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Technical Paper

Internal Flow and Cavitation in a Multi-Hole Injector for Gasoline Direct-Injection Engines

2007-04-16
2007-01-1405
A transparent enlarged model of a six-hole injector used in the development of emerging gasoline direct-injection engines was manufactured with full optical access. The working fluid was water circulating through the injector nozzle under steady-state flow conditions at different flow rates, pressures and needle positions. Simultaneous matching of the Reynolds and cavitation numbers has allowed direct comparison between the cavitation regimes present in real-size and enlarged nozzles. The experimental results from the model injector, as part of a research programme into second-generation direct-injection spark-ignition engines, are presented and discussed. The main objective of this investigation was to characterise the cavitation process in the sac volume and nozzle holes under different operating conditions. This has been achieved by visualizing the nozzle cavitation structures in two planes simultaneously using two synchronised high-speed cameras.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Pump Design Parameters in Diesel Fuel Injection Systems

1995-02-01
950078
A computer model solving the 1-D flow in a typical fuel injection system for direct-injection diesel engines is presented. A Bosch distributor - type VE pump connected to four Stanadyne pencil - type nozzles has been used to validate the computer model over a wide range of operating conditions. Validation of the developed computer code has been performed for eight representative test cases. The predicted values which were compared with the experimental ones include the pumping chamber pressure, the line pressure, the needle lift and the injection rate. Results using as input the measured pumping chamber pressure are also presented in order to identify the error in the injection rate signal attributed to the difference between the simulated and the experimental pumping chamber pressure. In addition, the total fuel injection quantity for pump speeds between 500 and 2000 rpm and lever positions between 20% to 100% was calculated and compared with measurements.
Technical Paper

Three-Dimensional Flow Field in Four-Stroke Model Engines

1984-10-01
841360
Ensemble-averaged and in-cycle axial and swirl velocities have been measured by laser Doppler anemometry in the three-dimensional flow field of a four-stroke model engine motored at 200 rpm with a compression ratio of 6.7 and various cylinder head and piston geometries. The inlet configurations comprised an axisymmetric port with a shrouded valve and an off-centre port with two valve and swirl generating vane geometries. The piston configurations comprised flat, cylindrical and re-entrant axisymmetric piston-bowls. The results indicate that with the off-centre port a complex vortical flow pattern is generated during induction, which later either collapses in the absence of induction swirl or is transformed into a single rotating vortex in the transverse plane when swirl is present. The axisymmetric port with the shrouded valve gives rise to a double vortex structure and higher turbulence levels at TDC of compression compared to the off-centre port.
Technical Paper

Transient Characteristics of Single-Hole Diesel Sprays

1989-02-01
890314
Diesel fuel was injected through a pintle nozzle into quiescent ambient air and the transient characteristics of the spray were examined as a function of injection pump speed. The laser-based techniques characterised the spray in terms of its transient structure, tip penetration, droplet axial mean and rms velocities and average droplet size. The results, when correlated with the fuel line pressure and nozzle exit conditions, revealed the presence of four regimes in the transient spray development: an early injection period representing the first stage of droplet formation, the main injection period associated with the formation and break up of a dense core and representing the second stage of droplet formation, a late injection period corresponding to the collapse of the dense core and a post injection period where, depending on the injection conditions, liquid ligaments and/or large droplets are present near the nozzle and may give rise to a third stage of droplet formation.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of the Predictive Capability of Diesel Nozzle Cavitation Models

2007-04-16
2007-01-0245
The predictive capability of Lagrangian and Eulerian multi-dimensional computational fluid dynamics models accounting for the onset and development of cavitation inside Diesel nozzle holes is assessed against experimental data. These include cavitation images available from a real-size six-hole mini-sac nozzle incorporating a transparent window as well as high-speed/CCD images and LDV measurements of the liquid velocity inside an identical large-scale fully transparent nozzle replica. Results are available for different cavitation numbers, which correspond to different cavitation regimes forming inside the injection hole. Discharge coefficient measurements for various real-size nozzles operating under realistic injection pressures are also compared and match well with models' predictions.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Liquid and Vapor Penetration of High Pressure Diesel Sprays

2006-04-03
2006-01-0242
A dense-particle Eulerian-Lagrangian stochastic methodology, able to resolve the dense spray formed at the nozzle exit has been applied to the simulation of evaporating diesel sprays. Local grid refinement at the area where the spray evolves allows use of cells having sizes from 0.6 down to 0.075mm. Mass, momentum and energy source terms between the two phases are spatially distributed to cells found within a distance from the droplet centre; this has allowed for grid-independent interaction between the Eulerian and the Lagrangian phases to be reached. Additionally, various models simulating the physical processes taking place during the development of sprays are considered. The cavitating nozzle flow is used to estimate the injection velocity of the liquid while its effect on the spray formation is considered through an atomisation model predicting the initial droplet size.
Technical Paper

Transient Characteristics of Multi-Hole Diesel Sprays

1990-02-01
900480
The spatial and temporal characteristics of a diesel spray injected into the atmosphere through a multi-hole nozzle used in small DI Diesel engines have been investigated by laser techniques as a function of pump speed and load. The results showed that spray tip penetration and velocity depend on injection frequency rather than injected volume and the spray is asymmetric during the early and main part of the injection period. In the time/space domain different structures have been identified within the injection period, with the early injection period characterized by a well atomized cloud of droplets, the main period by the spray head and a dense core and the late injection period by the disintegrating dense core and the spray tail. IN DIRECT-INJECTION DIESEL ENGINES for passenger cars, fuel is injected through multi-hole nozzles at high pressure to promote mixing with the rapidly swirling air inside the combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

Coolant Flow in the Cylinder Head/Block of the Ford 2.5L DI Diesel Engine

1991-02-01
910300
Local measurements of the mean and rms velocities have been obtained by laser Doppler velocimetry in the coolant passages of a transparent model of a Ford 2.5L diesel cylinder head and block at a steady flowrate of 6.83 × 10-4 M3/s. The simulation of the coolant fluid by a mixture of hydrocarbon fluids at a predetermined constant temperature allowed accurate matching of the refractive index to that of the acrylic model, thus providing optical access for LDV measurements of the internal flow in sensitive areas where cooling is essential to prevent metal-fatigue failure. The results were obtained in sufficient detail to allow further validation of CFD coolant flow models.
Technical Paper

Correlation between Spark Ignition Characteristics and Flame Development in a Constant-Volume Combustion Chamber

1992-02-01
920413
The electrical characteristics of transistorized coil ignition (TCI) and capacitor discharge ignition (CDI) systems were investigated in spark-ignited quiescent and flowing propane/air mixtures within an optically-accessible, cylindrical constant-volume combustion chamber. Under quiescent flow conditions, the initial pressure, temperature and equivalence ratio of the mixture as well as the spark gap width and geometry were varied systematically in order to examine the relationship between ignition characteristics and flame initiation and development. The effect of the flow in the spark gap on the electrical characteristics of the ignition system, mixture ignitability and flame development was also examined by varying the pre-ignition mean flow and turbulence as well as the spark plug orientation relative to the mean flow.
Technical Paper

Visualization of Flow/Flame Interaction in a Constant-Volume Combustion Chamber

1993-03-01
930868
A visualization study using shadowgraphy was performed in an optically-accessible, cylindrical constant-volume combustion chamber to identify the mechanism of flow/flame interaction in spark-ignited, lean propane-air mixtures. The effect of the flow on flame initiation and propagation was examined by varying the pre-ignition mean flow and turbulence within a range typical of modern four-valve spark-ignition (SI) engines, as well as the spark plug orientation relative to the mean flow. The initial flame development was quantified in terms of 2-D images which provided information about the projected flame area and the displacement of the flame center as a function of flow conditions, time from the spark initiation and spark plug orientation. The results showed that high mean flow velocities and turbulence levels can shorten combustion duration in lean mixtures and that the positioning of the ground electrode can have an important effect on the initial kernel formation.
Technical Paper

Tumbling Motion: A Mechanism for Turbulence Enhancement in Spark-Ignition Engines

1990-02-01
900060
The ability of certain induction systems to enhance turbulence levels at the time of ignition, through formation of long-lived tumbling vortices on the plane of the valve and cylinder axes, has been investigated in a two-valve spark-ignition engine by rotating the intake port at 90° and 45° to the orientation of production directed ports. Detailed measurements of the three velocity components, obtained by laser velocimetry, revealed that the 90° port generated a pure tumble motion, with a maximum tumbling vortex ratio of 1.5 at 295°CA, zero swirl, and 42% turbulence enhancement relative to the standard configuration, while the 45° port gave rise to a combined tumble/swirl structure with a maximum tumbling vortex ratio of 0.5 at 285°CA, swirl ratio of 1.0 at TDC, and turbulence enhancement of 24%. The implications of the two types of flow structures for combustion are discussed.
Technical Paper

Swirl Generation by Helical Ports

1989-02-01
890790
The effect of inlet port design on swirl generation has been investigated for four helical ports from production, prototype and research Dl diesel engines by analyzing experimentally measured steady flow velocity distributions at the inlet valve curtain area and comparing their swirl characteristics in terms of the calculated in-cylinder angular momentum components and swirl ratio under operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Flow, Combustion and Emissions in a Five-Valve Research Gasoline Engine

2001-09-24
2001-01-3556
The in-cylinder flow, mixture distribution, combustion and exhaust emissions in a research, five-valve purpose-built gasoline engine are discussed on the basis of measurements obtained using laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV), fast spark-plug hydrocarbon sampling, flame imaging and NOx/HC emissions using fast chemiluminescent and flame ionisation detectors/analysers. These measurements have been complemented by steady flow testing of various cylinder head configurations, involving single- and three-valve operation, in terms of flow capacity and in-cylinder tumble strength.
Technical Paper

Effect of Multi-Injection Strategy on Cavitation Development in Diesel Injector Nozzle Holes

2005-04-11
2005-01-1237
The effect of multiple-injection strategy on nozzle hole cavitation has been investigated both experimentally and numerically. A common-rail Diesel injection system, used by Toyota in passenger car engines, has been employed together with a double-shutter CCD camera in order to visualise cavitation inside a submerged and optically accessible (in one out of the six holes) real-size VCO nozzle. Initially the cavitation development was investigated in single injection events followed by flow images obtained during multiple injections consisting of a pilot and a main injection pulse. In order to identify the effect of pilot injection on cavitation development during the main injection, the dwell time between the injection events was varied between 1.5-5ms for different pilot injection quantities. The extensive test matrix included injection pressures of 400 and 800bar and back pressures ranging from 2.4 up to 41bar.
Technical Paper

Imaging of Lean Premixed Flames in Spark-Ignition Engines

1994-10-01
942052
Two optical single-cylinder spark-ignition engines equipped with two- and four-valve cylinder heads were used to examine the flow and flame interaction under lean mixture conditions. Images of the developing flame under quiescent, swirl, low tumble and high tumble flow conditions corresponding to a wide range of mean velocity and turbulence levels around the time of ignition were obtained with an image-intensified CCD camera using the light radiated by the flame and the flow in the vicinity of the spark plug was quantified by laser Doppler velocimetry. In the case of the tumbling flow, the flame images were software-processed to allow estimation of the total flame area, the displacement of its centre as a function of crank angle and their correlation with the cylinder pressure.
Technical Paper

An Approach to Charge Stratification in Lean-Burn, Spark- Ignition Engines

1994-10-01
941878
A constant-volume combustion chamber was used to examine injection of a small quantity of slightly rich fuel/air mixture towards the spark plug around the time of ignition, in an overall very lean mixture rotating at velocities representative of modern spark-ignition engines. The results show that it is possible to achieve 100% ignitability with overall air-fuel ratios in excess of 50 and much faster burn rates than those with initially homogenous mixtures of the same equivalence ratio with high swirl and turbulence. The advantages of this method of local charge stratification have been demonstrated in terms of both pressure measurements and shadowgraphs of the early flame development while the transient characteristics of the injected rich mixture at the spark plug gap were monitored by a fast flame ionization detector.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Pressure-Swirl Atomizers for GDI Engines

1999-03-01
1999-01-0500
A new simulation approach to the modeling of the whole fuel injection process within a common-rail fuel injection system for direct-injection gasoline engines, including the pressure-swirl atomizer and the conical hollow-cone spray formed at the nozzle exit, is presented. The flow development in the common-rail fuel injection system is simulated using an 1-D model which accounts for the wave dynamics within the system and predicts the actual injection pressure and injection rate throughout the nozzle. The details of the flow inside its various flow passages and the discharge hole of the pressure-swirl atomizer are investigated using a two-phase CFD model which calculates the location of the liquid-gas interface using the VOF method and estimates the transient formation of the liquid film developing on the walls of the discharge hole due to the centrifugal forces acting on the swirling fluid.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Cavitation in a Vertical Multi-Hole Injector

1999-03-01
1999-01-0524
An enlarged transparent model of a six-hole vertical diesel injector has been used to allow visualization of the flow at Reynolds and cavitation numbers matching those of real size injectors operating under normal Diesel engine conditions. The visualization system comprised a CCD camera, high-magnification lenses and a spark light source which allowed high-resolution images to be obtained. The flow conditions examined in terms of flow rates and pressures covered the range from low to full load of the real size injector while the needle lift position corresponded to that of full lift of the first- and second- stage in two-stage injectors. In addition, different values of needle eccentricity were tested in order to examine its effect on the cavitation structures within the injection holes.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Advanced High-Pressure Fuel Injection Systems for Passenger Car Diesel Engines

1999-03-01
1999-01-0910
A one-dimensional, transient and compressible flow model was used in order to simulate the flow and pressure distribution in advanced high-pressure fuel injection systems; these include electronic distributor-type pumps with either axial or radial plungers and a common-rail system. Experimental data for the line pressure, needle lift, injection rate and total fuel injection quantity obtained over a wide range of operating conditions (from idle to high speed/full load) were used to validate the model. The FIE system used for validation comprised an electronic high-pressure pump connected to two-stage injectors of different type including 6-hole vertical and 5-hole inclined conical-sac and VCO nozzles.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Flow in the Nozzle of a Vertical Multi-Hole Diesel Engine Injector

1998-02-23
980811
An enlarged transparent model of a six-hole vertical diesel injector has been manufactured in order to allow flow measurements inside the sac volume and the injection holes to be obtained using a combination of laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) and the refractive index matching technique under steady state conditions. The measurement points were concentrated in the sac volume close to the entrance of the injection holes as well as inside them on a vertical plane passing through the axis of two injection holes for two different needle lifts. The velocity flow field was characterized in terms of the mean velocity and the turbulent intensity. The results revealed that, under certain conditions, cavitation may occur in the recirculation zone formed at the entrance to the hole since the pressure in this region can reach the value of the vapor pressure of the flowing liquid; this was found to strongly depend on the needle lift and eccentricity.
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