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Technical Paper

Development of Greenhouse Gas Emissions Model for 2014-2017 Heavy- and Medium-Duty Vehicle Compliance

2011-09-13
2011-01-2188
Of all existing modes of transportation, onroad motor vehicles are the largest contributor to greenhouse gas emissions and fuel usage. The Environmental Protection Agency and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration finalized regulations in April 2010 to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve fuel economy for 2012-2016 model year light-duty vehicles. In November 2010, both agencies jointly proposed the first ever greenhouse gas standards for medium- and heavy-duty trucks which are expected to take effect for model years starting in 2014. Vehicles of light-duty families are subject to mandatory testing for certification and compliance. Unlike the light-duty sector where a vast majority of vehicles are mass produced for generally similar purposes, medium- and heavy-duty vehicles are commonly custom-made.
Technical Paper

Development of Virtual Fuel Economy Trend Evaluation Process

2019-04-02
2019-01-0510
With the advancement of the autonomous vehicle development, the different possibilities of improving fuel economy have increased significantly by changing the driver or powertrain response under different traffic conditions. Development of new fuel-efficient driving strategies requires extensive experiments and simulations in traffic. In this paper, a fuel efficiency simulator environment with existing simulator software such as Simulink, Vissim, Sumo, and CarSim is developed in order to reduce the overall effort required for developing new fuel-efficient algorithms. The simulation environment is created by combining a mid-sized sedan MATLAB-Simulink powertrain model with a realistic microscopic traffic simulation program. To simulate the traffic realistically, real roads from urban and highway sections are modeled in the simulator with different traffic densities.
Technical Paper

Development of Adaptive Powertrain Control Utilizing ADAS and GPS

2019-04-02
2019-01-0883
This paper introduces the advancement of Engine Idle Stop-and-Go (ISG, also known as Auto Engine Stop-Start) and Neutral Coasting Control (NCC) with utilizing Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS) and GPS. The ISG and the In-Neutral Coasting (also known as Sailing or Gliding) have been widely implemented in recent vehicles for improving their fuel economy. However, many drivers find them somewhat disturbing because they basically change behaviors of their cars from what they used to. This annoyance discourages usages of those functions and eventually undermines their benefit of fuel saving. In order to mitigate the problem, new ISG and NCC algorithms are proposed. As opposed to the conventional logics that rely only on driver’s pedal action, the new algorithms determine whether or not to enable those functions for the given driving condition, based on the traffic information obtained using ADAS sensors and the location data from GPS and navigation map.
Technical Paper

Model-Based Fault Diagnosis of Spark-Ignition Direct-Injection Engine Using Nonlinear Estimations

2005-04-11
2005-01-0071
In this paper, the detection and isolation of actuator faults (both measured and commanded) occurring in the engine breathing and the fueling systems of a spark-ignition direct-injection (SIDI) engine are described. The breathing system in an SIDI engine usually consists of a fresh air induction path via an electronically controlled throttle (ECT) and an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) path via an EGR valve. They are dynamically coupled through the intake manifold to form a gas mixture, which eventually enters the engine cylinders for a subsequent combustion process. Meanwhile, the fueling system is equipped with a high-pressure common-rail injection for a precise control of the fuel quantity directly injected into the engine cylinders. Since the coupled system is highly nonlinear in nature, the fault diagnosis will be performed by generating residuals based on multiple nonlinear observers.
Technical Paper

HIL Development and Validation of Lithium-Ion Battery Packs

2014-04-01
2014-01-1863
A Battery Test Facility (BTF) has been constructed at United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to test various automotive battery packs for HEV, PHEV, and EV vehicles. Battery pack tests were performed in the BTF using a battery cycler, testing controllers, battery pack cooler, and a temperature controlled chamber. For e-machine testing and HEV power pack component testing, a variety of different battery packs are needed to power these devices to simulate in-vehicle conditions. For in-house e-machine testing and development, it is cost prohibitive to purchase a variety of battery packs, and also very time-consuming to interpret the battery management systems, CAN signals, and other interfaces for different vehicle manufacturers.
Technical Paper

Model-Based Fuel Economy Technology Assessment

2017-03-28
2017-01-0532
Many leading companies in the automotive industry have been putting tremendous amount of efforts into developing new designs and technologies to make their products more energy efficient. It is straightforward to evaluate the fuel economy benefit of an individual technology in specific systems and components. However, when multiple technologies are combined and integrated into a whole vehicle, estimating the impact without building and testing an actual vehicle becomes very complex, because the efficiency gains from individual components do not simply add up. In an early concept phase, a projection of fuel efficiency benefits from new technologies will be extremely useful; but in many cases, the outlook has to rely on engineer’s insight since it is impractical to run tests for all possible technology combinations.
Technical Paper

Utilization of ADAS for Improving Performance of Coasting in Neutral

2018-04-03
2018-01-0603
It has been discussed in numerous prior studies that in-neutral coasting, or sailing, can accomplish considerable amount of fuel saving when properly used. The driving maneuver basically makes the vehicle sail in neutral gear when propulsion is unnecessary. By disengaging a clutch or shifting the gear to neutral, the vehicle may better utilize its kinetic energy by avoiding dragging from the engine side. This strategy has been carried over to series production recently in some of the vehicles on the market and has become one of the eco-mode features available in current vehicles. However, the duration of coasting must be long enough to attain more fuel economy benefit than Deceleration Fuel Cut-Off (DFCO) - which exists in all current vehicle powertrain controllers - can bring. Also, the transients during shifting back to drive gear can result in a drivability concern.
Technical Paper

Control for Electrical Coolant Valve in Engine Thermal Management Module

2017-10-08
2017-01-2204
Hyundai-Kia Motor Company recently developed a multi-way, electrical coolant valve for engine thermal management module (TMM). The main purposes of the TMM are to boost fuel economy by accelerating engine warm-up and also to enhance engine thermal efficiency by actively controlling the operating temperature. In addition to those, the system can improve vehicle heating and cooling performance as well. The electrical coolant valve is a key component in the TMM as it modulates the amount of coolant flow to individual components in cooling system such as engine oil heat exchanger, heater core, and radiator. The coolant flow modulation is done by controlling the electric valve’s position with using an electric motor attached to the valve. The objective of the valve control is to manage coolant temperature at a desired level that varies depending on vehicle’s operating condition. This paper discusses the control algorithm developed for controlling electrical coolant valve.
Technical Paper

Development of Advanced Light-Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis Tool

2013-04-08
2013-01-0808
The Advanced Light-Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis tool was created by Environmental Protection Agency to evaluate the greenhouse gas emissions and fuel efficiency of light-duty vehicles. It is a physics-based, forward-looking, full vehicle computer simulator that is capable of analyzing various vehicle types equipped with different powertrain technologies. The software is built on MATLAB/Simulink. This first version release of the simulation tool models conventional vehicles and is capable of evaluating effects of off-cycle technologies on greenhouse gas emissions, such as air conditioning, electrical load reduction, road load reduction by active aerodynamics, and engine start-stop. This paper introduces the simulation tool by describing its basic model architecture and presenting its underlying physics as well as model formulations. It describes the simulation capability along with its graphical user interface of the tool, designed for off-cycle technology analysis purposes.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Validation of Power-Split and P2 Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicles

2013-04-08
2013-01-1470
The Advanced Light-Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis tool was created by EPA to evaluate the Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions of Light-Duty (LD) vehicles. It is a physics-based, forward-looking, full vehicle computer simulator capable of analyzing various vehicle types combined with different powertrain technologies. The software tool is a freely-distributed, MATLAB/Simulink-based desktop application. Version 1.0 of the ALPHA tool was applicable only to conventional, non-hybrid vehicles and was used to evaluate off-cycle technologies such as air-conditioning, electrical load reduction technology and road load reduction technologies for the 2017-2025 LD GHG rule. The next version of the ALPHA tool will extend its modeling capabilities to include power-split and P2 parallel hybrid electric vehicles and their battery pack energy storage systems. Future versions of ALPHA will incorporate plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) and electric vehicle (EV) architectures.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Validation of Lithium-Ion Automotive Battery Packs

2013-04-08
2013-01-1539
The Advanced Light-Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis (ALPHA) tool was created by EPA to evaluate the Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions of Light-Duty (LD) vehicles. It is a physics-based, forward-looking, full vehicle computer simulator capable of analyzing various vehicle types combined with different powertrain technologies. The software tool is a freely-distributed, MATLAB/Simulink-based desktop application. Version 1.0 of the ALPHA tool was applicable only to conventional, non-hybrid vehicles and was used to evaluate off-cycle technology such as air-conditioning, electrical load reduction technology and road load reduction technologies for the 2017-2025 LD GHG and Fuel Economy rule. The next version of the ALPHA tool extends its modeling capabilities to include power-split and P2 parallel hybrid electric vehicles and their battery pack energy storage systems. Future versions of ALPHA will incorporate plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) and electric vehicle (EV) architectures.
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