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Technical Paper

Quantitative Analysis of the Relation between Flame Structure and Turbulence in HCCI Combustion by Two-Dimensional Temperature Measurement

2008-04-14
2008-01-0061
The structure of HCCI (homogeneous charge compression ignition) combustion flames was quantitatively analyzed by measuring the two-dimensional gas temperature distribution using phosphor thermometry. It was found from the relation between a turbulent Reynolds number and Karlovitz number that, when compared with the flame propagation in an S.I. engine, HCCI combustion has a wider flame structure with respect to the turbulence scale. As a result of our experimentation for the influence of low temperature reaction (LTR) using two types of fuel, it was also confirmed that different types of fuel produce different histories of flame kernel structure.
Technical Paper

An Advanced Internal Combustion Engine Concept for Low Emissions and High Efficiency from Idle to Max Load Using Gasoline Partially Premixed Combustion

2010-10-25
2010-01-2198
A Scania 13 1 engine modified for single cylinder operations was run using nine fuels in the boiling point range of gasoline, but very different octane number, together with PRF20 and MK1-diesel. The eleven fuels were tested in a load sweep between 5 and 26 bar gross IMEP at 1250 rpm and also at idle (2.5 bar IMEP, 600 rpm). The boost level was proportional to the load while the inlet temperature was held constant at 303 K. For each fuel the load sweep was terminated if the ignitibility limit was reached. A lower load limit of 15 and 10 bar gross IMEP was found with fuels having an octane number range of 93-100 and 80-89 respectively, while fuels with an octane number below 70 were able to run through the whole load range including idle. A careful selection of boost pressure and EGR in the previously specified load range allowed achieving a gross indicated efficiency between 52 and 55% while NOx ranged between 0.1 and 0.5 g/kWh.
Technical Paper

Influence of Inlet Pressure, EGR, Combustion Phasing, Speed and Pilot Ratio on High Load Gasoline Partially Premixed Combustion

2010-05-05
2010-01-1471
The current research focuses in understanding how inlet pressure, EGR, combustion phasing, engine speed and pilot main ratio are affecting the main parameters of the combustion (e.g. efficiency, NOx, soot, maximum pressure rise rate) in the novel concept of injecting high octane number fuels in partially premixed combustion. The influence of the above mentioned parameters was studied by performing detailed sweeps at 32 bar fuel MEP (c.a. 16-18 bar gross IMEP); three different kinds of gasoline were tested (RON: 99, 89 and 69). The experiments were ran in a single cylinder heavy duty engine; Scania D12. At the end of these sweeps the optimized settings were computed in order to understand how to achieve high efficiency, low emissions and acceptable maximum pressure rise rate.
Technical Paper

Extending the Operating Region of Multi-Cylinder Partially Premixed Combustion using High Octane Number Fuel

2011-04-12
2011-01-1394
Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) is a combustion concept by which it is possible to get low smoke and NOx emissions simultaneously. PPC requires high EGR levels to extend the ignition delay so that air and fuel mix prior to combustion to a larger extent than with conventional diesel combustion. This paper investigates the operating region of single injection PPC for three different fuels; Diesel, low octane gasoline with similar characteristics as diesel and higher octane standard gasoline. Limits in emissions are defined and the highest load that fulfills these requirements is determined. The investigation shows the benefits of using high octane number fuel for Multi-Cylinder PPC. With high octane fuel the ignition delay is made longer and the operating region of single injection PPC can be extended significantly. Experiments are carried out on a multi-cylinder heavy-duty engine at low, medium and high speed.
Technical Paper

Potential Levels of Soot, NOx, HC and CO for Methanol Combustion

2016-04-05
2016-01-0887
Methanol is today considered a viable green fuel for combustion engines because of its low soot emissions and the possibility of it being produced in a CO2-neutral manner. Methanol as a fuel for combustion engines have attracted interest throughout history and much research was conducted during the oil crisis in the seventies. In the beginning of the eighties the oil prices began to decrease and interest in methanol declined. This paper presents the emission potential of methanol. T-Φ maps were constructed using a 0-D reactor with constant pressure, temperature and equivalence ratio to show the emission characteristics of methanol. These maps were compared with equivalent maps for diesel fuel. The maps were then complemented with engine simulations using a stochastic reactor model (SRM), which predicts end-gas emissions. The SRM was validated using experimental results from a truck engine running in Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) mode at medium loads.
Technical Paper

Low Load Limit Extension for Gasoline Compression Ignition Using Negative Valve Overlap Strategy

2018-04-03
2018-01-0896
Gasoline compression ignition (GCI) is widely studied for the benefits of simultaneous reduction in nitrogen oxide (NOX) and soot emissions without compromising the engine efficiency. Despite this advantage, the operational range for GCI is not widely expanded, as the auto-ignition of fuel at low load condition is difficult. The present study aims to extend the low load operational limit for GCI using negative valve overlap (NVO) strategy. The engine used for the current experimentation is a single cylinder diesel engine that runs at an idle speed of 800 rpm with a compression ratio of 17.3. The engine is operated at homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) and partially premixed combustion (PPC) combustion modes with the corresponding start of injection (SOI) at −180 CAD (aTDC) and −30 CAD (aTDC), respectively.
Technical Paper

Transition from HCCI to PPC: the Sensitivity of Combustion Phasing to the Intake Temperature and the Injection Timing with and without EGR

2016-04-05
2016-01-0767
An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of charge stratification on the combustion phasing in a single cylinder, heavy duty (HD) compression ignition (CI) engine. To do this the start of injection (SOI) was changed from -180° after top dead centre (ATDC) to near top dead centre (TDC) during which CA50 (the crank angle at which 50% of the fuel energy is released) was kept constant by changing the intake temperature. At each SOI, the response of CA50 to a slight increase or decrease of either intake temperature or SOI were also investigated. Afterwards, the experiment was repeated with a different intake oxygen concentration. The results show that, for the whole SOI period, the required intake temperature to keep constant CA50 has a “spoon” shape with the handle on the -180° side.
Technical Paper

Combustion Stratification for Naphtha from CI Combustion to PPC

2017-03-28
2017-01-0745
This study demonstrates the combustion stratification from conventional compression ignition (CI) combustion to partially premixed combustion (PPC). Experiments are performed in an optical CI engine at a speed of 1200 rpm for diesel and naphtha (RON = 46). The motored pressure at TDC is maintained at 35 bar and fuelMEP is kept constant at 5.1 bar to account for the difference in fuel properties between naphtha and diesel. Single injection strategy is employed and the fuel is injected at a pressure of 800 bar. Photron FASTCAM SA4 that captures in-cylinder combustion at the rate of 10000 frames per second is employed. The captured high speed video is processed to study the combustion homogeneity based on an algorithm reported in previous studies. Starting from late fuel injection timings, combustion stratification is investigated by advancing the fuel injection timings. For late start of injection (SOI), a direct link between SOI and combustion phasing is noticed.
Technical Paper

The Physical and Chemical Effects of Fuel on Gasoline Compression Ignition

2019-04-02
2019-01-1150
In the engine community, gasoline compression ignition (GCI) engines are at the forefront of research and efforts are being taken to commercialize an optimized GCI engine in the near future. GCI engines are operated typically at Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) mode as it offers better control of combustion with improved combustion stability. While the transition in combustion homogeneity from convectional Compression Ignition (CI) to Homogenized Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion via PPC has been comprehensively investigated, the physical and chemical effects of fuel on GCI are rarely reported at different combustion modes. Therefore, in this study, the effect of physical and chemical properties of fuels on GCI is investigated. In-order to investigate the reported problem, low octane gasoline fuels with same RON = 70 but different physical properties and sensitivity (S) are chosen.
Technical Paper

Boosting for High Load HCCI

2004-03-08
2004-01-0940
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) holds great promises for good fuel economy and low emissions of NOX and soot. The concept of HCCI is premixed combustion of a highly diluted mixture. The dilution limits the combustion temperature and thus prevents extensive NOX production. Load is controlled by altering the quality of the charge, rather than the quantity. No throttling together with a high compression ratio to facilitate auto ignition and lean mixtures results in good brake thermal efficiency. However, HCCI also presents challenges like how to control the combustion and how to achieve an acceptable load range. This work is focused on solutions to the latter problem. The high dilution required to avoid NOX production limits the mass of fuel relative to the mass of air or EGR. For a given size of the engine the only way to recover the loss of power due to dilution is to force more mass through the engine.
Technical Paper

A Real Time NOx Model for Conventional and Partially Premixed Diesel Combustion

2006-04-03
2006-01-0195
In this paper a fast NOx model is presented which can be used for engine optimization, aftertreatment control or virtual mapping. A cylinder pressure trace is required as input data. High calculation speed is obtained by using table interpolation to calculate equilibrium temperatures and species concentrations. Test data from a single-cylinder engine and from a complete six-cylinder engine have been used for calibration and validation of the model. The model produces results of good agreement with emission measurements using approximately 50 combustion product zones and a calculation time of one second per engine cycle. Different compression ratios, EGR rates, injection timing, inlet pressures etc. were used in the validation tests.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Displacement on Air-Diluted Multi-Cylinder HCCI Engine Performance

2006-04-03
2006-01-0205
The main benefit of HCCI engines compared to SI engines is improved fuel economy. The drawback is the diluted combustion with a substantially smaller operating range if not some kind of supercharging is used. The reasons for the higher brake efficiency in HCCI engines can be summarized in lower pumping losses and higher thermodynamic efficiency, due to higher compression ratio and higher ratio of specific heats if air is used as dilution. In the low load operating range, where HCCI today is mainly used, other parameters as friction losses, and cooling losses have a large impact on the achieved brake efficiency. To initiate the auto ignition of the in-cylinder charge a certain temperature and pressure have to be reached for a specific fuel. In an engine with high in-cylinder cooling losses the initial charge temperature before compression has to be higher than on an engine with less heat transfer.
Technical Paper

Detailed Heat Release Analyses with Regard to Combustion of RME and Oxygenated Fuels in an HSDI Diesel Engine

2007-04-16
2007-01-0627
Experiments on a modern DI Diesel engine were carried out: The engine was fuelled with standard Diesel fuel, RME and a mixture of 85% standard Diesel fuel, 5% RME and 10% higher alcohols under low load conditions (4 bar IMEP). During these experiments, different external EGR levels were applied while the injection timing was chosen in a way to keep the location of 50% heat release constant. Emission analysis results were in accordance with widely known correlations: Increasing EGR rates lowered NOx emissions. This is explained by a decrease of global air-fuel ratio entailing longer ignition delay. Local gas-fuel ratio increases during ignition delay and local combustion temperature is lowered. Exhaust gas analysis indicated further a strong increase of CO, PM and unburned HC emissions at high EGR levels. This resulted in lower combustion efficiency. PM emissions however, decreased above 50% EGR which was also in accordance with previously reported results.
Technical Paper

Lean Burn Versus Stoichiometric Operation with EGR and 3-Way Catalyst of an Engine Fueled with Natural Gas and Hydrogen Enriched Natural Gas

2007-01-23
2007-01-0015
Engine tests have been performed on a 9.6 liter spark-ignited engine fueled by natural gas and a mixture of 25/75 hydrogen/natural gas by volume. The scope of the work was to test two strategies for low emissions of harmful gases; lean burn operation and stoichiometric operation with EGR and a three-way catalyst. Most gas engines today, used in city buses, utilize the lean burn approach to achieve low NOx formation and high thermal efficiency. However, the lean burn approach may not be sufficient for future emissions legislation. One way to improve the lean burn strategy is to add hydrogen to the fuel to increase the lean limit and thus reduce the NOx formation without increasing the emissions of HC. Even so, the best commercially available technology for low emissions of NOx, HC and CO today is stoichiometric operation with a three-way catalyst as used in passenger cars.
Technical Paper

Combustion Chamber Geometry Effects on the Performance of an Ethanol Fueled HCCI Engine

2008-06-23
2008-01-1656
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion is limited in maximum load due to high peak pressures and excessive combustion rate. If the rate of combustion can be decreased the load range can be extended. From previous studies it has been shown that by using a deep square bowl in piston geometry the load range can be extended due to decreased heat release rates, pressure rise rates and longer combustion duration compared to a disc shaped combustion chamber. The explanation for the slower combustion was found in the turbulent flow field in the early stages of the intake stroke causing temperature stratifications throughout the charge. With larger temperature differences the combustion will be longer compared to a perfectly mixed charge with less temperature variations. The methods used for finding this explanation were high-speed cycle-resolved chemiluminescence imaging and fuel tracer planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF), together with large eddy simulations (LES).
Technical Paper

Heat Release Comparison Between Optical and All-Metal HSDI Diesel Engines

2008-04-14
2008-01-1062
Experiments are performed in optical engines in order to understand the combustion process in standard engines. In spite of this, little work has been done to verify that the results from optical engines are representative for a standard engine. The wall heat losses in optical engines are lower than in all-metal engines due to the lower heat conductivity of optical parts and a less efficient cooling system. Furthermore, optical engines often have larger crevice volumes due to a lower position of the piston rings. The present investigation studies how these differences affect the heat release and emissions in optical HSDI diesel engines. Five different engine configurations are studied: an optical engine of Bowditch design with two different squish heights, the same engine fitted with a metal piston, the same engine with all quartz parts replaced with metal components and, finally, a standard diesel engine. It is found that the use of optical parts affect the combustion process.
Technical Paper

Using Oxygenated Gasoline Surrogate Compositions to Map RON and MON

2014-04-01
2014-01-1303
Gasoline fuels are complex mixtures which consist of more than 200 different hydrocarbon species. In order to decrease the chemical and physical complexity, oxygenated surrogate components were used to enhance the fundamental understanding of partially premixed combustion (PPC). The ignition quality of a fuel is measured by octane number. There are two methods to measure the octane number: research octane number (RON) and motor octane number (MON). In this paper, RON and MON were measured for a matrix of n-heptane, isooctane, toluene, and ethanol (TERF) blends spanning a wide range of octane number between 60.6 and 97. First, regression models were created to derive RON and MON for TERF blends. The models were validated using the standard octane test for 17 TERF blends. Second, three different TERF blends with an ignition delay (ID) of 8 degrees for a specific operating condition were determined using a regression model.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Piston Topland Geometry on Emissions of Unburned Hydrocarbons from a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engine

2001-05-07
2001-01-1893
The effect of crevice volumes on the emissions of unburned hydrocarbons from a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine has been experimentally investigated. By varying the size and the geometry of the largest crevice, the piston topland, it was possible to ascertain whether or not crevices are the largest source of HC. Additionally, information on quenching distances for ultra lean mixtures was obtained. The tests were performed on a single cylinder engine fuelled with iso-octane. The results showed that most of the unburned hydrocarbons descend from the crevices. Increasing the topland width to some degree lead to an increase in HC. A further increase in topland width (>1.3 mm) resulted in a reduction of HC when using mixtures richer than λ ≈ 2.8, indicating that some of the mixture trapped in the topland participates in the combustion. In conditions when combustion occurred in the topland, the HC was rather insensitive to the height of the topland.
Technical Paper

Effect of Pre-Chamber Volume and Nozzle Diameter on Pre-Chamber Ignition in Heavy Duty Natural Gas Engines

2015-04-14
2015-01-0867
It has previously been shown by the authors that the pre-chamber ignition technique operating with fuel-rich pre-chamber combustion strategy is a very effective means of extending the lean limit of combustion with excess air in heavy duty natural gas engines in order to improve indicated efficiency and reduce emissions. This article presents a study of the influence of pre-chamber volume and nozzle diameter on the resultant ignition characteristics. The two parameters varied are the ratio of pre-chamber volume to engine's clearance volume and the ratio of total area of connecting nozzle to the pre-chamber volume. Each parameter is varied in 3 steps hence forming a 3 by 3 test matrix. The experiments are performed on a single cylinder 2L engine fitted with a custom made pre-chamber capable of spark ignition, fuel injection and pressure measurement.
Technical Paper

Particle Image Velocimetry Flow Measurements and Heat-Release Analysis in a Cross-Flow Cylinder Head

2002-10-21
2002-01-2840
A specially designed cylinder head, enabling unthrottled operation with a standard cam-phasing mechanism, was tested in an optical single-cylinder engine. The in-cylinder flow was measured with particle image velocimetry (PIV) and the results were compared with heat release and emission measurements. The article also discusses effects of residual gas and effective compression ratio on heat-release and emissions. The special design of the cylinder head, with one inlet and one exhaust valve per camshaft, made it possible to operate the engine unthrottled at part load. Cam phasing led to late inlet valve closing, but also to increased valve overlap. The exhaust valve closing was late in the intake stroke, resulting in high amounts of residual gases. Two different camshafts were used with late inlet valve closing. One of the camshafts had shorter valve open duration on the phased exhaust cam lobe.
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