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Technical Paper

Load Path Considerations for Side Crash Compatibility

2007-04-16
2007-01-1176
Heavier, larger pickups and SUVs are bound to encounter lighter, smaller passenger vehicles in many future accidents. As the fleet has evolved to include more and more SUVs, their frontal structures are often indistinguishable from pickup fronts. Improvements in geometric compatibility features are crucial to further injury prevention progress in side impact. In corner crashes where modern bullet passenger car (PC) bumpers make appropriate geometrical overlap with target PC rocker panels, concentrated loads sometimes disrupt foam and plastic bumper corners, creating aggressive edges. In situations where sliding occurs along the structural interface, these sharp edges may slice through doors, panels and pillars. End treatments for such bumper beams should be designed to reduce this aggressive potential.
Technical Paper

Pulse Shape and Duration in Frontal Crashes

2007-04-16
2007-01-0724
Understanding of events within the history of a crash, and estimation of the severity of occupant interior collisions depend upon an accurate assessment of crash duration. Since this time duration is not measured independently in most crash test reports, it must usually be inferred from interpretations of acceleration data or from displacement data in high-speed film analysis. The significant physical effects related to the crash pulse are often essential in reconstruction analyses wherein the estimation of occupant interior “second collision” or airbag sensing issues are at issue. A simple relation is presented and examined which allows approximation of the approach phase and separation phase kinematics, including restitution and pulse width. Building upon previous work, this relation allows straightforward interpretation of test data from related publicly available test reports.
Technical Paper

Development of Pole Impact Testing at Multiple Vehicle Side Locations As Applied to the Ford Taurus Structural Platform

2006-04-03
2006-01-0062
A test method was developed whereby repeated pole impacts could be performed at multiple locations per test vehicle, allowing a comparison of energy and crush relationships. Testing was performed on vehicles moving laterally into a 12.75 inch diameter rigid pole barrier. Crush energy absorption characteristics at the different locations were analyzed, and the results compared to test data from broad moving barrier crashes and available crash tests with similar pole impacts. Crush stiffness characteristics for narrow impacts at various points on the side of the Taurus vehicle platform were documented. Factors encountered during the research include the importance of rotational energy accounting and uncertainties related to crush energy related to induced deformation. The findings show that the front axle and A-pillar regions are much stiffer than the CG and B-pillar areas to narrow rigid pole impact.
Technical Paper

Fatal and Severe Injuries in Rear Impact; Seat Stiffness in Recent Field Accident Data

2008-04-14
2008-01-0193
A decade ago, James, et.al. published a detailed study of the available NASS data on severe rear impacts, with findings that “… stiffened or rigid seat backs will not substantially mitigate severe and fatal injuries in rear impacts.” No field accident study has since been advanced which refutes this finding. Advocates of rigidized seat backs often point to specific cases of severe rear impacts in which MAIS 4+ injuries are associated with seat back deformation, coupled with arguments supporting stiffer seatback designs. These arguments are generally based upon laboratory experiments with dummies in normal seating positions. Recent field accident data shows that generally, in collisions where the majority of societal harm is created, yielding seats continue to provide benefits, including those associated with whiplash associated disorders (WAD).
Technical Paper

Derivation of Vehicle-to-Vehicle Frontal Crash Pulse Estimates from Barrier Crash Data

2008-04-14
2008-01-0174
The BSAN crash pulse model has been shown to provide useful information for restraint sensing evaluation and for structural force-displacement studies in flat fixed rigid barrier (FFRB) crashes. This paper demonstrates a procedure by which the model may be extended for use with central and offset vehicle to vehicle (VTV) crashes through appropriate combinations of vehicle parameters.
Technical Paper

ATV Rollover Resistance: Testing of Side-By-Side ATV Rollover Initiations

2010-04-12
2010-01-0522
Rollover crashes involving side-by-side ATVs and injuries related to these crashes represent an increasing percentage of the total population of ATV injury crashes. Unlike traditional ATVs, side-by-side ATVs are designed to carry two passengers abreast and usually include roll bars and seat belts. Most side-by-side ATVs are also designed to carry a limited payload in a rear cargo bed. Primary target uses for these vehicles include a combination of utilitarian tasks and recreational activities. Modifications by consumers often incorporate additional equipment that can change the mass balance and handling characteristics of the vehicle. This paper explores the resistance of these vehicles to roll as affected by the variables commonly applied to automotive crashes. Static Stability Factor (SSF) and Critical Sliding Velocity (CSV) are calculated and compared to findings from previously published work on roll resistance.
Technical Paper

Rollover Testing of Recreational Off-Highway Vehicles (ROVs) for Accident Reconstruction

2011-04-12
2011-01-1117
This paper presents results of full-scale instrumented rollover testing on ROV type recreational vehicles. Five tests were conducted using two instrumented side-by-side ROVs at speeds between 20 and 32 mph on unpaved surfaces. Each test vehicle was brought to speed and released, allowing remote steering inputs to initiate turn sequences resulting in rollover. Accelerations were determined using x, y, and z axis accelerometers mounted at the vehicle CG and recorded using a robust data acquisition system. Roll rates were measured using a rotation rate sensor. Roll rates and key acceleration events are presented for each test. Mapping and measurement of the test site includes photography and digital survey of resulting tire marks, impact marks and gouging. Documentation and reconstruction of test roll sequences includes roll rates, vehicle positions and velocities, peak accelerations by impact, and scratch mark and damage examination. These are included in the appendix .
Technical Paper

Accident Reconstruction for Rear Pole Impacts of Passenger Cars

2006-04-03
2006-01-0899
While vehicular rear pole impacts are rare, they do occur, and can be very serious. General accident reconstruction methods, which derive vehicle stiffness values from rear barrier crash tests, over-predict the impact speed for these types of pole impacts. Thirteen pole crash tests were run into the rear-ends of four 4-door, front-wheel drive sedans. Repeated crash testing was used on three of the vehicles. Two 1988 Acura Legends, which have one of the highest stiffness values from FMVSS 301 Rear Compliance crash testing, a 1988 Honda Civic, which has one of the softest rear-end stiffnesses, and a 1986 Ford Taurus were tested. The repeated crash testing methodology was validated using one of the 1988 Acura Legends and a previously published Ford Taurus test. Residual crush was measured using maximum crush, point-to-point, longitudinal full-width, and longitudinal reduced-width methodologies. Crush was found to be linearly related to impact speed.
Technical Paper

Snowmobile Cornering and Acceleration Data from On-Snow Testing

2015-04-14
2015-01-1431
Snowmobile acceleration, braking and cornering performance data are not well developed for use in accident reconstruction. Linear acceleration and braking data published by D'Addario[1] gives results for testing on 4 snowmobiles of various make and model. This paper presents the results of on-snow tests performed in 2014 which include acceleration and cornering maneuvers that have not been published previously. Maximum and average cornering speeds and corresponding lateral accelerations are presented for turns of radius 20, 35 and 65 feet (6.1, 10.7 and 19.8 meters) on level, packed snow. Performance values for acceleration, braking, and cornering are determined in tests with and without a passenger. Results of linear acceleration and braking tests were found to be comparable to the previously published work. The data are useful in snowmobile accident reconstruction for certain types of snowmobile motion analyses.
Technical Paper

Interrelationship of Velocity and Chest Compression in Blunt Thoracic Impact to Swine II

1986-10-27
861881
Results of two studies concerning the interrelationship of velocity, compression and injury in blunt thoracic impact to anesthetized swine have been combined to provide a data base of forty-one experiments. impact velocity ranged from ∼8-30 m/s and applied normalized chest compression from ∼0.10-0.30. Experimental subjects were suspended in the spine-horizontal position and loaded midsternally through a 150 mm diameter, flat rigid disk on an impacting mass propelled upward from below. Measurements and computations included sternal and spinal accelerations, intracardiovascular overpressures, physiological responses, injury, as assessed by necropsy, and different forms of the velocity and compression exposure severity parameters. The significance of both compression and velocity as parameters of impact exposure severity is clearly demonstrated. Qualitatively, exacerbation of injury was seen when either variable was increased with the other held constant.
Technical Paper

Crash Protection in Near-Side Impact - Advantages of a Supplemental Inflatable Restraint

1989-02-01
890602
Collision Safety Engineering, Inc. (CSE), has developed a test prototype system to protect occupants during lateral impacts. It is an inflatable system that offers the potential of improved protection from thoracic, abdominal and pelvic injury by moving an impact pad into the occupant early in the crash. Further, it shows promise for head and neck protection by deployment of a headbag that covers the major target areas of B-pillar, window space, and roofrail before head impact. Preliminary static and full-scale crash tests suggest the possibility of injury reduction in many real-world crashes, although much development work remains before the production viability of this concept can be established. A description of the system and its preliminary testing is preceded by an overview of side impact injury and comments on the recent NHTSA Rule Making notices dealing with side-impact injury.
Technical Paper

Crush Energy in Accident Reconstruction

1986-02-24
860371
Vehicle accident reconstruction methods based on deformation energy are argued to be an increasingly valuable tool to the accident reconstructionist, provided reliable data, reasonable analysis techniques, and sound engineering judgement accompany their use. The evolution of the CRASH model of vehicle structural response and its corresponding stiffness coefficients are reviewed. It is concluded that the deformation energy for an accident vehicle can be estimated using the CRASH model provided that test data specific to the accident vehicle is utilized. Published stiffness coefficients for vehicle size categories are generally not appropriate. For the purpose of estimating vehicle deformation energy, a straight-forward methodology is presented which consists of applying the results of staged crash tests. The process of translating crush profiles to estimates of vehicle deformation energies and velocities is also discussed.
Technical Paper

Roadway Asphalt Damage Force Analysis for Accident Reconstruction

2008-04-14
2008-01-0173
In reconstruction of on-roadway vehicle accidents, tire-road surface friction coefficient, mu (μ), can be estimated using a variety of available data. Common ranges and values for μ are used in calculations forming the foundation for most accident reconstruction techniques. When the roadway surface is gouged or disrupted by vehicle components, accounting of dissipated energy can be successful where supporting force data exists. Roadway gouge forces can vary widely depending upon such factors as road surface construction, surface temperature, and the velocity and geometry of the gouging mechanism. Such dissipated energy can be significant in accounting of total reconstruction energy. This paper presents experiments aimed at quantifying gouge force by controlled pavement gouging tests.
Technical Paper

Roadway Asphalt Damage Analysis: Dynamic Evaluation of Gouge Forces

2010-04-12
2010-01-0047
In reconstruction of on-roadway vehicle accidents, roadway surface gouges and the forces and energy attributed to the related vehicle components become important keys to resolving accurate accident reconstructions. Accounting for the forces applied to vehicle components and the energy dissipated from such forces can be helpful where supporting data exists. Roadway gouge forces vary depending upon such factors as road surface temperature and the velocity of the gouging mechanism. Other factors that may affect roadway gouges are road surface age, differing gouge tooth geometry, and road surface construction but these factors are not addressed in this paper. Calculation and summation of individual contact forces and contact energies can be significant in the accounting of accident vehicle motion reconstruction. This paper expands upon findings presented in SAE 2008-01-0173.
Technical Paper

Photogrammetry and Accident Reconstruction: Experimental Results

1994-03-01
940925
A controlled experiment involving road marks was conducted to compare various photogrammetry practices currently in use in the accident investigation community. The experimental controls and results are discussed for three variations of one 2-D scheme and for six 3-D photogrammetric schemes applied to a similar set of road marks and points. For measurements related to the most frequent issues in traffic accidents, all of the methods are capable of providing usable data. The experimental photographs and corresponding data represent a reference set for developing skills and for comparison with other photogrammetry schemes.
Technical Paper

Conservation of Momentum Analysis of Two-Dimensional Colliding Bodies, With or Without Trailers

1994-03-01
940566
This paper presents a method of automobile collision analysis based on conservation of momentum. The analysis is applied to the collision of two two-dimensional bodies, either or both of which may be attached to a trailer. Newton's laws of motion are employed to determine changes in linear and angular velocities for the two-dimensional colliding bodies. Knowing the masses and rotational inertias and the initial velocities of all bodies at impact, the post-impact velocities can be calculated if appropriate constraints are applied to the bodies' post-collision motion. Various motion constraints, including lock-up, slip, and restitution are examined, and a methodology for modeling vehicle motion experienced during a collision is presented. The full set of basic equations characterizing this conservation-of-momentum analysis is presented with sufficient detail to allow their implementation on a programmable calculator or personal computer.
Technical Paper

Lateral Load Sensing Hybrid III Head

1991-10-01
912908
Recent cadaver studies have provided data for the development of force and stiffness characteristics of the side of the human head. A Hybrid III Anthropomorphic Test Dummy (ATD) head was modified to allow direct measurement of impact forces on the parietal and temporal regions by recasting the upper left half of the skull and installing triaxial piezoelectric force transducers. Dynamic impact tests of this modified head were conducted and force/stiffness characteristics for the temporal and parietal areas were compared to existing data on cadaver subjects. It was found that the existing Hybrid III vinyl skin satisfactorily represents the force/stiffness characteristics of the human head in these areas. This modified Hybrid III dummy head was also impacted against typical interior components likely to be contacted during a side impact. The force and acceleration test results are presented.
Technical Paper

The Assessment of the Societal Benefit of Side Impact Protection

1990-02-01
900379
This paper summarizes work relating to the assessment of societal benefits of side impact protection. National Crash Severity Study (NCSS) and National Accident Sampling System (NASS) accident data technigues were reviewed with respect to the reliability of output information concerning the distribution of side impact accidents by impact severity and relationships between injury and impact severity. NCSS and NASS are confounded by errors and inadequacies, primarily as a result of improper accident reconstruction based upon the CRASH computer program. Based on review of several sample cases, it is believed that the NCSS/NASS files underestimate Lower severities and overestimate higher severities in side impact, with delta-V errors probably overestimated by 25-30 percent in the case of the more serious accidents. These errors cannot be properly quantified except on a case-by-case basis. They introduce unknown biases into NCSS/NASS.
Technical Paper

Application of Kinematic Concepts to Side Impact Injury Analysis

1990-02-01
900375
An understanding of fundamental kinematic relationships among the several deforming surfaces of side-impacting bullet and target vehicle, occupant protection system and occupant is fundamental to rational design of crash injury counter-measures. Unfortunately, such understanding is not easy to achieve. Side impacts address the full range of bodily contacts and injuries in a way that challenges analysis. Each bodily area and organ requires individual consideration for adequate injury protection. This paper presents a simplified graphical analysis of occupant kinematics and injury exposure applied specifically to the NHTSA-proposed crabbed moving deformable barrier (MDB) compartment impact, as described in NHTSA's Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) for Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) 214, issued in January of 1988 [NHTSA 1988 (1)*]. Projections are offered regarding the potential of thoracic injury counter-measures.
Technical Paper

A Perspective on Side Impact Occupant Crash Protection

1990-02-01
900373
The NHTSA notices of proposed rulemaking on side impact protection have focused worldwide attention on one of the most difficult and frustrating efforts in automobile crash safety. Traditional vehicle design has evolved obvious structural contrasts between the side of the struck vehicle and the front of the striking vehicle. Protection of near-side occupants from intruding door structure is a most perplexing engineering challenge. Much useful and insightful engineering work has been done in conjunction with NHTSA's proposed rulemaking. However, there are many major engineering issues which demand further definition before reasonable side impact rulemaking test criteria can be finalized. This paper reviews recent findings which characterize the human factors, biomechanics, and occupant position envelope of the typical side impact crash victim.
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