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Technical Paper

A New Crash Simulator and Biomechanics Research Program

1964-10-21
640851
A new full-scale crash simulator is being employed in a biomechanics research program for establishing quantitative specifications for human tolerance to impact forces. Intact, fully articulated human cadavers are used as test subjects. Design capacity of the facility is a 40 mph barrier-type collision. A test sled equipped with load cell supported impact targets and carrying a seated cadaver subject is accelerated pneumatically, released, and arrested at collision-level decelerations. Impact forces at the knee and chest are recorded, and X-ray surveillance for skeletal damage is conducted. In a current study of instrument-panel type knee-impact situations, normal femurs in embalmed male cadavers 50–75 years of age fractured at loads of 1500 pounds and greater.
Technical Paper

Impact Tolerance and Response of the Human Thorax II

1974-02-01
741187
Previous studies of human thoracic injury tolerance and mechanical response to blunt, midsternal, anteroposterior impact loading were reported by the authors at the 1970 SAE International Automobile Safety Conference and at the Fifteenth Stapp Car Crash Conference. The present paper documents additional studies from this continuing research program and provides an expansion and refinement of the data base established by the earlier work. Twenty-three additional unembalmed cadavers were tested using basically the same equipment and procedures reported previously, but for which new combinations of impactor mass and velocity were used in addition to supplementing other data already presented. Specifically, the 43 lb/11 mph (19.5 kg/4.9m/s) and 51 lb/16 mph (23.1 kg/7.2 m/s) conditions were intercrossed and data obtained at 43 lb/16 mph (19.5 kg/7.2 m/s) and 51 lb/11 mph (23.1 kg/4.9 m/s).
Technical Paper

Postural Influences on Thoracic Impact

1979-02-01
791028
The influence of body posture, and inherently support, on thoracic impact response was investigated in an animal model. Anesthetized and postmortem domestic swine were exposed to blunt, midsternal loading while supported in their natural quadrupedal posture, and the results were compared with previously reported data from similar tests involving an upright body orientation. Twelve male animals were tested, six while anesthetized and six postmortem. Each animal was impacted once by a 21 kg rigid mass with a flat contact interface moving at a nominal velocity of either 8 or 10 m/s. Measured mechanical responses included applied load, sternal and spinal accelerations, thoracic compression and aortic overpressure. Injury response was assessed from a thoracico-abdominal necropsy. In addition, ECG traces were recorded pre and postimpact to monitor electro-physiological response.
Technical Paper

A Perspective on Automobile Crash Fires

1985-02-25
850092
The relatively rare occurrence of injury or fatality in fuel-fed fires has received considerable attention in automotive safety rulemaking and products liability litigation. The literature related to fatalities associated with fire is confirmed by recent FARS data, and there are no reliable field data which confirm a need for further injury-reducing effect related to FMVSS 301. NHTSA has acknowledged this by removing crash fire rulemaking from its priorities plan. The police-reported crash fire data now available must be supplemented with in-depth investigation by trained teams before informed judgements can be made regarding further safety improvements with respect to crash fire injury.
Technical Paper

Inaccuracies in the CRASHS Program

1985-02-25
850255
The CRASH3 computer program, a well known and useful tool in accident reconstruction, is shown to be innaccurate by comparison with car-to-car crash test data. Claims for accuracy of about 10 percent cannot be validated. Both the impact model and the damage only model yield results which are in error. Cases involving error well in excess of 20 percent are demonstrated. These inaccuracies are due primarily to the omission of terms in the formulation of the energy equation and to the sensitivity of the solution to the input estimate of principle-direction-of-force.
Technical Paper

The VTS Single-Vehicle Trajectory Simulation

1985-02-25
850252
A vehicle trajectory simulation called VTS has been developed as an aid for reconstruction of automobile accidents. The two dimensional vehicle has longitudinal, lateral and yaw degrees of freedom, a point mass at the center of gravity) yaw inertia about the center of gravity and four contact points (“tires”) which can be arbitrarily positioned. No collision or aerodynamic forces are modeled. The traction surface is represented as a flat plane with a specified nominal friction coefficient. Several quadrilateral “patches” may be applied to the surface to change the friction coefficient in specific regions. User vehicle control consists of timewise tables for steering angle and traction coefficient for each of the four wheels. When used individually or in conjunction with other computer modules, VTS provides a convenient, accurate modular tool for trajectory simulation.
Technical Paper

A Load Sensing Face Form for Automotive Collision Crash Dummy Instrumentation

1986-02-24
860197
This paper summarizes the development of an Instrumented faceform which can record time histories of impact-related pressures at fifty-two locations over the entire face of a Hybrid 2 crash dummy skull. Pressures are measured by using piezo-electric, thin-plastic films; a high-speed, multiplex data acquisition system; signal conditioning; a software-controlled computerized data reduction and recording scheme; and a submergence calibration technique. The construction of the modified dummy face and the calibration gear are discussed. Examples of preliminary laboratory impact test results are presented. Theory and techniques relating to signal processing software, microprocessor controlled random-access-memory data-retrieval system and system calibration are also discussed. It is hoped that this tool, now undergoing final development and verification testing, will find extensive use in the evaluation and safety-related design of vehicle interiors and occupant restraints.
Technical Paper

Interrelationship of Velocity and Chest Compression in Blunt Thoracic Impact to Swine II

1986-10-27
861881
Results of two studies concerning the interrelationship of velocity, compression and injury in blunt thoracic impact to anesthetized swine have been combined to provide a data base of forty-one experiments. impact velocity ranged from ∼8-30 m/s and applied normalized chest compression from ∼0.10-0.30. Experimental subjects were suspended in the spine-horizontal position and loaded midsternally through a 150 mm diameter, flat rigid disk on an impacting mass propelled upward from below. Measurements and computations included sternal and spinal accelerations, intracardiovascular overpressures, physiological responses, injury, as assessed by necropsy, and different forms of the velocity and compression exposure severity parameters. The significance of both compression and velocity as parameters of impact exposure severity is clearly demonstrated. Qualitatively, exacerbation of injury was seen when either variable was increased with the other held constant.
Technical Paper

The Assessment of the Societal Benefit of Side Impact Protection

1990-02-01
900379
This paper summarizes work relating to the assessment of societal benefits of side impact protection. National Crash Severity Study (NCSS) and National Accident Sampling System (NASS) accident data technigues were reviewed with respect to the reliability of output information concerning the distribution of side impact accidents by impact severity and relationships between injury and impact severity. NCSS and NASS are confounded by errors and inadequacies, primarily as a result of improper accident reconstruction based upon the CRASH computer program. Based on review of several sample cases, it is believed that the NCSS/NASS files underestimate Lower severities and overestimate higher severities in side impact, with delta-V errors probably overestimated by 25-30 percent in the case of the more serious accidents. These errors cannot be properly quantified except on a case-by-case basis. They introduce unknown biases into NCSS/NASS.
Technical Paper

Derivation of Vehicle-to-Vehicle Frontal Crash Pulse Estimates from Barrier Crash Data

2008-04-14
2008-01-0174
The BSAN crash pulse model has been shown to provide useful information for restraint sensing evaluation and for structural force-displacement studies in flat fixed rigid barrier (FFRB) crashes. This paper demonstrates a procedure by which the model may be extended for use with central and offset vehicle to vehicle (VTV) crashes through appropriate combinations of vehicle parameters.
Technical Paper

Roadway Asphalt Damage Force Analysis for Accident Reconstruction

2008-04-14
2008-01-0173
In reconstruction of on-roadway vehicle accidents, tire-road surface friction coefficient, mu (μ), can be estimated using a variety of available data. Common ranges and values for μ are used in calculations forming the foundation for most accident reconstruction techniques. When the roadway surface is gouged or disrupted by vehicle components, accounting of dissipated energy can be successful where supporting force data exists. Roadway gouge forces can vary widely depending upon such factors as road surface construction, surface temperature, and the velocity and geometry of the gouging mechanism. Such dissipated energy can be significant in accounting of total reconstruction energy. This paper presents experiments aimed at quantifying gouge force by controlled pavement gouging tests.
Technical Paper

Facial Impact Response — A Comparison of the Hybrid III Dummy and Human Cadaver

1988-10-01
881719
Results indicate the need for a redesigned Hybrid III face capable of accurate force and acceleration measurements. New instrumentation and methods for facial fracture detection were developed, including the application of acoustic emissions. Force/ deflection information for the human cadaver head and the Hybrid III ATD were generated for the frontal, zygomatic, and maxillary regions.
Technical Paper

Crash Protection in Near-Side Impact - Advantages of a Supplemental Inflatable Restraint

1989-02-01
890602
Collision Safety Engineering, Inc. (CSE), has developed a test prototype system to protect occupants during lateral impacts. It is an inflatable system that offers the potential of improved protection from thoracic, abdominal and pelvic injury by moving an impact pad into the occupant early in the crash. Further, it shows promise for head and neck protection by deployment of a headbag that covers the major target areas of B-pillar, window space, and roofrail before head impact. Preliminary static and full-scale crash tests suggest the possibility of injury reduction in many real-world crashes, although much development work remains before the production viability of this concept can be established. A description of the system and its preliminary testing is preceded by an overview of side impact injury and comments on the recent NHTSA Rule Making notices dealing with side-impact injury.
Technical Paper

Application of Kinematic Concepts to Side Impact Injury Analysis

1990-02-01
900375
An understanding of fundamental kinematic relationships among the several deforming surfaces of side-impacting bullet and target vehicle, occupant protection system and occupant is fundamental to rational design of crash injury counter-measures. Unfortunately, such understanding is not easy to achieve. Side impacts address the full range of bodily contacts and injuries in a way that challenges analysis. Each bodily area and organ requires individual consideration for adequate injury protection. This paper presents a simplified graphical analysis of occupant kinematics and injury exposure applied specifically to the NHTSA-proposed crabbed moving deformable barrier (MDB) compartment impact, as described in NHTSA's Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) for Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) 214, issued in January of 1988 [NHTSA 1988 (1)*]. Projections are offered regarding the potential of thoracic injury counter-measures.
Technical Paper

A Perspective on Side Impact Occupant Crash Protection

1990-02-01
900373
The NHTSA notices of proposed rulemaking on side impact protection have focused worldwide attention on one of the most difficult and frustrating efforts in automobile crash safety. Traditional vehicle design has evolved obvious structural contrasts between the side of the struck vehicle and the front of the striking vehicle. Protection of near-side occupants from intruding door structure is a most perplexing engineering challenge. Much useful and insightful engineering work has been done in conjunction with NHTSA's proposed rulemaking. However, there are many major engineering issues which demand further definition before reasonable side impact rulemaking test criteria can be finalized. This paper reviews recent findings which characterize the human factors, biomechanics, and occupant position envelope of the typical side impact crash victim.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Door Topography on Abdominal Injury in Lateral Impact

1989-10-01
892433
Seventeen left lateral impact experiments were performed using anesthetized swine to determine the biomechanics of injury production in this impact mode. Two series of eight animals were used and one animal served as a control. In the first series of experiments, rigid thoracic and pelvic loading surfaces were separated by an “interplate gap” of 20.3 cm (8”). In the second series of experiments, the interplate gap was filled by a rigid plate mounted flush with the thoracic and pelvic loading surfaces. Impact velocities ranged from 7.2 to 15.0 m/s (about 15 to 30 mph). Injury patterns for the liver, spleen, and rib cage were significantly different in the two series of experiments (level of significance > 90%). The causative factor responsible for the different injury outcomes was the interplate gap. The conclusion of this report is that loading-surface discontinuities can cause significant injury.
Technical Paper

Assessment of Lap-ShouIder Belt Restraint Performance in Laboratory Testing

1989-10-01
892439
Hyge sled tests were conducted using a rear-seat sled fixture to evaluate submarining responses (the lap belt of a lap-shoulder belt restraint loads the abdominal region instead of the pelvis). Objectives of these tests included: an evaluation of methods to determine the occurrence of submarining; an investigation into the influence of restraint system parameters, test severity, and type of anthropomorphic test device on submarining response; and an exploration of the mechanics of submarining. This investigation determined that: 1. Slippage of the lap belt off the pelvis due to dynamic loading of the dummy and the resulting kinematics can cause abdominal loading to the dummy in laboratory crash testing. 2. The 5th female dummy submarined more easily than did the Hybrid ill in the test environment. 3. Motion of the pelvis was controlled using a “pelvic stop”, which reduced the submarining tendency for both the 5th female and Hybrid III dummies. 4.
Technical Paper

An Inexpensive Automobile Crash Recorder

1974-02-01
740567
One of the greatest challenges faced in the design of realistic occupant protection systems is an accurate statistical model of what is really needed. The paucity of data is this realm hinders designers of standards alike. Ideally, a model of crash statistics would correlate, for significant accident modes, injury level (as measured by AMA Abreviated Injury Scale “AIS”) with some adequate measure of crash intensity. Having this information, not only could the required level of safety design be ascertained, but also the justifiable economic expenditure could be estimated. This paper treats the statistical basis for deployment of a data retrival system. It provides a basis for estimates of the amount of data required, the number of vehicles to be instrumented, the crash severity trigger levels, and the economics of recorder installation, for various levels of injury and fatality.
Technical Paper

Comparative Knee Impact Response of Part 572 Dummy and Cadaver Subjects

1976-02-01
760817
The purpose of this paper is to present a comparison of whole body, target impingement knee impact response for a Part 572 dummy versus that for anthropometrically similar embalmed human cadavers. “Response” is defined here to include the impact force-time history as sensed by 1) femur load cells, and 2) impingement target load cells for the dummy and by the target load cells for the cadavers. The data presented demonstrate significantly higher peak forces and correspondingly shorter pulse durations for the dummy than for the companion cadaver subjects under similar test conditions and at all velocity levels investigated. For the dummy, the ratio of forces measured by the femur load cells to those measured by the impingement target load cells averaged eight tenths.
Technical Paper

Thoracic Impact Response of Live Porcine Subjects

1976-02-01
760823
Five anesthetized porcine subjects were exposed to blunt thoracic impact using a 21 kg mass with a flat contact surface traveling at 3.0 to 12.2 m/s. The experiments were conducted to assess the appropriateness of studying in vivo mechanical and physiological response to thoracic impact in a porcine animal model. A comprehensive review of comparative anatomy between the pig and man indicates that the cardiovascular, respiratory and thoracic skeletal systems of the pig are anatomically and functionally a good parallel of similar structures in man. Thoracic anthropometry measurements document that the chest of a 50 to 60 kg pig is similar to the 50th percentile adult male human, but is narrower and deeper. Peak applied force and chest deflection are in good agreement between the animal's responses and similar impact severity data on fresh cadavers.
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