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Technical Paper

Comparison between a Diesel and a New 2-Stroke GDI Engine on a Series Hybrid Passenger Car

The internal combustion engine (ICE) for a series hybrid vehicle must be very compact, fuel efficient reliable and clean; furthermore it should possess excellent NVH features; finally, the cost should be as low as possible. An unconventional but not exotic solution, potentially ideal to fulfill all the above mentioned requirements, is represented by a 2-Stroke externally scavenged GDI engine, without poppet valves. BRC (Cherasco, Italy) and PRIMAVIS (Turin, Italy) are currently developing an engine of this type, incorporating a patented rotary valve for the control of the charge induced to cylinder. The development is supported by extensive CFD simulations, which are able to predict all the main engine performance characteristics. The paper analyzes, from a theoretical point of view, the installation of the engine on an electric vehicle, previously optimized for a small Diesel engine (Smart 0.8 l CDi).
Technical Paper

Combustion Analysis on an IDI CI Engine Fueled by Microalgae

The third generation of biodiesels, derived from microalgae, is one of the most interesting options for the replacement of fossil fuels. While the use of first generation biodiesels on different types of compression ignition engines is well documented in the open literature, much less information is available on algal fuels. As a matter of fact, the influence on combustion and pollutant emissions is not definitively assessed, depending on the combination of the specific features of both fuel and engine. The aim of this paper is to analyze the combustion process in a small industrial engine fueled by an algal Biodiesel, blended with standard Diesel fuel. The blend composition is the one typically used in most applications, i.e. 20% of biodiesel and 80% of Diesel (B20).
Journal Article

CFD Analyses on 2-Stroke High Speed Diesel Engines

In recent years, interest has been growing in the 2-Stroke Diesel cycle, coupled to high speed engines. One of the most promising applications is on light aircraft piston engines, typically designed to provide a top brake power of 100-200 HP with a relatively low weight. The main advantage yielded by the 2-Stroke cycle is the possibility to achieve high power density at low crankshaft speed, allowing the propeller to be directly coupled to the engine, without a reduction drive. Furthermore, Diesel combustion is a good match for supercharging and it is expected to provide a superior fuel efficiency, in comparison to S.I. engines. However, the coupling of 2-Stroke cycle and Diesel combustion on small bore, high speed engines is quite complex, requiring a suitable support from CFD simulation.
Technical Paper

Development of a High Performance Engine for a Formula SAE Racer

The paper reviews the theoretical and experimental development of the engine powering the 2011 Formula SAE single seater of the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia (UNIMORE). The general design criteria followed by the UNIMORE team are discussed and compared to those chosen by other competitors. In particular, the reasons supporting the selection of the engine type (single cylinder by Husqvarna) are explained in details. The adoption of a single cylinder, instead of the more powerful four-in-line, required a much bigger effort for getting an acceptable level of brake power. Therefore, the development was massively supported by CFD simulation (both 1D and 3D) and by experiments. It was found that the most important design areas for the single cylinder are: the intake system, including the restrictor (20 mm), the intake runner and the plenum, and the muffler.
Journal Article

Comparison between 2 and 4-Stroke Engines for a 30 kW Range Extender

The paper compares two different design concepts for a range extender engine rated at 30 kW at 4500 rpm. The first project is a conventional 4-Stroke SI engine, 2-cylinder, 2-valve, equipped with port fuel injection. The second is a new type of 2-Stroke loop scavenged SI engine, featuring a direct gasoline injection and a patented rotary valve for enhancing the induction and scavenging processes. Both power units have been virtually designed with the help of CFD simulation. Moreover, for the 2-Stroke engine, a prototype has been also built and tested at the dynamometer bench, allowing the authors to make a reliable theoretical comparison with the well assessed 4-Stroke unit.
Technical Paper

An Innovative Hybrid Powertrain for Small and Medium Boats

Hybridization is a mainstream technology for automobiles, and its application is rapidly expanding in other fields. Marine propulsion is one such field that could benefit from electrification of the powertrain. In particular, for boats to sail in enclosed waterways, such as harbors, channels, lagoons, a pure electric mode would be highly desirable. The main challenge to accomplish hybridization is the additional weight of the electric components, in particular the batteries. The goal of this project is to replace a conventional 4-stroke turbocharged Diesel engine with a hybrid powertrain, without any penalty in terms of weight, overall dimensions, fuel efficiency, and pollutant emissions. This can be achieved by developing a new generation of 2-Stroke Diesel engines, and coupling them to a state-of-the art electric system. For the thermal units, two alternative designs without active valve train are considered: opposed piston and loop scavenged engines.