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Journal Article

Impact of Electric Drive Vehicle Technologies on Fuel Efficiency to Support 2017-2025 CAFE Regulations

2014-04-01
2014-01-1084
Manufacturers have been considering various technology options to improve vehicle fuel economy. Some of the most promising technologies are related to vehicle electrification. To evaluate the benefits of vehicle electrification to support the 2017-2025 CAFE regulations, a study was conducted to simulate many of the most common electric drive powertrains currently available on the market: 12V Micro Hybrid Vehicle (start/stop systems), Belt-integrated starter generator (BISG), Crank-integrated starter generator (CISG), Full Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV), PHEV with 20-mile all-electric range (AER) (PHEV20), PHEV with 40-mile AER (PHEV40), Fuel-cell HEV and Battery Electric vehicle with 100-mile AER (EV100). Different vehicle classes were also analyzed in the study process: Compact, Midsize, Small SUV, Midsize SUV and Pickup. This paper will show the fuel displacement benefit of each powertrain across vehicle classes.
Technical Paper

Impact of Transmission Technologies on Fuel Efficiency to Support 2017-2025 CAFE Regulations

2014-04-01
2014-01-1082
Manufacturers have been considering various technology options to improve vehicle fuel economy. One of the most cost effective technology is related to advanced transmissions. To evaluate the benefits of transmission technologies and control to support the 2017-2025 CAFE regulations, a study was conducted to simulate many of the many types of transmissions: Automatic transmissions, Manual Transmission as well as Dual Clutch Transmissions including the most commonly used number of gears in each of the technologies (5-speeds, 6-speeds, and 8-speeds). Different vehicle classes were also analyzed in the study process: Compact, Midsize, Small SUV, Midsize SUV and Pickup. This paper will show the fuel displacement benefit of each advanced transmission across vehicle classes.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Hybridization of a Class 8 Line-Haul Truck

2010-10-05
2010-01-1931
Hybrid electric vehicles have demonstrated their ability to significantly reduce fuel consumption for several medium- and heavy-duty applications. In this paper we analyze the impact on fuel economy of the hybridization of a tractor-trailer. The study is done in PSAT (Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit), which is a modeling and simulation toolkit for light- and heavy-duty vehicles developed by Argonne National Laboratory. Two hybrid configurations are taken into account, each one of them associated with a level of hybridization. The mild-hybrid truck is based on a parallel configuration with the electric machine in a starter-alternator position; this allows start/stop engine operations, a mild level of torque assist, and a limited amount of regenerative braking. The full-hybrid truck is based on a series-parallel configuration with two electric machines: one in a starter-alternator position and another one between the clutch and the gearbox.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Powertrain Configuration Options for Plug-in HEVs from a Fuel Economy Perspective

2012-04-16
2012-01-1027
The first commercially available plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV), the General Motors (GM) Volt, was introduced into the market in mid-December 2010. The Volt uses a series-split powertrain architecture, which provides benefits over the series architecture that typically has been considered for use in electric-range extended vehicles (EREVs). A specialized EREV powertrain, called the Voltec, drives the Volt through its entire range of speed and acceleration with battery power alone and within the limit of battery energy, thereby displacing more fuel with electricity than a PHEV, which characteristically blends electric and engine power together during driving. This paper assesses the benefits and drawbacks of these two different plug-in hybrid electric architectures (series versus series-split) by comparing component sizes, system efficiency, and fuel consumption over urban and highway drive cycles.
Technical Paper

Impact of Technology on Electric Drive Fuel Consumption and Cost

2012-04-16
2012-01-1011
In support of the U.S Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program, numerous vehicle technology combinations have been simulated using Autonomie. Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) designed and wrote the Autonomie modeling software to serve as a single tool that could be used to meet the requirements of automotive engineering throughout the development process, from modeling to control, offering the ability to quickly compare the performance and fuel efficiency of numerous powertrain configurations. For this study, a multitude of vehicle technology combinations were simulated for many different vehicles classes and configurations, which included conventional, power split hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), power split plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV), extended-range EV (E-REV)-capability PHEV, series fuel cell, and battery electric vehicle.
Journal Article

Control Analysis under Different Driving Conditions for Peugeot 3008 Hybrid 4

2014-04-01
2014-01-1818
This paper includes analysis results for the control strategy of the Peugeot 3008 Hybrid4, a diesel-electric hybrid vehicle, under different thermal conditions. The analysis was based on testing results obtained under the different thermal conditions in the Advanced Powertrain Research Facility (APRF) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The objectives were to determine the principal concepts of the control strategy for the vehicle at a supervisory level, and to understand the overall system behavior based on the concepts. Control principles for complex systems are generally designed to maximize the performance, and it is a serious challenge to determine these principles without detailed information about the systems. By analyzing the test results obtained in various driving conditions with the Peugeot 3008 Hybrid4, we tried to figure out the supervisory control strategy.
Technical Paper

Thermal Model Development and Validation for 2010 Toyota Prius

2014-04-01
2014-01-1784
This paper introduces control strategy analysis and performance degradation for the 2010 Toyota Prius under different thermal conditions. The goal was to understand, in as much detail as possible, the impact of thermal conditions on component and vehicle performances by analyzing a number of test data obtained under different thermal conditions in the Advanced Powertrain Research Facility (APRF) at Argonne National Laboratory. A previous study analyzed the control behavior and performance under a normal ambient temperature; thus the first step in this study was to focus on the impact when the ambient temperature is cold or hot. Based on the analyzed results, thermal component models were developed in which the vehicle controller in the simulation was designed to mimic the control behavior when temperatures of the components are cold or hot. Further, the performance degradation of the components was applied to the mathematical models based on analysis of the test data.
Technical Paper

Advanced Automatic Transmission Model Validation Using Dynamometer Test Data

2014-04-01
2014-01-1778
As a result of increasingly stringent regulations and higher customer expectations, auto manufacturers have been considering numerous technology options to improve vehicle fuel economy. Transmissions have been shown to be one of the most cost-effective technologies for improving fuel economy. Over the past couple of years, transmissions have significantly evolved and impacted both performance and fuel efficiency. This study validates the shifting control of advanced automatic transmission technologies in vehicle systems by using Argonne National Laboratory's model-based vehicle simulation tool, Autonomie. Different midsize vehicles, including several with automatic transmission (6-speeds, 7-speeds, and 8-speeds), were tested at Argonne's Advanced Powertrain Research Facility (APRF). For the vehicles, a novel process was used to import test data.
Technical Paper

Impact of Advanced Engine and Powertrain Technologies on Engine Operation and Fuel Consumption for Future Vehicles

2015-04-14
2015-01-0978
Near-term advances in spark ignition (SI) engine technology (e.g., variable value lift [VVL], gasoline direct injection [GDI], cylinder deactivation, turbo downsizing) for passenger vehicles hold promise of delivering significant fuel savings for vehicles of the immediate future. Similarly, trends in transmissions indicate higher (8-speed, 9-speed) gear numbers, higher spans, and a focus on downspeeding to improve engine efficiency. Dual-clutch transmissions, which exhibit higher efficiency in lower gears, than the traditional automatics, and are being introduced in the light-duty vehicle segment worldwide. Another development requiring low investment and delivering immediate benefits has been the adaptation of start-stop (micro hybrids or idle engine stop technology) technology in vehicles today.
Technical Paper

Prospects on Fuel Economy Improvements for Hydrogen Powered Vehicles

2008-10-06
2008-01-2378
Fuel cell vehicles are the subject of extensive research and development because of their potential for high efficiency and low emissions. Because fuel cell vehicles remain expensive and the demand for hydrogen is therefore limited, very few fueling stations are being built. To try to accelerate the development of a hydrogen economy, some original equipment manufacturers (OEM) in the automotive industry have been working on a hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engine (ICE) as an intermediate step. Despite its lower cost, the hydrogen-fueled ICE offers, for a similar amount of onboard hydrogen, a lower driving range because of its lower efficiency. This paper compares the fuel economy potential of hydrogen-fueled vehicles to their conventional gasoline counterparts. To take uncertainties into account, the current and future status of both technologies were considered.
Journal Article

Comparison of Powertrain Configuration for Plug-in HEVs from a Fuel Economy Perspective

2008-04-14
2008-01-0461
With the success of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and the still uncertain long-term solution for vehicle transportation, Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV) appear to be a viable short-term solution and are of increasing interest to car manufacturers. Like HEVs, PHEVs offer two power sources that are able to independently propel the vehicle. They also offer additional electrical energy onboard. In addition to choices about the size of components for PHEVs, choices about powertrain configuration must be made. In this paper, we consider three potential architectures for PHEVs for 10- and 40-mi All Electric Range (AER) and define the components and their respective sizes to meet the same set of performance requirements. The vehicle and component efficiencies in electric-only and charge-sustaining modes will be assessed.
Technical Paper

Well-to-Wheels Results of Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Criteria Air Pollutant Emissions of Selected Vehicle/Fuel Systems

2006-04-03
2006-01-0377
A fuel-cycle model-called the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model-has been developed at Argonne National Laboratory to evaluate well-to-wheels (WTW) energy and emission impacts of motor vehicle technologies fueled with various transportation fuels. The new GREET version has up-to-date information regarding energy use and emissions for fuel production activities and vehicle operations. In this study, a complete WTW evaluation targeting energy use, greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, and N2O), and typical criteria air pollutants (VOC, NOX, and PM10) includes the following fuel options-gasoline, diesel, and hydrogen; and the following vehicle technologies-spark-ignition engines with or without hybrid configurations, compression-ignition engines with hybrid configurations, and hydrogen fuel cells with hybrid configurations.
Technical Paper

Evolution of Hydrogen Fueled Vehicles Compared to Conventional Vehicles from 2010 to 2045

2009-04-20
2009-01-1008
Fuel cell vehicles are undergoing extensive research and development because of their potential for high efficiency and low emissions. Because fuel cell vehicles remain expensive and there is limited demand for hydrogen at present, very few fueling stations are being built. To try to accelerate the development of a hydrogen economy, some original equipment manufacturers in the automotive industry have been working on a hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engine (ICE) as an intermediate step. This paper compares the fuel economy potential of hydrogen powertrains to conventional gasoline vehicles. Several timeframes are considered: 2010, 2015, 2030, and 2045. To address the technology status uncertainty, a triangular distribution approach was implemented for each component technology. The fuel consumption and cost of five powertrain configurations will be discussed and compared with the conventional counterpart.
Journal Article

Well-To-Wheels Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

2009-04-20
2009-01-1309
The Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model incorporated fuel economy and electricity use of alternative fuel/vehicle systems simulated by the Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) to conduct a well-to-wheels (WTW) analysis of energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). Based on PSAT simulations of the blended charge depleting (CD) operation, grid electricity accounted for a share of the vehicle’s total energy use ranging from 6% for PHEV 10 to 24% for PHEV 40 based on CD vehicle mile traveled (VMT) shares of 23% and 63%, respectively. Besides fuel economy of PHEVs and type of on-board fuel, the type of electricity generation mix impacted the WTW results of PHEVs, especially GHG emissions.
Technical Paper

Model-Based Fuel Economy Technology Assessment

2017-03-28
2017-01-0532
Many leading companies in the automotive industry have been putting tremendous amount of efforts into developing new designs and technologies to make their products more energy efficient. It is straightforward to evaluate the fuel economy benefit of an individual technology in specific systems and components. However, when multiple technologies are combined and integrated into a whole vehicle, estimating the impact without building and testing an actual vehicle becomes very complex, because the efficiency gains from individual components do not simply add up. In an early concept phase, a projection of fuel efficiency benefits from new technologies will be extremely useful; but in many cases, the outlook has to rely on engineer’s insight since it is impractical to run tests for all possible technology combinations.
Technical Paper

The New PNGV System Analysis Toolkit PSAT V4.1 - Evolution and Improvement

2001-08-20
2001-01-2536
Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), working with the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV), maintains hybrid vehicle simulation software, the PNGV System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT). PSAT, originally proprietary, has been used by both DOE and the “Big Three” as a modeling tool. The number of PSAT users has increased recently because 15 universities participating in the 2001 FutureTruck competition were given the software for their use. PSAT allows companies to look at new types of vehicles (hybrids) and choose the best configuration according to customer expectations within a minimum of time. PSAT, a forward-looking model, allows the user to simulate a large number of different configurations (conventional, series, parallel, and power split). PSAT is well suited for development of control strategies; by using accurate dynamics component models as its code, PSAT can be implemented directly and tested at the bench scale or in a vehicle.
Technical Paper

Analysis and Model Validation of the Toyota Prius Prime

2019-04-02
2019-01-0369
The Toyota Prius Prime is a new generation of Toyota Prius plug-in hybrid electric vehicle, the electric drive range of which is 25 miles. This version is improved from the previous version by the addition of a one-way clutch between the engine and the planetary gear-set, which enables the generator to add electric propulsive force. The vehicle was analyzed, developed and validated based on test data from Argonne National Laboratory’s Advanced Powertrain Research Facility, where chassis dynamometer set temperature can be controlled in a thermal chamber. First, we analyzed and developed components such as engine, battery, motors, wheels and chassis, including thermal aspects based on test data. By developing models considering thermal aspects, it is possible to simulate the vehicle driving not only in normal temperatures but also in hot, cold, or warmed-up conditions.
Technical Paper

Long Term Impact of Vehicle Electrification on Vehicle Weight and Cost Breakdown

2017-03-28
2017-01-1174
Today’s value proposition of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) and battery electric vehicles (BEV) remain expensive. While the cost of lithium batteries has significantly decreased over the past few years, more improvement is necessary for PHEV and BEV to penetrate the mass market. However, the technology and cost improvements of the primary components used in electrified vehicles such as batteries, electric machines and power electronics have far exceeded the improvements in the main components used in conventional vehicles and this trend is expected to continue for the foreseeable future. Today’s weight and cost structures of electrified vehicles differ substantially from that of conventional vehicles but that difference will shrink over time. This paper highlights how the weight and cost structures, both in absolute terms and in terms of split between glider and powertrain, converge over time.
Journal Article

Fuel Consumption and Cost Potential of Different Plug-In Hybrid Vehicle Architectures

2015-04-14
2015-01-1160
Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) have demonstrated the potential to provide significant reduction in fuel use across a wide range of dynamometer test driving cycles. Companies and research organizations are involved in numerous research activities related to PHEVs. One of the current unknowns is the impact of driving behavior and standard test procedure on the true benefits of PHEVs from a worldwide perspective. To address this issue, five different PHEV powertrain configurations (input split, parallel, series, series-output split and series-parallel), implemented on vehicles with different all-electric ranges (AERs), were analyzed on three different standard cycles (i.e., Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule, Highway Fuel Economy Test, and New European Driving Cycle). Component sizes, manufacturing cost, and fuel consumption were analyzed for a midsize car in model year 2020 through the use of vehicle system simulations.
Technical Paper

Impact of TEGs on the Fuel Economy of Conventional and Hybrid Vehicles

2015-04-14
2015-01-1712
Thermoelectric generators (TEGs) can be used for a variety of applications in automobiles. There is a lot of interest in using them for waste heat recovery from a fuel economy point of view. This paper examines the potential of TEGs to provide cost-effective improvements in the fuel economy of conventional vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Simulation analysis is used to quantify fuel economy benefits. The paper explains how a TEG is used in a vehicle and explores the idea of improving the TEG design by introducing a thermal reservoir in the TEG model to improve the waste heat recovery. An effort is made to identify the technological and economic barriers (and their thresholds) that could prevent TEGs from becoming an acceptable means of waste heat recovery in automobiles.
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