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Technical Paper

Refining Measurement Uncertainties in HCCI/LTGC Engine Experiments

2018-04-03
2018-01-1248
This study presents estimates for measurement uncertainties for a Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI)/Low-Temperature Gasoline Combustion (LTGC) engine testing facility. A previously presented framework for quantifying those uncertainties developed uncertainty estimates based on the transducers manufacturers’ published tolerances. The present work utilizes the framework with improved uncertainty estimates in order to more accurately represent the actual uncertainties of the data acquired in the HCCI/LTGC laboratory, which ultimately results in a reduction in the uncertainty from 30 to less than 1 kPa during the intake and exhaust strokes. Details of laboratory calibration techniques and commissioning runs are used to constrain the sensitivities of the transducers relative to manufacturer supplied values.
Technical Paper

Spark Assist for CA50 Control and Improved Robustness in a Premixed LTGC Engine – Effects of Equivalence Ratio and Intake Boost

2018-04-03
2018-01-1252
Low-temperature gasoline combustion (LTGC) engines can deliver high efficiencies, with ultra-low emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM). However, controlling the combustion timing and maintaining robust operation remains a challenge for LTGC engines. One promising technique to overcoming these challenges is spark assist (SA). In this work, well-controlled, fully premixed experiments are performed in a single-cylinder LTGC research engine at 1200 rpm using a cylinder head modified to accommodate a spark plug. Compression ratios (CR) of 16:1 and 14:1 were used during the experiments. Two different fuels were also tested, with properties representative of premium- and regular-grade market gasolines. SA was found to work well for both CRs and fuels. The equivalence ratio (ϕ) limits and the effect of intake-pressure boost on the ability of SA to compensate for a reduced Tin were studied. For the conditions studied, ϕ=0.42 was found to be most effective for SA.
Technical Paper

TSCI with Wet Ethanol: An Investigation of the Effects of Injection Strategy on a Diesel Engine Architecture

2019-04-02
2019-01-1146
Thermally Stratified Compressions Ignition (TSCI) is a new advanced, low temperature combustion concept that aims to control the thermal stratification in the cylinder in order to control the heat release process in a lean, compression-ignition combustion mode. This work uses “wet ethanol”, a mixture of 80% ethanol and 20% water by mass, to increase thermal stratification beyond what naturally occurs, via evaporative cooling of a split direct injection. TSCI with wet ethanol has previously shown the potential to increase the high-load limit when compared to HCCI. The experiments conducted in this paper aim to fundamentally understand the effect that injection strategy has on the heat release process in TSCI. TSCI employs a split-injection strategy in which an injection during the intake stroke allows the majority of the fuel to premix with the air and an injection during the compression stroke introduces the desired level of thermal stratification to control the heat release rate.
Technical Paper

Combustion-Timing Control of Low-Temperature Gasoline Combustion (LTGC) Engines by Using Double Direct-Injections to Control Kinetic Rates

2019-04-02
2019-01-1156
Low-temperature gasoline combustion (LTGC) engines can provide high efficiencies and extremely low NOx and particulate emissions, but controlling the combustion timing remains a challenge. This paper explores the potential of Partial Fuel Stratification (PFS) to provide fast control of CA50 in an LTGC engine. Two different compression ratios are used (CR=16:1 and 14:1) that provide high efficiencies and are compatible with mixed-mode SI-LTGC engines. The fuel used is a research grade E10 gasoline (RON 92, MON 85) representative of a regular-grade market gasoline found in the United States. The fuel was supplied with a gasoline-type direct injector (GDI) mounted centrally in the cylinder. To create the PFS, the GDI injector was pulsed twice each engine cycle. First, an injection early in the intake stroke delivered the majority of the fuel (70 - 80%), establishing the minimum equivalence ratio in the charge.
Technical Paper

Understanding HCCI Combustion in a Free Piston Engine with a Multi-Zone, Control-Mass Model with Thermal Stratification and Chemical Kinetics

2019-04-02
2019-01-0958
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) is a combustion concept with the potential for future clean and efficient automotive powertrains. In HCCI, the thermal stratification has been proven to play an important role in dictating the combustion process, mainly caused by heat transfer to the wall during compression. In this study, a multi-zone, control-mass model with thermal stratification and chemical kinetics was developed to simulate HCCI combustion. In this kind of model, the initial conditions and the zonal heat transfer fraction distribution are critical for the modeling accuracy and usually require case-by-case tuning. Instead, in this study, the Thermal Stratification Analysis (TSA) methodology is used to generate the zonal heat transfer fraction distribution from experimental HCCI data collected on a fired, metal engine.
Technical Paper

Effects of Mass, Pressure, and Timing of Injection on the Efficiency and Emissions Characteristics of TSCI Combustion with Direct Water Injection

2018-04-03
2018-01-0178
A CFD investigation has been conducted to study the efficiency and emissions characteristics of Thermally Stratified Compression Ignition (TSCI) combustion with direct water injection. The motivation for using this new low temperature combustion mode is its ability to control the heat release process by introducing a forced and controlled thermal stratification beyond what would occur naturally. In this case, TSCI is enabled using direct water injection. The added degree of control over the combustion process allows for a significantly broader operable load range compared to HCCI. The effects of injection parameters including the pressure, start of injection (SOI) timing, and spray pattern have been shown previously to affect the heat release of TSCI and its induced thermal stratification. In the present work, the efficiency and emissions considerations were investigated in detail, and the effects of injected mass are presented.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Thermal Stratification Effects in HCCI Engines Using Large Eddy Simulations and Detailed Chemical Kinetics

2018-04-03
2018-01-0189
The operating range of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engines is limited to low and medium loads by high heat release rates. Negative Valve Overlap (NVO) can be used to facilitate ignition of high octane number fuels and control pressure rise rates by diluting the mixture with hot residual gas and introducing some thermal stratification. Controlling the thermal stratification results in sequential autoignition, reduced heat release rates, and operating range extension. Therefore, fundamental understanding of thermal stratification in HCCI combustion with high levels of internal residuals is necessary, along with the development of appropriate models to simulate thermal stratification and its effects on HCCI combustion. A 3-D Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model of a 2.0 L GM Ecotec engine (LNF type) engine cylinder, modified for HCCI combustion, was developed using CONVERGE CFD.
Journal Article

Increasing the Load Range, Load-to-Boost Ratio, and Efficiency of Low-Temperature Gasoline Combustion (LTGC) Engines

2017-03-28
2017-01-0731
Low-temperature gasoline combustion (LTGC) has the potential to provide gasoline-fueled engines with efficiencies at or above those of diesel engines and extremely low NOx and particulate emissions. Three key performance goals for LTGC are to obtain high loads, reduce the boost levels required for these loads, and achieve high thermal efficiencies (TEs). This paper reports the results of an experimental investigation into the use of partial fuel stratification, produced using early direct fuel injection (Early-DI PFS), and an increased compression ratio (CR) to achieve significant improvements in these performance characteristics. The experiments were conducted in a 0.98-liter single-cylinder research engine. Increasing the CR from 14:1 to 16:1 produced a nominal increase in the TE of about one TE percentage unit for both premixed and Early-DI PFS operation.
Journal Article

Engine Diagnostics Using Acoustic Emissions Sensors

2016-04-05
2016-01-0639
Engine acoustics measured by microphones near the engine have been used in controlled laboratory settings for combustion feedback and even combustion phasing control, but the use of these techniques in a vehicle where many other noise sources exist is problematic. In this study, surface-mounted acoustic emissions sensors are embedded in the block of a 2.0L turbocharged GDI engine, and the signal is analyzed to identify useful feedback features. The use of acoustic emissions sensors, which have a very high frequency response and are commonly used for detecting material failures for health monitoring, including detecting gear pitting and ring scuffing on test stands, enables detection of acoustics both within the range of human hearing and in the ultrasonic spectrum. The high-speed acoustic time-domain data are synchronized with the crank-angle-domain combustion data to investigate the acoustic emissions response caused by various engine events.
Journal Article

Effect of Ignition Improvers on the Combustion Performance of Regular-Grade E10 Gasoline in an HCCI Engine

2014-04-01
2014-01-1282
This study explores the use of two conventional ignition improvers, 2-ethylhexyl nitrate (EHN) and di-tert-butyl peroxide (DTBP), to enhance the autoignition of the regular gasoline in an homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine at naturally aspirated and moderately boosted conditions (up to 180 kPa absolute) with a constant engine speed of 1200 rpm. The results showed that both EHN and DTBP are very effective for reducing the intake temperature (Tin) required for autoignition and for enhancing stability to allow a higher charge-mass fuel/air equivalence ratio (ϕm). On the other hand, the addition of these additives can also make the gasoline too reactive at some conditions, so significant exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is required at these conditions to maintain the desired combustion phasing. Thus, there is a trade-off between improving stability and reducing the oxygen available for combustion when using ignition improvers to extend the high-load limit.
Journal Article

Hybrid Electric Vehicle Powertrain and Control Strategy Optimization to Maximize the Synergy with a Gasoline HCCI Engine

2011-04-12
2011-01-0888
This simulation study explores the potential synergy between the HCCI engine system and three hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) configurations, and proposes the supervisory control strategy that maximizes the benefits of combining these two technologies. HCCI operation significantly improves fuel efficiency at part load, while hybridization aims to reduce low load/low speed operation. Therefore, a key question arises: are the effects of these two technologies additive or overlapping? The HEV configurations include two parallel hybrids with varying degrees of electrification, e.g. with a 5kW integrated starter/motor (“Mild”) and with a 10 kW electric machine (“Medium”), and a power-split hybrid. The engine is a dual-mode, SI-HCCI system and the engine map reflects the impact of HCCI on brake specific fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

Efficiency Improvement of Boosted Low-Temperature Gasoline Combustion Engines (LTGC) Using a Double Direct-Injection Strategy

2017-03-28
2017-01-0728
For lean or dilute, boosted gasoline compression-ignition engines operating in a low-temperature combustion mode, creating a partially stratified fuel charge mixture prior to auto-ignition can be beneficial for reducing the heat-release rate (HRR) and the corresponding maximum rate of pressure rise. As a result, partial fuel stratification (PFS) can be used to increase load and/or efficiency without knock (i.e. without excessive ringing). In this work, a double direct-injection (D-DI) strategy is investigated for which the majority of the fuel is injected early in the intake stroke to create a relatively well-mixed background mixture, and the remaining fuel is injected in the latter part of the compression stroke to produce greater fuel stratification prior auto-ignition. Experiments were performed in a 1-liter single-cylinder engine modified for low-temperature gasoline combustion (LTGC) research.
Technical Paper

HCCI with Wet Ethanol: Investigating the Charge Cooling Effect of a High Latent Heat of Vaporization Fuel in LTC

2019-09-09
2019-24-0024
The combustion phasing of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition combustion is incredibly sensitive to intake temperature. Controlling the intake temperature on a cycle-to-cycle basis is one-way to control combustion phasing, however accomplishing this with an intake air heater/intercooler is unfeasible. One possible way to control the intake temperature is through the direct injection of fuel. The direct injection of fuel during the intake stroke cools the charge via evaporative cooling. Some heat is absorbed from the incoming air, lowering the in-cylinder temperature, while some heat is absorbed from the piston/cylinder walls if the spray reaches the walls. The amount of heat that is absorbed from the air vs. the walls depends on the spray penetration length. The available spray penetration length can be controlled by the injection timing during the intake stroke.
Technical Paper

Effects of Single versus Two-Stage Heat Release on the Load Limits of HCCI Using Primary Reference Fuels

2019-04-02
2019-01-0950
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) enables combustion with high efficiency and low emissions. Control over the combustion process and its narrow operating range are still the biggest challenges associated with HCCI. To expand the operable load ranges of HCCI, this paper explores the effects of single versus two-stage ignition fuels by studying the Primary Reference Fuels (PRF) in a variable compression ratio Cooperative Fuel Research (CFR) engine. The PRF fuels, iso-octane and n-heptane, are blended together at various concentrations to create fuel blends with different autoignition characteristics. Experiments were conducted using these PRF blends to explore the extent to which the load range can be extended with two-stage ignition fuels at various compression ratios and intake temperatures. The reactivity of the PRF blends increases with the fraction of n-heptane and so does the amount of low temperature heat release (LTHR).
Technical Paper

Refinement and Validation of the Thermal Stratification Analysis: A post-processing methodology for determining temperature distributions in an experimental HCCI engine

2014-04-01
2014-01-1276
Refinements were made to a post-processing technique, termed the Thermal Stratification Analysis (TSA), that couples the mass fraction burned data to ignition timing predictions from the autoignition integral to calculate an apparent temperature distribution from an experimental HCCI data point. Specifically, the analysis is expanded to include all of the mass in the cylinder by fitting the unburned mass with an exponential function, characteristic of the wall-affected region. The analysis-derived temperature distributions are then validated in two ways. First, the output data from CFD simulations are processed with the Thermal Stratification Analysis and the calculated temperature distributions are compared to the known CFD distributions.
Journal Article

Investigation of the Sources of Combustion Noise in HCCI Engines

2014-04-01
2014-01-1272
This article presents an investigation of the sources combustion-generated noise and its measurement in HCCI engines. Two cylinder-pressure derived parameters, the Combustion Noise Level (CNL) and the Ringing Intensity (RI), that are commonly used to establish limits of acceptable operation are compared along with spectral analyses of the pressure traces. This study focuses on explaining the differences between these two parameters and on investigating the sensitivity of the CNL to the ringing/knock phenomenon, to which the human ear is quite sensitive. Then, the effects of independently varying engine operating conditions such as fueling rate, boost pressure, and speed on both the CNL and RI are studied. Results show that the CNL is not significantly affected by the high-frequency components related to the ringing/knock phenomenon.
Journal Article

Boosted Premixed-LTGC / HCCI Combustion of EHN-doped Gasoline for Engine Speeds Up to 2400 rpm

2016-10-17
2016-01-2295
Previous work has shown that conventional diesel ignition improvers, 2-ethylhexyl nitrate (EHN) and di-tert-butyl peroxide (DTBP), can be used to enhance the autoignition of a regular-grade E10 gasoline in a well premixed low-temperature gasoline combustion (LTGC) engine, hereafter termed an HCCI engine, at naturally aspirated and moderately boosted conditions (up to 180 kPa absolute) with a constant engine speed of 1200 rpm and a 14:1 compression ratio. In the current work the effect of EHN on boosted HCCI combustion is further investigated with a higher compression ratio (16:1) piston and over a range of engine speeds (up to 2400 rpm). The results show that the higher compression ratio and engine speeds can make the combustion of a regular-grade E10 gasoline somewhat less stable. The addition of EHN improves the combustion stability by allowing combustion phasing to be more advanced for the same ringing intensity.
Journal Article

Efficiency and Emissions Characteristics of an HCCI Engine Fueled by Primary Reference Fuels

2018-04-03
2018-01-1255
This article investigates the effects of various primary reference fuel (PRF) blends, compression ratios, and intake temperatures on the thermodynamics and performance of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion in a Cooperative Fuels Research (CFR) engine. Combustion phasing was kept constant at a CA50 phasing of 5° after top dead center (aTDC) and the equivalence ratio was kept constant at 0.3. Meanwhile, the compression ratio varied from 8:1 to 15:1 as the PRF blends ranged from pure n-heptane to nearly pure isooctane. The intake temperature was used to match CA50 phasing. In addition to the experimental results, a GT-Power model was constructed to simulate the experimental engine and the model was validated against the experimental data. The GT-Power model and simulation results were used to help analyze the energy flows and thermodynamic conditions tested in the experiment.
Journal Article

Effects of Gasoline Reactivity and Ethanol Content on Boosted, Premixed and Partially Stratified Low-Temperature Gasoline Combustion (LTGC)

2015-04-14
2015-01-0813
Low-temperature gasoline combustion (LTGC), based on the compression ignition of a premixed or partially premixed dilute charge, can provide thermal efficiencies (TE) and maximum loads comparable to those of turbo-charged diesel engines, and ultra-low NOx and particulate emissions. Intake boosting is key to achieving high loads with dilute combustion, and it also enhances the fuel's autoignition reactivity, reducing the required intake heating or hot residuals. These effects have the advantages of increasing TE and charge density, allowing greater timing retard with good stability, and making the fuel ϕ- sensitive so that partial fuel stratification (PFS) can be applied for higher loads and further TE improvements. However, at high boost the autoignition reactivity enhancement can become excessive, and substantial amounts of EGR are required to prevent overly advanced combustion.
Journal Article

Energy Distribution Analysis in Boosted HCCI-like / LTGC Engines - Understanding the Trade-Offs to Maximize the Thermal Efficiency

2015-04-14
2015-01-0824
A detailed understanding of the various factors affecting the trends in gross-indicated thermal efficiency with changes in key operating parameters has been carried out, applied to a one-liter displacement single-cylinder boosted Low-Temperature Gasoline Combustion (LTGC) engine. This work systematically investigates how the supplied fuel energy splits into the following four energy pathways: gross-indicated thermal efficiency, combustion inefficiency, heat transfer and exhaust losses, and how this split changes with operating conditions. Additional analysis is performed to determine the influence of variations in the ratio of specific heat capacities (γ) and the effective expansion ratio, related to the combustion-phasing retard (CA50), on the energy split. Heat transfer and exhaust losses are computed using multiple standard cycle analysis techniques. The various methods are evaluated in order to validate the trends.
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