
Diesel engine widely uses in India in farming, transportation, and industrial sectors due to higher thermal efficiency, robust construction and heavy load carrying capacity. However, diesel engine emits a large number of gaseous emissions and particulate matter which caused serious detrimental environmental consequences and health hazards. The use of biofuel has shown a positive impact in resolving these issues of environmental degradation. India is also a net importer of petroleum-derived fuels and a substantial amount in precious foreign exchange is spent for this. In the last three decades in India, a lot of research work on renewable diesel-like fuels have been carried out, and the most promising of them is biodiesel. However,Biodiesel suffers from the drawback of relatively higher kinematic viscosity. But higher alcohols such as n-butanol and n-octanol could be blended with the biodiesel to bring its properties similar to diesel fuel.
Technical Paper

Design and Modelling of Single Cylinder 4 Stroke Gasoline Engine Crankshaft

2019-04-02
2019-01-0767
The crankshaft translates the reciprocatory motion of the piston into rotary motion. A flywheel is generally connected to the crankshaft to reduce the vibrating characteristic of four stroke cycle. Counterweights are added for each reciprocating piston to provide engine balance while operating. Gasoline engines have curtailed compression ratio therefore shorter stoke length as a deduction have higher RPM in comparison to diesel counterpart. A crankshaft is subjected to enormous stresses, potentially equivalent of several tones of force. Failure of the crankshaft is predominantly due to violent vibrations, insufficient lubrication, excessively pressurized cylinder. This research aims to examine the stress subjected to acute points on a crankshaft. Three dimension model of 4 stroke single cylinder engine crankshaft is modeled using SolidWorks v18. End conditions were applied taking into consideration the engine mountings of the crankshaft.
Technical Paper

Some Experimental Studies on the Use of Tyre Pyrolysis Oil (TPO) in an Agricultural Diesel Engine

2019-04-02
2019-01-0796
Globally, the demand for energy is increasing due to both increase in population and enhancement in the lifestyle of people. Most of the energy demand at present is met from fossil fuels, which are not only exhaustible but also a threat to the environment. Various routes of sustainable energy resources are being explored to address the above-mentioned issues and fuel made from used tyre may be one of the promising options. India is one of the fastest growing economies and every year 10 million new vehicles are registered. Due to poor road conditions, nearly fourfold tyres of this number are dumped as waste. This large stock of dumped tyres are non-biodegradable and creates other problems like a breeding site for mosquitos, or source of pollution in case of accidental fire. In order to cope with the large pile-up of used tyres, pyrolysis of these tyres could be a sustainable route.
Technical Paper

Study of Performance and Emission Characteristics of Propan-2-ol and Gasoline Fuel Blends in an Unmodified Spark Ignition Engine

2019-04-02
2019-01-0793
In view of the rapid depletion, increasing prices and uneven distribution of conventional petroleum fuels; the interest in the use of alternative fuels has increased exponentially. Fuels such as biodiesel & alcohol have been evaluated both at experimental and commercial scale due to improved emission characteristics as compared to conventional fuels. Alcohols are oxygenated and result in improving the engine performance. As a blend with conventional gasoline, the alcohols enhance the premixed and diffusive combustion phase which improves the combustion efficiency. The present investigation evaluates studies on stability and homogeneity along with physicochemical properties like density, viscosity, calorific value, copper-strip corrosion and solubility at room temperature of Propan-2-ol and gasoline blends. Comprehensive engine trials on unmodified petrol engine fuelled with blends of Propan-2-ol and gasoline blends in the proportions of 5, 10, 15 and 20% by volume have been conducted.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigations of Metal Oxide Nano-Additives on Working Characteristics of CI Engine

2019-04-02
2019-01-0794
Biodiesel is a potential substitute for diesel and extensive research is carried in India on production and utilization of biodiesel from a variety of edible/non-edible, animal fat and waste oils. However, issues like stability, clogging, increased NOx, and high consumption rate etc. are some of the critical issues which are associated with long-term use of these alternative fuels in a diesel engine. The recent developments in science and technology may have concreted a method to create nano measure vigorous resources that have incredible benefits to micron sized constituents. Nano liquids may be a fresh period of compact-fluid complex constituents comprising of nano sized concrete elements disseminated into a base liquid. The present study investigates the effect of doping metal oxides nanoparticles with waste fish oil-based biodiesel. For the present study, the blends of fuel are prepared by using 30ppm each of titanium dioxide and alumina nanoparticles respectively.
Technical Paper

Effect of Using Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) on the Emission Characteristics of the CI Engine Fuelled by Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol (ABE) Diesel Blends

2019-04-02
2019-01-0748
The power generation, agriculture, and transportation sectors are dominated by diesel engines due to better thermal efficiency and durability. Diesel engines are also a major contributor to the air pollutants such as NOx and particulate matter. Acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) is considered a promising alternative fuel as it emits less pollutants compared to conventional fuels. In current work, the ABE used was of the ratio (3:6:1) and four samples were prepared for engine trial ABE (10%90%diesel), ABE (20%80%diesel), ABE (30%70%diesel) and ABE (40%60%diesel). Their physio-chemical properties like kinematic viscosity, density, specific gravity and calorific value were checked and tested on compression ignition engine at different operating parameters. The experimental work was conducted upon Kirloskar 4-stroke single cylinder, vertical, air-cooled 661cc compression ignition engine at different speeds and loads.
Technical Paper

Comparative Study on Performance and Emission Characteristics of Fish Oil Biodiesel and Mahua Oil Biodiesel Blend with Diesel and Diesel Fuel in a Medium Capacity Compression Ignition Employing Urea-SCR with Cu-ZSM5

2014-04-01
2014-01-1499
The present world scenario faces a serious threat from increasing dependence on fossil fuels. This has triggered the awareness to find alternative energy as their sustainable energy sources. Biodiesel as a cleaner renewable fuel may be considered as a good substitution for diesel fuel due to it being used in any compression ignition engine without any modification. The main advantages of using biodiesel are its renewability and better quality of exhaust gas emissions. In terms of emissions from biodiesel, the cause of concern continues to be the NOx emissions. Therefore, to compliment the functioning of biodiesels, Urea-SCR over Cu-ZSM5 catalyst is an effective option due to its ability to convert NOx into nitrogen and water. There has been increasing concerns that biodiesel feedstock may compete with food supply in the long term. The recent paper focuses on use of two non-edible oils mahua oil and fish oil (processed from waste produced by fish).
Technical Paper

Studying Synthesis of Thermally and Chemically Modified Plant Oil and their Tribological Evaluation for Use as a Base Stock for Environmentally Friendly Bio-Lubricant

2014-04-01
2014-01-1477
The world today is facing severe oil crisis and environmental pollution, thus there is a great urgency of developing and applying bio based products as a substitute to mineral oil based products. Rapid industrialization and automation in the last decade has increased the demand of mineral oil based lubricant that will get exhausted in the years to come. Also in addition to the above fact, the biodegradability of mineral-oil based lubricants is around 25% maximum. About 50% of all lubricants sold worldwide end up in the Environment. Due to extensive use of mineral oil based lubricants, several environmental issues such as surface water and groundwater contamination, Air pollution, soil contamination, agricultural product and food contamination are emerging very rapidly. This has led the researchers to look for plant oil based bio- lubricant as an alternative to mineral oil based lubricant.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Application of Turbo Expansion in Light Duty Gasoline and Diesel Engines: A Review

2018-04-03
2018-01-0051
Turboexpansion is a concept which is aimed at reducing the fuel consumption of pressure-charged combustion engines by providing over-cooled air to the engine prior to its induction in the combustion chamber. The performance of the engine is dependent on intake charge density which is preferred to be high at reduced charge air temperature. This becomes achievable through a cooling system known as a turbo expander which expands a high-pressure gas to produce work that is usually employed to drive a compressor. Though, initially used for the purpose of refrigeration in industries, for the past few decades various researches have proved its efficiency in internal combustion engines. In gasoline engines, it is usually employed to extend the knock limit and reduce carbon emissions. Also, an extension to the knock limit allows several improvements in parameters such as increased specific output, an increase in compression ratio and a reduction in the fuel consumption of the engine.
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