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Technical Paper

Research on an AKF Estimator of the Gravity Centre and States of Commercial Vehicles

2013-11-27
2013-01-2818
The commercial vehicle is widely used in the overland transport. A prediction is given on the 9th annual China automotive industry forum that the number of the global commercial vehicles will reach eight million by the year of 2016. However, since the distance between its gravity centre and the ground is larger than that of the passenger vehicle, considering its comparatively short wheelbase, the rollover accident, which is fatal to the drivers and always makes enormous loss of merchandises, easily occurs in the case of commercial vehicles. As the number of the commercial vehicle is increasing fast, the accidents will occur more frequently, the losses will be increasingly enormous. To solve the problem, many researches about rollover early warning systems have been done. In most cases, it is assumed that the references of the vehicle are given.
Technical Paper

Study on Automated Mechanical Transmission and Method of Parameter Optimization Design for Hybrid Electric Bus

2013-11-27
2013-01-2828
The hybrid electric city bus, which consists of the electric motor and battery, is obviously different from the traditional buses. This paper focuses on optimizing the characteristics of the automatic mechanical transmission in hybrid electric city bus and does the following studies: firstly, in order to reduce the fuel consumption, the transmission ratio and some structural parameters are optimized with CRUISE software; secondly, the volume and weight of the transmission structure is reduced and optimized by numerical optimization approach, with the limitation of the structural reliability.
Technical Paper

Passive Fault-Tolerant Performance of 4WID/4WIS Electric Vehicles Based on MPC and Control Allocation

2013-09-08
2013-24-0145
The passive fault-tolerant performance of the integrated vehicle controller (IVC) applied on 4WID/4WIS Electric Vehicles has been investigated in this study. The 4WID/4WIS EV is driven independently by four in-wheel motors and steered independently by four steering motors. Thanks to increased control flexibility of the over-actuated architecture, Control Allocation (CA) can be applied to control the 4WID/4WIS EVs so as to improve the handling and stability. Another benefit of the over-actuated architecture is that the 4WID/4WIS Electric Vehicle has sufficient redundant actuators to fight against the safety critical situation when one or more actuators fail.
Journal Article

Fault-Tolerant Control for 4WID/4WIS Electric Vehicle Based on EKF and SMC

2015-09-29
2015-01-2846
This paper presents a fault-tolerant control (FTC) algorithm for four-wheel independently driven and steered (4WID/4WIS) electric vehicle. The Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) algorithm is utilized in the fault detection (FD) module so as to estimate the in-wheel motor parameters, which could detect parameter variations caused by in-wheel motor fault. A motion controller based on sliding mode control (SMC) is able to compute the generalized forces/moments to follow the desired vehicle motion. By considering the tire adhesive limits, a reconfigurable control allocator optimally distributes the generalized forces/moments among healthy actuators so as to minimize the tire workloads once the actuator fault is detected. An actuator controller calculates the driving torques of the in-wheel motors and steering angles of the wheels in order to finally achieve the distributed tire forces. If one or more in-wheel motors lose efficacy, the FD module diagnoses the actuator failures first.
Technical Paper

Research on the Dynamic Integration Control for Distributed-Traction Electric Vehicle with Four-Wheel-Distributed Steering System

2018-04-03
2018-01-0814
With rapid development of the automobile industry and the growing maturity of the automotive electronic technologies, the distributed-traction electric vehicle with four-wheel-distributed steering/braking/traction systems is regarded as an important development direction. With its unique chassis structure, it is the ideal benchmark platform used to evaluate active safety systems. The distributed-traction electric vehicle with four-wheel-distributed steering system is essentially full drive-by-wire vehicle. With its flexible chassis layout and high control degrees-of-freedom, the full drive-by-wire electric vehicle acted as a kind of redundant system is an ideal platform for the research of integrated control. In this treatise, the longitudinal dynamics of the electric vehicle as well as its lateral and yaw motions are controlled simultaneously.
Technical Paper

Study on Steering Effort Preference of Drivers Based on Driving Simulator

2007-08-05
2007-01-3575
This paper presents a study on steering effort preference of Chinese drivers based on ADSL Driving Simulator. The results of the simulation test demonstrates that Chinese drivers' steering effort preference increases with vehicle speed, which is similar to European and Japanese drivers', but the mean preference effort level itself is lower than that of European and Japanese drivers' and this same steering effort preference increases obviously with lateral acceleration in linear region (lateral acceleration level lower than 0.3g) while not as evidently in nonlinear region (lateral acceleration level higher than 0.3g).
Technical Paper

Research on Closed-Loop Comprehensive Evaluation Method of Vehicle Handling and Stability

2000-03-06
2000-01-0694
A closed-loop comprehensive evaluation and a test method for vehicle handling and stability have been studied by using development driving simulator. Simulator test scheme has been designed and carried out with 14 vehicle configurations, and subjective evaluation has been made for easy handling of vehicle by drivers. A closed-loop comprehensive evaluation index has been put forward considering the factors affecting vehicle handling and stability. The reliability of the index has been validated by driver's subjective evaluation. A driver/vehicle/ road closed-loop system model has been established, and the theoretical predictive evaluation has been carried out with 14 vehicle configurations. Simulation showed that similar result for both theoretical predictive evaluation and subjective evaluation.
Technical Paper

A Driver Direction Control Model and its Application in the Simulation of Driver-Vehicle-Road Closed-Loop System

2000-06-06
2000-01-2184
The research of driver behavior characteristics has been a focus of vehicle handling and stability performance. With the driver preview effort, many different driver preview models of direction control have been proposed and the simulations of driver-vehicle-road closed-loop system made. But in the simulation, most of the conventional models have the same precondition that the road was simply described as a pre-given preview course. How to simulate the driver dynamically deciding vehicle preview course based on the real road circumstance is the key to the further research of the driver model. In this paper, a new driver direction control model is established, which is called the Optimal Preview Lateral Acceleration (OPLA) Model and divided into three sub-models: driver’s information identification model, driver’s fuzzy decision model of vehicle preview course and driver’s performance first-order correction model.
Journal Article

Bilateral Control Method of Torque Drive/Angle Feedback Used for Steer-by-Wire System

2012-04-16
2012-01-0792
Steer-by-Wire system is capable of improving the performance of vehicle handling and stability, and assisting driving. It becomes a key technique to control front wheel angle and simulate the steering resistance delivered to the driver because of removing mechanical linkages between the steering wheel and the front wheels. This paper proposes a bilateral control method of steering wheel torque drive/pinion angle feedback, which is disaccustomed of controlling steering wheel block and steering actuator as master-slave plants. The pinion angle, steering wheel angle and its torque signals are used in the control logic without estimating or measuring the tire/road force. Simulations and vehicle experiments proceeded with this proposed method and the results confirmed that it achieves the bilateral control of the position and torque between the two plants.
Technical Paper

Research on Electric Vehicle Braking Force Distribution for Maximizing Energy Regeneration

2016-04-05
2016-01-1676
The driving range of the electric vehicle (EV) greatly restricts the development of EVs. The vehicles waste plenty of energy on account of automobiles frequently braking under the city cycle. The regenerative braking system can convert the braking kinetic energy into the electrical energy and then returns to the battery, so the energy regeneration could prolong theregenerative braking system. According to the characteristics of robustness in regenerative braking, both regenerative braking and friction braking based on fuzzy logic are assigned after the front-rear axle’s braking force is distributed to meet the requirement of braking security and high-efficient braking energy regeneration. Among the model, the vehicle model and the mechanical braking system is built by the CRUISE software. The paper applies the MATLAB/SIMULINK to establish a regenerative braking model, and then selects the UEDC city cycle for model co-simulation analysis.
Technical Paper

Driving and Steering Coordination Control for 4WID/4WIS Electric Vehicle

2015-09-29
2015-01-2762
This paper presents an integrated chassis controller with multiple hierarchical layers for 4WID/4WIS electric vehicle. The proposed systematic design consists of the following four parts: 1) a reference model is in the driver control layer, which maps the relationship between the driver's inputs and the desired vehicle motion. 2) a sliding mode controller is in the vehicle motion control layer, whose objective is to keep the vehicle following the desired motion commands generated in the driver control layer. 3) By considering the tire adhesive limits, a tire force allocator is in the control allocation layer, which optimally distributes the generalized forces/moments to the four wheels so as to minimize the tire workloads during normal driving. 4) an actuator controller is in the executive layer, which calculates the driving torques of the in-wheel motors and steering angles of the four wheels in order to finally achieve the distributed tire forces.
Journal Article

Based on the Unscented Kalman Filter to Estimate the State of Four-Wheel-Independent Electric Vehicle with X-by-Wire

2015-09-29
2015-01-2731
As a new form of electric vehicle, Four-wheel-independent electric vehicle with X-By-Wire (XBW) inherits all the advantages of in-wheel motor drive electric vehicles. The vehicle steering system is liberated from traditional mechanical steering mechanism and forms an advanced vehicle with all- wheel independent driving, braking and steering. Compared with conventional vehicles, it has more controllable degrees of freedom. The design of the integrated vehicle dynamics control systems helps to achieve the steering, driving and braking coordinated control and improves the vehicle's handling stability. In order to solve the problem of lacking of vehicle state information in the integrated control, some methods are used to estimate the vehicle state of four-wheel-independent electric vehicles with XBW. In order to improve the estimation accuracy, unscented Kalman filter (UKF) is used to estimate the vehicle state variables in this paper.
Technical Paper

Traction Control Logic Based on Extended Kalman Filter for Omni-directional Electric Vehicle

2012-04-16
2012-01-0251
Omni-directional electric vehicle built by our research group is an advanced electric vehicle whose four wheels can drive, steer and brake independently. The vehicle chassis system is composed of four in-wheel motors, four independent steer motors and electromagnetic brake system, and its control system is divided into logical control layer and underlying execution layer. The information exchange between these two layers is implemented by CAN bus. In this paper, the traction control logic for Omni-directional electric vehicle is developed. The study mainly involves two aspects: the vehicle states estimation and the traction control logic design. The vehicle states, including vehicle longitudinal velocity, lateral speed, side slip angle and yaw rate, etc, are estimated based on Extended Kalman Estimation and multiple degrees of freedom vehicle model.
Journal Article

Actuator Fault Detection and Diagnosis of 4WID/4WIS Electric Vehicles

2013-10-14
2013-01-2544
A fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) algorithm of 4WID/4WIS Electric Vehicles has been proposed in this study aiming to find the actuator faults. The 4WID/4WIS EV is one of the promising architectures for electric vehicle designs which is driven independently by four in-wheel motors and steered independently by four steering motors. The 4WID/4WIS EVs have many potential abilities in advanced vehicle control technologies, but diagnosis and accommodation of the actuator faults becomes a significant issue. The proposed FDD approach is an important part of the active fault tolerant control (AFTC) algorithm. The main objective of the FDD approach is to monitor vehicle states, find the faulty driving motor and then feedback fault information to the controller which would adopt appropriate control laws to accommodate the post-fault vehicle control system.
Technical Paper

4WID/4WIS Electric Vehicle Modeling and Simulation of Special Conditions

2011-09-13
2011-01-2158
This paper introduces the characteristics of the 4 wheel independent driving/4 wheel independent steering (4WID/4WIS) electric vehicle (EV). Models of Subsystems and the vehicle are constructed based on Matlab/simulink. The vehicle model allows the inputs of different drive torques and steer angles of four wheels. The dynamic characteristics of drive motors and steer motors are considered, and also it can reflect the vehicle longitudinal dynamics change due to the increase of the mass and inertia of the four wheels. Besides, drive mode selection function that is unique to this type vehicle is involved. Simulations and analyses of crab, oblique driving and zero radius turning which are the special conditions of 4WID/4WIS EV are conducted. The results show that the model can reflect the dynamic response characteristics. The model can be used to the simulation analyses of handling, stability, energy saving and control strategies verification of 4WID/4WIS EVs.
Technical Paper

Research on Vehicle Height Adjustment Control of Electronically Controlled Air Suspension

2015-09-29
2015-01-2750
Electronically controlled air suspension (ECAS) systems have been widely used in commercial vehicles to improve the ride comfort and handling stability of vehicles, as it can adjust vehicle height according to the driving conditions and the driver's intent. In this paper, the vehicle height adjustment process of ECAS system is studied. A mathematical model of vehicle height adjustment is derived by combining vehicle dynamics theory and thermodynamics theory of variable mass system. Reasons lead to the problems of “over-charging”, “over-discharging” and oscillation during the process of height adjustment are analyzed. In order to solve these problems, a single neuron proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller is proposed to realize the accurate control of vehicle height. By simulation and semi-physical rig test, the effectiveness and performance of the proposed control algorithm are verified.
Technical Paper

Friction Compensation Control Method Research of Electric Power Steering System

2016-04-05
2016-01-1545
A new electric power steering system (EPS) dynamic friction model based on normalized Bouc-Wen model is given, as well as its structure form and model features. In addition, experimental method is used to identify corresponding parameters. In order to improve road feel feedback, this paper analyzes the shortcoming of traditional constant friction compensation control method and proposes a variable friction compensation control method which the friction compensation current changes according to the assist characteristic gain. Through simulation and real vehicle test verification, variable friction compensation control method eliminates the effect of basic assist characteristic, and improves the driver’s road feel under high speed.
Technical Paper

Fault-Tolerant Control for 4WID/4WIS Electric Vehicles

2014-10-13
2014-01-2589
The passive fault-tolerant approach for four-wheel independently driven and steered (4WID/4WIS) electric vehicles has been investigated in this study. An adaptive control based passive fault-tolerant controller is designed to improve vehicle safety, performance and maneuverability when an actuator fault happens. The proposed fault tolerant control method consists of the following three parts: 1) a fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) module that monitors vehicle driving condition, detects and diagnoses actuator failures with the inequality constraints; 2) a motion controller that computes the generalized forces/moments to track the desired vehicle motion using Model Predictive Control (MPC); 3) a reconfigurable control allocator that redistributes the generalized forces/moments to four wheels with equality constrained optimization.
Technical Paper

Study on Dynamic Characteristics and Control Methods for Drive-by-Wire Electric Vehicle

2014-09-30
2014-01-2291
A full drive-by-wire electric vehicle, named Urban Future Electric Vehicle (UFEV) is developed, where the four wheels' traction and braking torques, four wheels' steering angles, and four active suspensions (in the future) are controlled independently. It is an ideal platform to realize the optimal vehicle dynamics, the marginal-stability and the energy-efficient control, it is also a platform for studying the advanced chassis control methods and their applications. A centralized control system of hierarchical structure for UFEV is proposed, which consist of Sensor Layer, Identification and Estimation Layer, Objective Control Layer, Forces and Motion Distribution Layer, Executive Layer. In the Identification and Estimation Layer, identification model is established by utilizing neural network algorithms to identify the driver characteristics. Vehicle state estimation and road identification of UFEV based on EKF and Fuzzy Logic Control methods is also conducted in this layer.
Technical Paper

A Control Algorithm for Electric Power Steering of Tire Blowout Vehicle to Reduce the Impact Torque on Steering Wheel

2013-04-08
2013-01-1239
Impact torque will be generated on the steering wheel when one tire suddenly blows out on high way, which may cause driver's psychological stress and result in driver's certain misoperations on the car. In this paper, the model of tire blowout vehicle was established; the tire blowout was detected based on the change rate of tire pressure, meanwhile, the rack force caused by tire blowout was estimated through a reduce observer; finally the compensation current was figured out to reduce the impact torque on the steering wheel. Results of simulation tests showed that the control strategy proposed in this paper can effectively reduce the impact torque on the steering wheel and reduce the driver's discomfort caused by tire blowout.
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