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Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Investigations of Jet Impingement Cooling of Piston of Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine for Controlling the Non-Tail Pipe Emissions

2007-04-16
2007-01-0763
The development of more efficient and powerful internal combustion engines requires the use of new and advanced engine technologies. These advanced engine technologies and emission requirements for meeting stringent global emission norms have increased the power densities of engine leading to downsizing. In all these engines, cylinder head and liner are normally cooled but the piston is not cooled, making it susceptible to disintegration/ thermal damage. Material constraints restrict the increase in thermal loading of piston. High piston temperature rise may lead to engine seizure because of piston warping. So pistons are additionally cooled by oil jet impingement from the underside of the piston in heavy duty diesel engines. However, if the temperature at the underside of the piston, where the oil jet strikes the piston, is above the boiling point of the oil, it may contribute to the mist generation.
Technical Paper

Diesel Exhaust Particulate Characterization for Poly Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Benzene Soluble Fraction

2005-10-23
2005-26-348
This study was set out to characterize particulate emissions from diesel engines in terms of poly aromatic hydrocarbon emissions and Benzene Soluble Organic Fraction. The characteristics of DPM vary with engine operating conditions, quality of fuel and lubricants being used. Hence the diesel exhaust for the purpose of toxicity characterization needs to be studied for Organic Matter in terms of Poly Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) and Benzene Soluble Fraction (BSF). Therefore, the objectives of the present research are to characterize the diesel exhaust particulate matter for the above parameters under varying engine operating conditions/loads. Six PAHs, namely Chrysene, Benzo (k) Flouranthene, Benzo (a) Pyrene, Dibenzo (a, h) Anthracene, Benzo (g,h,i) Perylene and Indenopyrene were analyzed on High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). PAH concentrations in the particulates of Mahindra DI engine were affected by engine loads.
Technical Paper

Combustion Characteristics of Rice Bran Oil Derived Biodiesel in a Transportation Diesel Engine

2005-10-23
2005-26-354
The methyl esters of vegetable oils, known as biodiesel are becoming increasingly popular because of their low environmental impact and potential as a green alternative fuel for diesel engine and they would not require significant modification of existing engine hardware. Methyl ester of rice bran oil (ROME) is derived through transesterification process. Previous research has shown that ROME has comparable performance, lower bsfc in comparison to diesel. There was reduction in the emissions of CO, HC, and smoke but NOx emissions increased. Experimental investigations have been carried out to examine the combustion characteristics in a direct injection transportation diesel engine running with diesel, and 20% blend of rice bran methyl ester with diesel.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigations on the Effect of Liner Surface Properties on Wear in Non-Firing Engine Simulator

2004-03-08
2004-01-0605
Several experimental studies have been conducted for evaluating coefficient of friction and wear in simulated engine conditions using a piston ring segment and a liner piece rubbing against each other in reciprocating mode under load and lubricated conditions. In the present experimental investigation, a non-firing engine simulator has been developed in order to simulate engine conditions to a much closer extent. This machine can operate at similar linear speed, stroke, and load and can simulate almost similar engine operating conditions except firing pressures. This machine can also be used for comparing liners with different surface properties and the effects of surface texture on wear and oil consumption. One cylinder liner has been used for experimentation and the wear and surface properties behaviour were evaluated at several locations in the liner. Surface profile, roughness parameters are evaluated at several locations in the liner and at the top compression ring.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigations Of Piston Cooling Using Oil Jet

2004-01-16
2004-28-0061
Thermal loading of diesel engine pistons has increased dramatically in recent years due to applications of various technologies to meet low emission and high power requirements. Control of piston temperatures by cooling of these pistons has become one of the determining factors in a successful engine design. The pistons are cooled by oil jets fired at the underside from the crankcase. Any undesirable piston temperature rise may lead to engine seizure due to piston warping. However, if the temperature at the underside of the piston, where the oil jet strikes the piston, is above the boiling point of the oil being used, it may contribute to the mist generation. This mist may significantly contribute to the non-tail pipe emissions in the form of unburnt hydrocarbons (UBHC). The problem of non-tail pipe emissions has unfortunately not been looked into so seriously, as the current stress of all the automobile manufacturers is on meeting the tail -pipe emission legislative limits.
Technical Paper

Development And Characterization Of Biodiesel From Non-Edible Vegetable Oils Of Indian Origin

2004-01-16
2004-28-0079
Increased environmental awareness and depletion of fossil fuel resources are driving industry to develop alternative fuels that are environmentally more acceptable. Vegetable oils are potential alternative fuels. Vegetable oils in India are produced from numerous oil-seed crops. While all vegetable oils have high energy content, most require some processing to ensure safe usage in internal combustion engines. Most detrimental properties of oils are its high viscosity, low volatility and polyunsaturated character. The most widely used method is to convert vegetable oils into biodiesel. Biodiesel fuels are primary esters, which are produced by transesterifcation of vegetable oils. Several vegetable oil esters have been investigated so far in different parts of the world and found suitable to be used in diesel engines.
Technical Paper

Combustion Characteristics of Jatropha Oil Blends in a Transportation Engine

2008-04-14
2008-01-1383
Vegetable oils are produced from numerous oil seed crops. While all vegetable oils have high energy content, most require some processing to assure safe use in internal combustion engines. Some of these oils already have been evaluated as substitutes for diesel fuels. However, several operational and durability problems of using straight vegetable oils in diesel engines are reported in the literature, caused by of their higher viscosity and low volatility compared to mineral diesel. In the present research, experiments were designed to study the effect of reducing Jatropha oil's viscosity by blending it with mineral diesel and thereby eliminating the effect of high viscosity and poor volatility on combustion characteristics of the engine. Experimental investigations have been carried out to examine the combustion characteristics of an indirect injection transportation diesel engine running with diesel, and jatropha oil blends with diesel.
Technical Paper

Performance, Emission and Combustion Characteristics of Biodiesel (Waste Cooking Oil Methyl Ester) Fueled IDI Diesel Engine

2008-04-14
2008-01-1384
Biodiesel (fatty acid methyl ester) is a non-toxic and biodegradable alternative fuel that is obtained from renewable sources. A major hurdle in the commercialization of biodiesel from virgin oil, in comparison to petroleum-based diesel, is its cost of production, primarily the raw material cost. Used cooking oils or waste cooking oils are economical sources for biodiesel production, which can help in commercialization of biodiesel. However, the products formed during cooking/frying (such as free fatty acids and various polymerized triglycerides) affect the transesterification reaction and the biodiesel properties. In present experimental investigations, wastecooking oil obtained from restaurant was used to produce biodiesel through transesterification process and the chemical kinetics of biodiesel production was studied. Biodiesel was blended with petroleum diesel in different proportions.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigations of Gasoline HCCI Engine during Startup and Transients

2011-12-15
2011-01-2445
The homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion process is capable of providing both high ‘diesel-like’ efficiencies and very low NOx and particulate emissions. However, among several technical challenges, controlling the combustion phasing, particularly during transients is a major issue, which must be resolved to exploit its commercial applications. This study is focused on the experimental investigations of behavior of combustion timing and other combustion parameters during startup and load transients. The study is conducted on a gasoline fuelled HCCI engine by varying intake air temperature and air-fuel ratio at different engine speeds. Port fuel injection technique is used for preparing homogeneous mixture of gasoline and air. For fueling startup transient test, fuel injection was turned off, and the engine was motored for several minutes until the fire-deck, intake and exhaust temperatures stabilized.
Technical Paper

Oxidation Stability of Biodiesel Produced from Non-Edible Oils of African Origin

2011-04-12
2011-01-1202
Mono alkyl esters of long-chain fatty acids derived from renewable lipid feedstock, such as vegetable oils or animal fats, also known as biodiesel are well positioned to replace mineral diesel. The outstanding technical problem with biodiesel is that it is more susceptible to oxidation owing to its exposure to oxygen present in the air and high temperature. This happens mainly due to the presence of varying numbers of double bonds in the free fatty acid molecules. The chemical reactivity of esters can therefore be divided into oxidative and thermal instability, which can be determined by the amount and configuration of the olefinic unsaturation in the fatty acid chains. Many of the plant-derived fatty oils contain polyunsaturated fatty acids that are more prone to oxidation. Increasing production of biodiesel from vegetable oils (edible) places strain on food production, availability and price and leads to food versus fuel conflict.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation on Intake Air Temperature and Air-Fuel Ratio Dependence of Random and Deterministic Cyclic Variability in a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine

2011-04-12
2011-01-1183
Due to the increasingly stricter emission legislations and growing demand for lower fuel consumption, there have been significant efforts to improve combustion efficiency, while satisfying the emission requirements. Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion offers significant efficiency improvements compared to conventional gasoline engines. However, due to the nature of HCCI, fully homogeneous charge HCCI combustion can be realized only in a limited operating range. Control of HCCI engines to obtain the desirable operation requires understanding of how different charge variables influence the cyclic variations in HCCI combustion. Under certain operating conditions, HCCI engines exhibit large cyclic variations in ignition timing. Cyclic variability ranging from stochastic to deterministic patterns can be observed. One important design goal for engine development is to minimize cyclic variability.
Technical Paper

The Secondary Organic Carbon (SOC) Formation from a CRDI Automotive Diesel Engine Exhaust

2011-04-12
2011-01-0642
Condensed soot coming out of vehicular exhaust is commonly classified as organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC). OC can be directly emitted to the atmosphere in the particulate form (primary carbon) from the tailpipe or can be produced by gas-to-particle conversion process (secondary organic carbon, SOC). Under typical atmospheric dilution conditions, most of the semi-volatile material is present in the form of soot. SOC holds wider implications in terms of their adverse health and climate impact. Diesel exhaust is environmentally reactive and it has long been understood that the ambient interaction of exhaust hydrocarbons and NOx results in the formation of ozone and other potentially toxic secondary organic carbon species. The current emission norms look at the primary emissions from the engine exhaust. Also, research efforts are geared towards controlling the emissions of primary carbon.
Technical Paper

Performance, Emission and Combustion Characteristics of Jatropha Oil Blends in a Direct Injection CI Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-0947
Vegetable oils have energy content suitable to be used as compression ignition (CI) engine fuel. However, several operational and durability problems of using straight vegetable oils in CI engines are reported in the literature, which are primarily caused by their higher viscosity and low volatility compared to mineral diesel. The viscosity can be brought in acceptable range by (i) chemical process of transesterification, (ii) blending of oil with mineral diesel or (iii) by heating the vegetable oil using exhaust gas waste heat. Reduction of viscosity by blending or exhaust gas heating saves the chemical processing cost of transesterification. Present experimental investigations were carried out for evaluating combustion, performance and emission behavior of Jatropha oil blends in unheated conditions in a direct injection CI engine at different load and constant engine speed (1500 rpm).
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Cycle-by-Cycle Variations in CAI/HCCI Combustion of Gasoline and Methanol Fuelled Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-1345
The development of vehicles continues to be determined by increasingly stringent emissions standards including CO2 emissions and fuel consumption. To fulfill the simultaneous emission requirements for near zero pollutant and low CO2 levels, which are the challenges of future powertrains, many research studies are currently being carried out world over on new engine combustion process, such as Controlled Auto Ignition (CAI) for gasoline engines and Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) for diesel engines. In HCCI combustion engine, ignition timing and combustion rates are dominated by physical and chemical properties of fuel/air/residual gas mixtures, boundary conditions including ambient temperature, pressure, and humidity and engine operating conditions such as load, speed etc.
Technical Paper

Laser Ignition of Hydrogen-Air Mixture in a Combustion Bomb

2008-01-09
2008-28-0033
Due to the demands of the market to increase efficiency and power density of large MW size gas engines, existing ignition schemes are gradually reaching their limits. These limitations initially triggered the development of laser ignition as an effective alternative, first only for gas engines and now for a much wider range of internal combustion engines revealing a number of immediate advantages like no electrode erosion or flame kernel quenching. Within this broad range investigation, laser plasmas were generated by ns Nd-YAG laser pulses and characterized by emission and Schlieren diagnostic methods. High-pressure chamber experiments with lean hydrogen- air mixtures were successfully performed and allowed the determination of essential parameters like minimum pulse energies at different ignition pressures and temperatures as well as at variable fuel air compositions. In this way, relevant parameters were acquired allowing estimation/ development of future laser ignition systems.
Technical Paper

Emission and Combustion Characteristics of Vegetable Oil (Jatropha curcus) Blends in an Indirect Ignition Transportation Engine

2008-01-09
2008-28-0034
The scarce and rapidly depleting conventional petroleum resources have promoted research for alternative fuels for internal combustion engines. Among various possible options, fuels derived from vegetable oils present promising “greener” substitutes for fossil fuels. Vegetable oils due to their agricultural origin are able to reduce net CO2 emissions to the atmosphere along with import substitution of petroleum products. However, several operational and durability problems of using straight vegetable oils in diesel engines reported, which are because of their higher viscosity and low volatility compared to mineral diesel. In the present research, experiments were designed to study the effect of reducing Jatropha oil's viscosity by blending with mineral diesel, thereby eliminating its effect on combustion characteristics of the engine. In the present experimental research, vegetable oil (Jatropha Curcus) was used as substitute fuel.
Technical Paper

Combustion and Emission Behavior of Ethanol Fuelled Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engine

2008-01-09
2008-28-0064
The Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) is the third alternative for the combustion in the reciprocating engine. HCCI a hybrid of well-known spark ignition (SI) and compression ignition (CI) engine concepts and has potential of combining the best features of both. A two cylinder, four stroke, direct injection diesel engine was modified to operate one cylinder on the compression ignition by detonation of homogeneous mixture of ethanol and air. The homogeneous mixture of the charge is prepared by port injection of ethanol in the preheated Intake air. This study presents results of experimental investigations of HCCI combustion of ethanol at intake air temperature of 120°C and at different air-fuel ratios. In this paper, the combustion parameters, pressure time history, rate of pressure rise, rate of heat release, mean temperature history in the combustion chamber is analyzed and discussed.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Lubricating Oil Film Thickness between Piston Ring -liner Interface in an Engine Simulator

2008-01-09
2008-28-0071
The interface between the piston rings and cylinder liner play an important role in total frictional losses and mechanical wear of internal combustion engine and is increasingly coming under scrutiny as legislated particulate emission standards are getting more and more stringent. The capacitance method is used for measurement of minimum oil film thickness between piston ring and liner interface. Measurement of capacitance formed between the piston ring and a probe mounted flush in the liner provides an accurate means of determining the oil film thickness provided that the region between the probe and liner is flooded with oil and dielectric constant of the oil is known. This paper presents detailed design and measurement of lubricating oil film thickness using capacitive micro sensor in a non-firing engine simulator. Lubricating oil film thickness was found to vary between 0.2μm to 8μm in the non firing engine simulator.
Technical Paper

Ricebran Oil Biodiesel's Performance, Emission and Endurance Test on a CIDI Transport Engine

2008-01-09
2008-28-0066
Increased environmental awareness and depletion of resources are driving industry to develop alternative fuels that are environmentally more acceptable. Fatty acids esters (biodiesel) are known to be good alternative fuels. Due to economic reasons, the use of cheap raw materials for biodiesel production is preferred. In this case, ricebran oil, non-edible grade is used. Base catalyzed transesterification of ricebran oil is investigated and process parameters for ricebran biodiesel production are optimized. Various properties like viscosity, density, flash point, calorific value of biodiesel thus prepared are characterized as per ASTM D6751 and found comparable to mineral diesel. Steady state engine dynamometer test at 1800 rpm has been carried out to evaluate the performance and emission characteristics of a medium duty transportation DI diesel engine. Emission tests with all the fuel blends have also been carried out using European 13 MODE test (ECE R49).
Technical Paper

Field Trials of Biodiesel (B100) and Diesel Fuelled Common Rail Direct Injection Euro-III Compliant Sports Utility Vehicles in Indian Conditions

2008-01-09
2008-28-0077
Biodiesel is being explored as a sustainable renewable fuel for vehicles in India due to mounting foreign exchange expenditure to import crude petroleum. Significant amount of research and development work is being undertaken in India to investigate various aspects of biodiesel utilisation in different types of engines. This study is an effort to jointly investigate the use of biodiesel (B100) in an unmodified BS-III compliant sports utility vehicle (SUV) by a consortium of academia (IIT Kanpur) and Industry (M&M) to realistically assess whether biodiesel is compatible with modern engine technology vehicles. Two identical vehicles were operated in tandem using biodiesel (B100) and mineral diesel (B00) respectively for 30,000 kilometers in field conditions. The lubricating oil samples were collected and detailed analysis for assessing the comparative effect of new fuel (B100) vis-à-vis mineral diesel was carried out.
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