Refine Your Search

Search Results

Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Nozzle Flow Number Impact on Full Load Performance of an Euro5 Automotive Diesel Engine

2012-04-16
2012-01-0679
The present paper describes an experimental and numerical study on the effect of the nozzle flow number (FN) on the full load performance of a modern Euro5 diesel automotive engine, in terms of torque, efficiency and exhaust emissions. The improvement of the diesel engine performance requires a continuous development of the engine components, first of all the injection system and in particular the nozzle design. One of the most crucial factors affecting performance and emissions is the nozzle flow number and its influence becomes more and more important as high performance and low emissions are continuous requirements. Indeed, reducing the nozzle flow number, due to an increase of spray-air mixing, an improvement in PM-NOx trade-off is generally expectable. On the other hand, at full load, where peak firing pressure and exhaust valve temperature become the limiting factors, critical operating conditions can be easily reached reducing the nozzle hole diameter.
Technical Paper

Low Cetane Number Renewable Oxy-fuels for Premixed Combustion Concept Application: Experimental Investigation on a Light Duty Diesel Engine

2012-04-16
2012-01-1310
This paper illustrates the results of an experimental study on the impact of a low cetane number (CN) oxygenated fuel on the combustion process and emissions of a light-duty (LD) single-cylinder research engine. In an earlier study, it was concluded that cyclic oxygenates consistently outperformed their straight and branched counterparts at equal oxygen content and with respect to lowering soot emissions. A clear correlation was reported linking soot and CN, with lower CN fuels leading to more favorable soot levels. It was concluded that a lower CN fuel, when realized by adding low reactive cyclic oxygenates to commercial diesel fuel, manifests in longer ignition delays and thus more premixing. Ultimately, a higher degree of premixing, in turn, was thought to suppress soot formation rates.
Technical Paper

Assessment of the Effect of Low Cetane Number Fuels on a Light Duty CI Engine: Preliminary Experimental Characterization in PCCI Operating Condition

2011-09-11
2011-24-0053
The goal of this paper is to acquire insight into the influence of cetane number (CN) and fuel oxygen on overall engine performance in the Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI) combustion mode. From literature, it is known that low reactive (i.e., low CN) fuels increase the ignition delay (ID) and therefore the degree of mixing prior to auto-ignition. With respect to fuel oxygen, it is known that this has a favorable impact on soot emissions by means of carbon sequestration. This makes the use of low CN oxygen fuels an interesting route to improve the applicability of PCCI combustion in diesel engines. In earlier studies, performed on a heavy-duty engine, cyclic oxygenates were found to consistently outperform their straight and branched counterparts with respect to curbing soot. This was attributed to a considerably lower CN.
Technical Paper

Effect of Port Injected Ethanol on Combustion Characteristics in a Dual-Fuel Light Duty Diesel Engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-1692
Nowadays, alcoholic fuels gain increased interest as alternative transportation biofuel even in compression ignition engines due to the fact that they contain oxygen and can be produced in a sustainable way. Furthermore, due to their lower CN (Cetane Number) they suit better for premixed combustion applications. Experimental research was conducted on a single cylinder engine provided with modern engine architecture modified for DF (Dual-Fuel) purposes. The authors have investigated the use of ethanol in a DF engine in order to exploit its well-known advantages in premixed combustion mode. The DF approach appears to be a promising solution because it permits flexible control of the premixed fuel fraction regardless from the operating conditions. This improves the exploitation of the ethanol potential according the engine working conditions.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Impact of the Dual-Fuel Ethanol-Diesel System on the Size, Morphology, and Chemical Characteristics of the Soot Particles Emitted from a LD Diesel Engine

2014-04-01
2014-01-1613
Nowadays, alcohol fuels are of increasing interest as alternative transportation biofuels even in compression ignition engines because they are oxygenated and producible in a sustainable way. In this paper, the experimental research activity was conducted on a single cylinder research engine provided with a modern architecture and properly modified in a dual-fuel (DF) configuration. Looking at ethanol the as one of the future environmental friendly biofuels experimental campaign was aimed to evaluate in detail the effect of the use of the ethanol as port injected fuel in diesel engine on the size, morphology, reactivity and chemical features of the exhaust emitted soot particles. The engine tests were chosen properly in order to represent actual working conditions of an automotive light-duty diesel engine. A proper engine Dual-Fuel calibration was set-up respecting prefixed limits on in-cylinder peak firing pressure, cylinder pressure rise, fuel efficiency and gaseous emissions.
Technical Paper

Estimation of TTW and WTW Factors for a Light Duty Dual Fuel NG-Diesel EU5 Passenger Car

2014-04-01
2014-01-1621
An increasing interest in the use of natural gas in CI engines is currently taking place, due to several reasons: it is cheaper than conventional Diesel fuel, permits a significant reduction in the amount of emitted carbon dioxide and is intrinsically cleaner, being much less prone to soot formation. In this respect, the Dual Fuel (DF) concept has already proven to be a viable solution, industrially implemented for several applications in the high duty engines category. Despite this, some issues still require a technological solution, preventing the commercialization of DF engines in wider automotive fields: the release of high amounts of unburned fuel, the risk of engine knock, the possible thermal efficiency reduction are some factors regarding the fuel combustion aspect. DF configuration examined in the present paper corresponds to Port Fuel Injection of natural gas and direct injection of the Diesel Fuel.
Technical Paper

Hydrocracked Fossil Oil and Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil (HVO) Effects on Combustion and Emissions Performance of “Torque-Controlled” Diesel Engines

2015-09-06
2015-24-2497
The present paper describes the results of a research activity aimed at studying the potential offered by the use of Hydrocracked fossil oil (HCK) and Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil (HVO) blends as premium fuels for next generation diesel engines. Five fuels have been tested in a light duty four cylinder diesel engine, Euro 5 version, equipped with closed loop control of the combustion. The set of fuels comprises four experimental fuels specifically formulated by blending high cetane HVO and HCK streams and oneEN590-compliant commercial diesel fuel representative of the current market fuel quality. A well consolidated procedure has been carried out to estimate, for the tested fuels, the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) vehicle performance by means of the specific emissions at steady-state engine operating points.
Technical Paper

Emission Reduction Technologies for the Future Low Emission Rail Diesel Engines: EGR vs SCR

2013-09-08
2013-24-0087
The EU emission standards for new rail Diesel engines are becoming even more stringent. EGR and SCR technologies can both be used to reduce NOx emissions; however, the use of EGR is usually accompanied by an increase in PM emissions and may require a DPF. On the other hand, the use of SCR requires on-board storage of urea. Thus, it is necessary to study these trade-offs in order to understand how these technologies can best be used in rail applications to meet new emission standards. The present study assesses the application of these technologies in Diesel railcars on a quantitative basis using one and three dimensional numerical simulation tools. In particular, the study considers a 560 kW railcar engine with the use of either EGR or SCR based solutions for NOx reduction. The NOx and PM emissions performances are evaluated over the C1 homologation cycle.
Technical Paper

Application of a Dual Fuel Diesel-CNG Configuration in a Euro 5 Automotive Diesel Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-0769
An increasing interest in the use of natural gas in CI engines is currently taking place, due to several reasons: it is cheaper than conventional Diesel fuel, permits a significant reduction of carbon dioxide and is intrinsically clean, being much less prone to soot formation. In this respect, the Dual Fuel concept has already proven to be a viable solution, industrially implemented for several applications in the heavy duty engines category. An experimental research activity was devoted to the analysis of the potentiality offered by the application of a Dual Fuel Diesel-CNG configuration on a light duty 2L Euro 5 automotive diesel engine, equipped with an advanced control system of the combustion. The experimental campaign foresaw to test the engine in dynamic and steady state conditions, comparing engine performance and emissions in conventional Diesel and Dual Fuel combustion modes.
Technical Paper

Assessment of Engine Control Parameters Effect to Minimize GHG Emissions in a Dual Fuel NG/Diesel Light Duty Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0266
The interest in Natural Gas (NG) as alternative fuel for transportation is constantly growing, mostly due to its large availability and lower environmental impact with respect to gasoline or diesel fuel. In this scenario, the application of the Dual Fuel (DF) Diesel- Natural Gas (NG) combustion concept to light duty engines can represent an important route to increment the diffusion of natural gas use. Many studies have proven the benefits of DF with respect to conventional diesel combustion in terms of CO2, NOx, PM and PN emissions, with the main drawback of high unburned hydrocarbon, mainly at low/partial engine loads. This last aspect still prevents the application of DF mode to small displacement engines. In the present work, a 2.0 L Euro 5 compliant diesel engine, equipped with an advanced electronic closed-loop combustion control (CLCC) system, has been set up to operate in DF mode and tested on a dyno test bench.
Technical Paper

How Much Regeneration Events Influence Particle Emissions of DPF-Equipped Vehicles?

2017-09-04
2017-24-0144
Diesel particulate filter (DPF) is the most effective emission control device for reducing particle emissions (both mass, PM, and number, PN) from diesel engines, however many studies reported elevated emissions of nanoparticles (<50 nm) during its regeneration. In this paper the results of an extensive literature survey is presented. During DPF active regeneration, most of the literature studies showed an increase in the number of the emitted nanoparticles of about 2-3 orders of magnitude compared to the normal operating conditions. Many factors could influence their amount, size distribution, chemical-physical nature (volatiles, semi-volatiles, solid) and the duration of the regenerative event: i.e. DPF load and thermodynamic conditions, lube and fuel sulfur content, engine operative conditions, PN sampling and measurement methodologies.
Technical Paper

Parametric Analysis of the Effect of Pilot Quantity, Combustion Phasing and EGR on Efficiencies of a Gasoline PPC Light-Duty Engine

2017-09-04
2017-24-0084
In this paper, a parametric analysis on the main engine calibration parameters applied on gasoline Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) is performed. Theoretically, the PPC concept permits to improve both the engine efficiencies and the NOx-soot trade-off simultaneously compared to the conventional diesel combustion. This work is based on the design of experiments (DoE), statistical approach, and investigates on the engine calibration parameters that might affect the efficiencies and the emissions of a gasoline PPC. The full factorial DoE analysis based on three levels and three factors (33 factorial design) is performed at three engine operating conditions of the Worldwide harmonized Light vehicles Test Cycles (WLTC). The pilot quantity (Qpil), the crank angle position when 50% of the total heat is released (CA50), and the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) factors are considered. The goal is to identify an engine calibration with high efficiency and low emissions.
Technical Paper

Experimental Analysis of the Operating Parameter Influence on the application of Low Temperature Combustion in the Modern Diesel Engines

2007-07-23
2007-01-1839
The present paper describes the effects of some operating parameters on the performance of a single cylinder research engine when it runs under Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) conditions. Aim of the experimental work was to explore the potential of the control of each parameter on the improvement of LTC application to the modern LD diesel engines for passenger cars. In particular, the effects on LTC performance of the following operating parameters in different engine test points were analyzed: intake air temperature, exhaust EGR cooler temperature, intake pipe pressure, exhaust pipe pressure and swirl ratio. Some parameters have shown a particular influence on the improvement of EGR tolerability for maximum NOx reduction preserving fuel consumption and smoke, while others have evidenced poor sensitivity.
Technical Paper

Assessment of the New Features of a Prototype High-Pressure “Hollow Cone Spray” Diesel Injector by Means of Engine Performance Characterization and Spray Visualization

2018-09-10
2018-01-1697
The application of more efficient compression ignition combustion concepts requires advancement in terms of fuel injection technologies. The injector nozzle is the most critical component of the whole injection system for its impact on the combustion process. It is characterized by the number of holes, diameter, internal shape, and opening angle. The reduction of the nozzle hole diameter seems the simplest way to promote the atomization process but the number of holes must be increased to keep constant the injected fuel mass. This logic has been applied to the development of a new generation of injectors. First, the tendency to increase the nozzle number and to reduce the diameter has led to the replacement of the nozzle with a circular plate. The vertical movement of the needle generates an annulus area for the fuel delivery on 360 degrees, so controlling the atomization as a function of the vertical plate position.
Technical Paper

Investigation of the Effect of Compression Ratio on the Combustion Behavior and Emission Performance of HVO Blended Diesel Fuels in a Single-Cylinder Light-Duty Diesel Engine

2015-04-14
2015-01-0898
Hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) is a renewable high quality paraffinic diesel that can be obtained by the hydrotreating of a wide range of biomass feedstocks, including vegetable oils, animal fats, waste oils, greases and algal oils. HVO can be used as a drop-in fuel with beneficial effects for the engine and the environment. The main objective of this study was to explore the potential of HVO as a candidate bio blendstock for new experimental formulations of diesel fuel to be used in advanced combustion systems at different compression ratios and at high EGR rates in order to conform to the Euro 6 NOx emission standard. The experiments were carried out in a single-cylinder research engine at three steady-state operating conditions and at three compression ratios (CR) by changing the piston.
Technical Paper

Compression Ratio Influence on the Performance of an Advanced Single-Cylinder Diesel Engine Operating in Conventional and Low Temperature Combustion Mode

2008-06-23
2008-01-1678
The present paper describes a detailed experimental analysis on the effect of the compression ratio on the performance of a single-cylinder research diesel engine operating with both conventional combustion and Low Temperature Combustion mode for low NOx emissions. The single-cylinder engine was developed with the same combustion system architecture of the four-cylinder FIAT 1.9 liter Multi-Jet. Starting from an engine configuration with a compression ratio of 16.5, the compression ratio was reduced to 14.5. For both the geometric configurations, engine performance was evaluated in terms of thermodynamic parameters, emissions and fuel consumption in some operating test points representative of the engine behavior running on the NEDC cycle.
Journal Article

Determination of Oxidation Characteristics and Studies on the Feasibility of Metallic Nanoparticles Combustion Under ICE-Like Conditions

2011-09-11
2011-24-0105
The present work relates to the investigation of the basic oxidation characteristics of iron and aluminium nanoparticles as well as the feasibility of their combustion under both Internal Combustion Engine (ICE)-like and real engine conditions. Based on a series of proof-of-concept experiments, combustion was found to be feasible taking place in a controllable way and bearing similarities to the respective case of conventional fuels. These studies were complimented by relevant in-situ and ex-situ/post-analysis, in order to elaborate the fundamental phenomena occurring during combustion as well as the extent and ‘quality’ of the process. The oxidation mechanisms of the two metallic fuels appear different and -as expected- the energy release during combustion of aluminium is significantly higher than that released in the case of iron.
Technical Paper

Outwardly Opening Hollow-Cone Diesel Spray Characterization under Different Ambient Conditions

2018-09-10
2018-01-1694
The combustion quality in modern diesel engines depends strictly on the quality of the air-fuel mixing and, in turn, from the quality of spray atomization process. So air-fuel mixing is strongly influenced by the injection pressure, geometry of the nozzle duct and the hydraulic characteristics of the injector. In this context, spray concepts alternative to the conventional multi-hole nozzles could be considered as solutions to the extremely high injection pressure increase to assure a higher and faster fuel-air mixing in the piston bowl, with the final target of increasing the fuel efficiency and reducing the engine emissions. The study concerns an experimental depiction of a spray generated through a prototype high-pressure hollow-cone nozzle, under evaporative and non-evaporative conditions, injecting the fuel in a constant-volume combustion vessel controlled in pressure and temperature up to engine-like gas densities in order to measure the spatial and temporal fuel patterns.
Journal Article

Analysis of Particle Mass and Size Emissions from a Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filter during Regeneration by Means of Actual Injection Strategies in Light Duty Engines

2011-09-11
2011-24-0210
The diesel particulate filters (DPF) are considered the most robust technologies for particle emission reduction both in terms of mass and number. On the other hand, the increase of the backpressure in the exhaust system due to the accumulation of the particles in the filter walls leads to an increase of the engine fuel consumption and engine power reduction. To limit the filter loading, and the backpressure, a periodical regeneration is needed. Because of the growing interest about particle emission both in terms of mass, number and size, it appears important to monitor the evolution of the particle mass and number concentrations and size distribution during the regeneration of the DPFs. For this matter, in the presented work the regeneration of a catalyzed filter was fully analyzed. Particular attention was dedicated to the dynamic evolution both of the thermodynamic parameters and particle emissions.
Journal Article

The Key Role of the Closed-loop Combustion Control for Exploiting the Potential of Biodiesel in a Modern Diesel Engine for Passenger Car Applications

2011-06-09
2011-37-0005
The present paper describes the results of a cooperative research project between GM Powertrain Europe and Istituto Motori - CNR aimed at studying the capability of GM Combustion Closed-Loop Control (CLCC) in enabling seamless operation with high biodiesel blending levels in a modern diesel engine for passenger car applications. As a matter of fact, fuelling modern electronically-controlled diesel engines with high blends of biodiesel leads to a performance reduction of about 12-15% at rated power and up to 30% in the low-end torque, while increasing significantly the engine-out NOx emissions. These effects are both due to the interaction of the biodiesel properties with the control logic of the electronic control unit, which is calibrated for diesel operation. However, as the authors previously demonstrated, if engine calibration is re-tuned for biodiesel fuelling, the above mentioned drawbacks can be compensated and the biodiesel environmental inner qualities can be fully deployed.
X