Refine Your Search

Topic

Affiliation

Search Results

Technical Paper

Effect of Intake Charge Temperature and EGR on Biodiesel Fuelled HCCI Engine

2016-02-01
2016-28-0257
IC engines are facing two major challenges in the 21st century namely threat of fossil fuel depletion and environmental concerns. HCCI engine is an attractive solution to meet stringent emission challenges due to its capability to simultaneously reduce NOx and PM. HCCI technology can be employed with different alternative fuels without significant modifications in the existing engines. In this study, HCCI combustion was investigated using B20 (20% v/v biodiesel with diesel). Investigations were carried out on a two cylinder engine, in which one cylinder was modified to operate in HCCI mode however the other cylinder operated in conventional CI combustion mode. A dedicated fuel vaporizer was used for homogeneous fuel-air mixture preparation. The experiments were performed at three different intake charge temperatures (160°C, 180°C and 200°C) and three different EGR ratios (0%, 10% and 20% EGR) at different engine loads.
Technical Paper

Tomographic PIV Evaluation of In-Cylinder Flow Evolution and Effect of Engine Speed

2016-04-05
2016-01-0638
In this study, 3D air-flow-field evolution in a single cylinder optical research engine was determined using tomographic particle imaging velocimetry (TPIV) at different engine speeds. Two directional projections of captured flow-field were pre-processed to reconstruct the 3D flow-field by using the MART (multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique) algorithm. Ensemble average flow pattern was used to investigate the air-flow behavior inside the combustion chamber during the intake and compression strokes of an engine cycle. In-cylinder air-flow characteristics were significantly affected by the engine speed. Experimental results showed that high velocities generated during the first half of the intake stroke dissipated in later stages of the intake stroke. In-cylinder flow visualization indicated that large part of flow energy dissipated during the intake stroke and energy dissipation was the maximum near the end of the intake stroke.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigations on the Effect of Liner Surface Properties on Wear in Non-Firing Engine Simulator

2004-03-08
2004-01-0605
Several experimental studies have been conducted for evaluating coefficient of friction and wear in simulated engine conditions using a piston ring segment and a liner piece rubbing against each other in reciprocating mode under load and lubricated conditions. In the present experimental investigation, a non-firing engine simulator has been developed in order to simulate engine conditions to a much closer extent. This machine can operate at similar linear speed, stroke, and load and can simulate almost similar engine operating conditions except firing pressures. This machine can also be used for comparing liners with different surface properties and the effects of surface texture on wear and oil consumption. One cylinder liner has been used for experimentation and the wear and surface properties behaviour were evaluated at several locations in the liner. Surface profile, roughness parameters are evaluated at several locations in the liner and at the top compression ring.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Investigations of Jet Impingement Cooling of Piston of Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine for Controlling the Non-Tail Pipe Emissions

2007-04-16
2007-01-0763
The development of more efficient and powerful internal combustion engines requires the use of new and advanced engine technologies. These advanced engine technologies and emission requirements for meeting stringent global emission norms have increased the power densities of engine leading to downsizing. In all these engines, cylinder head and liner are normally cooled but the piston is not cooled, making it susceptible to disintegration/ thermal damage. Material constraints restrict the increase in thermal loading of piston. High piston temperature rise may lead to engine seizure because of piston warping. So pistons are additionally cooled by oil jet impingement from the underside of the piston in heavy duty diesel engines. However, if the temperature at the underside of the piston, where the oil jet strikes the piston, is above the boiling point of the oil, it may contribute to the mist generation.
Technical Paper

Combustion Characteristics of Jatropha Oil Blends in a Transportation Engine

2008-04-14
2008-01-1383
Vegetable oils are produced from numerous oil seed crops. While all vegetable oils have high energy content, most require some processing to assure safe use in internal combustion engines. Some of these oils already have been evaluated as substitutes for diesel fuels. However, several operational and durability problems of using straight vegetable oils in diesel engines are reported in the literature, caused by of their higher viscosity and low volatility compared to mineral diesel. In the present research, experiments were designed to study the effect of reducing Jatropha oil's viscosity by blending it with mineral diesel and thereby eliminating the effect of high viscosity and poor volatility on combustion characteristics of the engine. Experimental investigations have been carried out to examine the combustion characteristics of an indirect injection transportation diesel engine running with diesel, and jatropha oil blends with diesel.
Technical Paper

Performance Evaluation of a Biodiesel (Rice Bran Oil Methyl Ester) Fuelled Transport Diesel Engine

2005-04-11
2005-01-1730
This experimental study was undertaken to investigate the use of vegetable oil derivatives to substitute mineral diesel fuel. Straight vegetable oils pose some problems like injector coking, carbon deposits etc., when used as a fuel in an engine. These problems are due to high viscosity, low volatility and polyunsaturated character of vegetable oils. Transesterified vegetable oil derivative called “biodiesel” appear to be most convenient way of utilizing vegetable oil as a substitute fuel in diesel engines. In present investigation, rice bran oil (non-edible) was transesterified to methyl ester and reaction conditions for transeterifcation process for rice bran oil were optimized. Various properties like viscosity, density, flash point of the biodiesel thus prepared are comparable to diesel and found to be in acceptable range as per ASTM norms (ASTM D6751). Experimental investigations were carried out on a four stroke, four cylinders, transportation DI diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Steel Cap Piston for Upgradation of Diesel Electric Locomotives for Indian Railways

2005-04-11
2005-01-1645
This paper deals with the evaluation of steel cap pistons for up-gradation of diesel electric locomotives for Indian Railways. These engines are four stroke, medium speed compression ignition engines (CR 12.5: 1) with output of 121 kW per cylinder on series 1 and 167 kW per cylinder on series 2. The series 1 engine uses single piece aluminum pistons, with rating of 0.295 kW/cm2 of piston crown area. A higher version of the series 1 engine with higher fuel efficiency and improvement in lube oil consumption was developed. As part of this improvement program, a composite steel cap piston with forged aluminum skirt was used. The whole engine up-gradation kit including the higher capacity turbocharger, higher fuel delivery pressure fuel pump, modified cam shaft, larger after-cooler along with the steel cap piston were evaluated for performance.
Technical Paper

Emission and Combustion Characteristics of Vegetable Oil (Jatropha curcus) Blends in an Indirect Ignition Transportation Engine

2008-01-09
2008-28-0034
The scarce and rapidly depleting conventional petroleum resources have promoted research for alternative fuels for internal combustion engines. Among various possible options, fuels derived from vegetable oils present promising “greener” substitutes for fossil fuels. Vegetable oils due to their agricultural origin are able to reduce net CO2 emissions to the atmosphere along with import substitution of petroleum products. However, several operational and durability problems of using straight vegetable oils in diesel engines reported, which are because of their higher viscosity and low volatility compared to mineral diesel. In the present research, experiments were designed to study the effect of reducing Jatropha oil's viscosity by blending with mineral diesel, thereby eliminating its effect on combustion characteristics of the engine. In the present experimental research, vegetable oil (Jatropha Curcus) was used as substitute fuel.
Technical Paper

Laser Ignition of Hydrogen-Air Mixture in a Combustion Bomb

2008-01-09
2008-28-0033
Due to the demands of the market to increase efficiency and power density of large MW size gas engines, existing ignition schemes are gradually reaching their limits. These limitations initially triggered the development of laser ignition as an effective alternative, first only for gas engines and now for a much wider range of internal combustion engines revealing a number of immediate advantages like no electrode erosion or flame kernel quenching. Within this broad range investigation, laser plasmas were generated by ns Nd-YAG laser pulses and characterized by emission and Schlieren diagnostic methods. High-pressure chamber experiments with lean hydrogen- air mixtures were successfully performed and allowed the determination of essential parameters like minimum pulse energies at different ignition pressures and temperatures as well as at variable fuel air compositions. In this way, relevant parameters were acquired allowing estimation/ development of future laser ignition systems.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Lanthanum Based Diesel Oxidation Catalyst for Emission Reduction with and without Ceria Support

2016-02-01
2016-28-0023
Diesel particulates are mainly composed of elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) with traces of metals, sulfates and ash content. Organic fraction of the particulate are considered responsible for its carcinogenic effects. Diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) is an important after-treatment device for reduction of organic fraction of particulates. In this study, two non-noble metal based DOCs (with different configurations) were prepared and evaluated for their performance. Lanthanum based perovskite (LaMnO3) catalyst was used for the preparation of DOCs. One of the DOC was coated with support material ceria (5%, w/w), while the other was coated without any support material. Prepared DOCs were retrofitted in a four cylinder water cooled diesel engine. Various emission parameters such as particulate mass, particle number-size distribution, regulated and unregulated emissions, EC/OC etc., were measured and compared with the raw exhaust gas emissions from the prepared DOCs.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Air-Flow Characteristics Using Tomographic PIV at Different Engine Speeds, Intake Air Temperatures and Intake Valve Deactivation in a Single Cylinder Optical Research Engine

2016-02-01
2016-28-0001
Fuel-air mixing is the main parameter, which affects formation of NOx and PM during CI combustion. Hence better understanding of air-flow characteristics inside the combustion chamber of a diesel engine became very important. In this study, in-cylinder air-flow characteristics of four-valve diesel engine were investigated using time-resolved high-speed tomographic Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV). For visualization of air-flow pattern, fine graphite particles were used for flow seeding. To investigate the effect of different operating parameters, experiments were performed at different engine speeds (1200 rpm and 1500 rpm), intake air temperatures (room temperature and 50°C) and intake port configurations (swirl port, tangential port and combined port). Intake air temperature was controlled by a closed loop temperature controller and intake ports were deactivated by using a customized aluminum gasket.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study of Microscopic Spray Characteristics of a GDI Injector Using Phase Doppler Interferometry

2016-02-01
2016-28-0006
Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engine is known for its higher power and higher thermal efficiency. Researchers are steadily determining and resolving the problems of fuel injection in a GDI engine. In order to meet the stringent emission norms such as PM and NOx emitted by a GDI engine, it is necessary to investigate the microscopic spray characteristics and fuel-air mixing process. This paper aims to share the fundamental knowledge of the interacting mixture preparation mechanisms at the wide range of fuel injection pressures. The investigations were carried out at five different fuel injection pressures viz: 40, 80, 120, 160, 200 bar, for 24 mg fuel per injection. A high speed CCD camera was used to determine the macroscopic spray characteristics of the GDI injector. It was found that spray penetration length increased with increasing fuel injection pressure. Phase Doppler Interferometry (PDI) was used to determine the droplet size and droplet velocity for different test fuels.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation on Intake Air Temperature and Air-Fuel Ratio Dependence of Random and Deterministic Cyclic Variability in a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine

2011-04-12
2011-01-1183
Due to the increasingly stricter emission legislations and growing demand for lower fuel consumption, there have been significant efforts to improve combustion efficiency, while satisfying the emission requirements. Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion offers significant efficiency improvements compared to conventional gasoline engines. However, due to the nature of HCCI, fully homogeneous charge HCCI combustion can be realized only in a limited operating range. Control of HCCI engines to obtain the desirable operation requires understanding of how different charge variables influence the cyclic variations in HCCI combustion. Under certain operating conditions, HCCI engines exhibit large cyclic variations in ignition timing. Cyclic variability ranging from stochastic to deterministic patterns can be observed. One important design goal for engine development is to minimize cyclic variability.
Technical Paper

Diesel Exhaust Particulate Characterization for Poly Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Benzene Soluble Fraction

2005-10-23
2005-26-348
This study was set out to characterize particulate emissions from diesel engines in terms of poly aromatic hydrocarbon emissions and Benzene Soluble Organic Fraction. The characteristics of DPM vary with engine operating conditions, quality of fuel and lubricants being used. Hence the diesel exhaust for the purpose of toxicity characterization needs to be studied for Organic Matter in terms of Poly Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) and Benzene Soluble Fraction (BSF). Therefore, the objectives of the present research are to characterize the diesel exhaust particulate matter for the above parameters under varying engine operating conditions/loads. Six PAHs, namely Chrysene, Benzo (k) Flouranthene, Benzo (a) Pyrene, Dibenzo (a, h) Anthracene, Benzo (g,h,i) Perylene and Indenopyrene were analyzed on High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). PAH concentrations in the particulates of Mahindra DI engine were affected by engine loads.
Technical Paper

Field Trials of Biodiesel (B100) and Diesel Fuelled Common Rail Direct Injection Euro-III Compliant Sports Utility Vehicles in Indian Conditions

2008-01-09
2008-28-0077
Biodiesel is being explored as a sustainable renewable fuel for vehicles in India due to mounting foreign exchange expenditure to import crude petroleum. Significant amount of research and development work is being undertaken in India to investigate various aspects of biodiesel utilisation in different types of engines. This study is an effort to jointly investigate the use of biodiesel (B100) in an unmodified BS-III compliant sports utility vehicle (SUV) by a consortium of academia (IIT Kanpur) and Industry (M&M) to realistically assess whether biodiesel is compatible with modern engine technology vehicles. Two identical vehicles were operated in tandem using biodiesel (B100) and mineral diesel (B00) respectively for 30,000 kilometers in field conditions. The lubricating oil samples were collected and detailed analysis for assessing the comparative effect of new fuel (B100) vis-à-vis mineral diesel was carried out.
Technical Paper

Combustion and Emission Behavior of Ethanol Fuelled Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engine

2008-01-09
2008-28-0064
The Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) is the third alternative for the combustion in the reciprocating engine. HCCI a hybrid of well-known spark ignition (SI) and compression ignition (CI) engine concepts and has potential of combining the best features of both. A two cylinder, four stroke, direct injection diesel engine was modified to operate one cylinder on the compression ignition by detonation of homogeneous mixture of ethanol and air. The homogeneous mixture of the charge is prepared by port injection of ethanol in the preheated Intake air. This study presents results of experimental investigations of HCCI combustion of ethanol at intake air temperature of 120°C and at different air-fuel ratios. In this paper, the combustion parameters, pressure time history, rate of pressure rise, rate of heat release, mean temperature history in the combustion chamber is analyzed and discussed.
Technical Paper

Ricebran Oil Biodiesel's Performance, Emission and Endurance Test on a CIDI Transport Engine

2008-01-09
2008-28-0066
Increased environmental awareness and depletion of resources are driving industry to develop alternative fuels that are environmentally more acceptable. Fatty acids esters (biodiesel) are known to be good alternative fuels. Due to economic reasons, the use of cheap raw materials for biodiesel production is preferred. In this case, ricebran oil, non-edible grade is used. Base catalyzed transesterification of ricebran oil is investigated and process parameters for ricebran biodiesel production are optimized. Various properties like viscosity, density, flash point, calorific value of biodiesel thus prepared are characterized as per ASTM D6751 and found comparable to mineral diesel. Steady state engine dynamometer test at 1800 rpm has been carried out to evaluate the performance and emission characteristics of a medium duty transportation DI diesel engine. Emission tests with all the fuel blends have also been carried out using European 13 MODE test (ECE R49).
Technical Paper

Measurement of Lubricating Oil Film Thickness between Piston Ring -liner Interface in an Engine Simulator

2008-01-09
2008-28-0071
The interface between the piston rings and cylinder liner play an important role in total frictional losses and mechanical wear of internal combustion engine and is increasingly coming under scrutiny as legislated particulate emission standards are getting more and more stringent. The capacitance method is used for measurement of minimum oil film thickness between piston ring and liner interface. Measurement of capacitance formed between the piston ring and a probe mounted flush in the liner provides an accurate means of determining the oil film thickness provided that the region between the probe and liner is flooded with oil and dielectric constant of the oil is known. This paper presents detailed design and measurement of lubricating oil film thickness using capacitive micro sensor in a non-firing engine simulator. Lubricating oil film thickness was found to vary between 0.2μm to 8μm in the non firing engine simulator.
Journal Article

Experimental Investigations of the Tribological Properties of Lubricating Oil from Biodiesel Fuelled Medium Duty Transportation CIDI Engine

2008-04-14
2008-01-1385
Biodiesel is mono alkyl ester derived from vegetable oils through transesterification reaction and can be used as an alternative to mineral diesel. In the present research, methyl ester of rice-bran oil (ROME) is produced through transesterification of rice-bran oil using methanol in presence of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) catalyst. Various properties like viscosity, density, flash point, calorific value of the biodiesel thus prepared are characterized and found comparable to diesel. On the basis of previous research for performance, emission and combustion characteristics, a 20% blend of ROME (B20) was selected as optimum biodiesel blend for endurance test. Endurance test of 100 hours was conducted on a medium duty direct injection transportation diesel engine. Tests were conducted under predetermined loading cycles in two phases: engine operating on mineral diesel and engine fuelled with 20% biodiesel blend.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigations Of Piston Cooling Using Oil Jet

2004-01-16
2004-28-0061
Thermal loading of diesel engine pistons has increased dramatically in recent years due to applications of various technologies to meet low emission and high power requirements. Control of piston temperatures by cooling of these pistons has become one of the determining factors in a successful engine design. The pistons are cooled by oil jets fired at the underside from the crankcase. Any undesirable piston temperature rise may lead to engine seizure due to piston warping. However, if the temperature at the underside of the piston, where the oil jet strikes the piston, is above the boiling point of the oil being used, it may contribute to the mist generation. This mist may significantly contribute to the non-tail pipe emissions in the form of unburnt hydrocarbons (UBHC). The problem of non-tail pipe emissions has unfortunately not been looked into so seriously, as the current stress of all the automobile manufacturers is on meeting the tail -pipe emission legislative limits.
X