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Technical Paper

Particulate Emissions from a Gasoline Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine

2007-04-16
2007-01-0209
Particulate Emissions from Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion are routinely assumed to be negligible. It is shown here that this is not the case when HCCI combustion is implemented in a direct injection gasoline engine. The conditions needed to sustain HCCI operation were realized using the negative valve overlap method for trapping high levels of residual exhaust gases in the cylinder. Measurements of emitted particle number concentration and electrical mobility diameter were made with a Cambustion DMS500 over the HCCI operating range possible with this hardware. Emissions of oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons were also measured. These data are presented and compared with similar measurements made under conventional spark ignition (SI) operation in the same engine. Under both SI and HCCI operation, a significant accumulation mode was detected with particle equivalent diameters between 80 and 100 nm.
Technical Paper

SOME CRITICAL TECHNICAL ISSUES ON THE STEADY FLOW TESTING OF CYLINDER HEADS

2001-03-05
2001-01-1308
There are considerable diversities in the techniques used for the steady flow testing of engine cylinder heads, and this paper presents and discusses the important issues involved in the flow bench experiment. The work aims to provide information necessary for setting up or upgrading the experimental system of cylinder head testing. The definitions of discharge/flow coefficients and swirl/tumble ratios are compared and examined, followed by the principles of selecting the test conditions such as pressure drop and flow rate. Techniques for measuring the angular flow momentum in cylinders are discussed and the link between the steady flow parameters and the engine combustion performance is highlighted. Some conclusions and recommendations are drawn from the discussion.
Technical Paper

A CFD Investigation into the Effects of Intake Valves Events on Airflow Characteristics in a Motored 4-Valve Engine Cylinder with Negative Valve Overlapping

2007-09-16
2007-24-0032
This paper presents a computational study of the airflow features within a motored 4-valve direct injection engine cylinder. An unconventional intake valve strategy was investigated; whereby each valve on the pair of intake valves was assumed to be actuated with different lifts and duration. One of the intake valves was assumed to follow a high-lift long duration valve-lift profile while the other was assumed to follow a low-lift short duration valve-lift profile. The pair of exhaust valves was assumed to be actuated with two identical low-lift short duration valve-lift profiles in order to generate the so-called negative valve overlapping (NVO). The in-cylinder flow fields developed with such intake valve strategy were compared to those produced in the same engine cylinder but with the application of identical low-lift short duration intake valve events.
Technical Paper

Development of Diesel Engines Fuelled with Natural Gas

2001-09-24
2001-01-3505
Natural gas engines have widely been developed in the world because of the decrease of oil resources and strictness of the exhaust regulations. This paper introduces the main processes of designing diesel engines fuelled with natural gas and ignited by spark plugs. Secondly, it analyzes a number of problems considered during the process of designing. As an example, authors introduce the characteristic of a natural gas engine converted from a 4125 diesel engine and discuss the performances of the prototype engine according to results of the engine bed testing The result is satisfying.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation into HCCI Combustion Using Gasoline and Diesel Blended Fuels

2005-10-24
2005-01-3733
Gasoline and diesel, the two fuels with very different characteristics and with wide availability for conventional engine use, were blended as a HCCI engine fuel. Gasoline, with high volatility, easy vaporization and mixture formation, is used to form the homogeneous charge. Diesel fuel which has good ignitability and fast combustion at the conditions predominating in the HCCI environment, is used to dominate the auto-ignition and restrain the knocking combustion. It is expected that these two different fuels with opposite but complementary properties can be used to reach a good compromise in HCCI combustion. Experiments, conducted with moderate compression ratios (CR) and using two modes of HCCI control, i.e. intake heating with CR 15.0 and negative valve overlap (NVO) with CR 10.4, yielded results that prove this expectation.
Technical Paper

Combustion and Emissions in a Spark-ignition Engine Fueled with Coal-Bed Gas - Modeling and Experimental Results

2005-10-24
2005-01-3804
There is a worldwide interest in the research of various alternative fuels for automotive engines for the purpose of reduction of CO2 and toxically harmful exhaust emissions. Coal-bed gas, the main component of which is methane, has been considered an attractive alternative fuel for combustion engines due to its abundant resources, high hydrogen-carbon ratios and very low soot formation tendency. The composition of available coal-bed gas, however, can vary considerably, and this has made its combustion stability difficult to control in conventional spark ignition engines. To overcome the problem, a combustion system with a swirl chamber connected to the main combustion chamber through an orifice has been developed for the use of coal-bed gas in spark ignition engines, and the corresponding combustion process has been studied using a developed combustion model involving flame kernel formation and flame front propagation.
Technical Paper

An Investigation into the Operating Mode Transitions of a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine Using EGR Trapping

2004-06-08
2004-01-1911
While Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) is a promising combustion mode with significant advantages in fuel economy improvement and emission reductions for vehicle engines, it is subject to a number of limitations, for example, hardware and control complexity, or NOx and NVH deterioration near its operating upper load boundary, diminishing its advantages. Conventional spark-ignition combustion mode is required for higher loads and speeds, thus the operating conditions near the HCCI boundaries and their corresponding alternatives in SI mode must be studied carefully in order to identify practical strategies to minimise the impact of the combustion mode transition on the performance of the engine. This paper presents the results of an investigation of the combustion mode transitions between SI and HCCI, using a combination of an engine cycle simulation code with a chemical kinetics based HCCI combustion code.
Technical Paper

Residual Gas Trapping for Natural Gas HCCI

2004-06-08
2004-01-1973
With the high auto ignition temperature of natural gas, various approaches such as high compression ratios and/or intake charge heating are required for auto ignition. Another approach utilizes the trapping of internal residual gas (as used before in gasoline controlled auto ignition engines), to lower the thermal requirements for the auto ignition process in natural gas. In the present work, the achievable engine load range is controlled by the degree of internal trapping of exhaust gas supplemented by intake charge heating. Special valve strategies were used to control the internal retention of exhaust gas. Significant differences in the degree of valve overlap were necessary when compared to gasoline operation at the same speeds and loads, resulting in lower amounts of residual gas observed. The dilution effect of residual gas trapping is hence reduced, resulting in higher NOx emissions for the stoichiometric air/fuel ratio operation as compared to gasoline.
Technical Paper

Effect of Hydrogen Addition on Natural Gas HCCI Combustion

2004-06-08
2004-01-1972
Natural gas has a high auto-ignition temperature, requiring high compression ratios and/or intake charge heating to achieve HCCI (homogeneous charge compression ignition) engine operation. Previous work by the authors has shown that hydrogen addition improves combustion stability in various difficult combustion conditions. It is shown here that hydrogen, together with residual gas trapping, helps also in lowering the intake temperature required for HCCI. It has been argued in literature that the addition of hydrogen advances the start of combustion in the cylinder. This would translate into the lowering of the minimum intake temperature required for auto-ignition to occur during the compression stroke. The experimental results of this work show that, with hydrogen replacing part of the fuel, a decrease in intake air temperature requirement is observed for a range of engine loads, with larger reductions in temperature noted at lower loads.
Technical Paper

Effect of Intake Valves Timings on In-Cylinder Charge Characteristics in a DI Engine Cylinder with Negative Valve Overlapping

2008-04-14
2008-01-1347
This paper presents a computational investigation of the in-cylinder charge characteristics within a motored 4-valve direct injection HCCI engine cylinder with applied negative valve overlapping. Non-typical intake valve strategy was investigated; whereby the pair of intake valves was assumed to follow the same low-lift short-duration valve-lift profile but actuated at different timings. The phase of intake-valve-opening relative to that of exhaust-valve-closing was optimized in terms of pumping losses. The flow fields generated with such an intake valve strategy were compared to those produced in the same engine cylinder but with typical early and late intake-valve-timing. The computational results of such an approach showed modifications in the in-cylinder swirl and tumble motions during the intake and compression strokes.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study of Dieseline Combustion in a Direct Injection Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-1101
The differences between modern diesel and gasoline engine configurations are now becoming smaller and smaller, and in fact will be even smaller in the near future. They will all use moderately high compression ratios and complex direct injection strategies. The HCCI combustion mode is likely to lead to the merging of gasoline and diesel engine technologies to handle the challenges they are facing, offering a number of opportunities for the development of the fuels, engine control and after-treatment. The authors' recent experimental research into the HCCI combustion quality of gasoline and diesel blend fuels has referred to the new combustion technology as ‘Dieseline’.
Technical Paper

Modelling Study of Combustion and Gas Exchange in a HCCI (CAI) Engine

2002-03-04
2002-01-0114
The main obstacle for the development of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engines is the control of auto-ignition timing, and one key is to control the trapped gas temperature so as to enable the autoignition at the end of compression stroke. Using special valve mechanisms, very high residual gas mass fraction can be achieved to raise the charge temperature. Gas exchange process hence plays a crucial role in such HCCI engines because of its strong interaction with combustion. The modification of the gas exchange process in a 4-stroke automotive engine for HCCI combustion is not straightforward, since the engine must be able to operate across a considerably wide range of speeds and loads. Intake air temperatures and the valve mechanism need to be controlled in order to deliver optimal engine performance and fuel economy. This paper presents a modelling study of the combustion and gas exchange in a HCCI engine.
Technical Paper

Effect of inlet valve timing on boosted gasoline HCCI with residual gas trapping

2005-05-11
2005-01-2136
With boosted HCCI operation on gasoline using residual gas trapping, the amount of residuals was found to be of importance in determining the boundaries of stable combustion at various boost pressures. This paper represents a development of this approach by concentrating on the effects of inlet valve events on the parameters of boosted HCCI combustion with residual gas trapping. It was found that an optimum inlet valve timing could be found in order to minimize NOx emissions. When the valve timing is significantly advanced or retarded away from this optimum, NOx emissions increase due to the richer air / fuel ratios required for stable combustion. These richer conditions are necessary as a result of either the trapped residual gases becoming cooled in early backflow or because of lowering of the effective compression ratio. The paper also examines the feasibility of using inlet valve timing as a method of controlling the combustion phasing for boosted HCCI with residual gas trapping.
Technical Paper

In-cylinder Flow with Negative Valve Overlapping - Characterised by PIV Measurement

2005-05-11
2005-01-2131
Negative valve overlapping is widely used for trapping residual burned gas within the cylinder to enable controlled Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI). HCCI has been shown as a promising combustion technology to improve the fuel economy and NOx emissions of gasoline engines. While the importance of in-cylinder flow in the fuel and air mixing process is recognised, the characteristics of air motion with specially designed valve events having reduced valve lift and durations associated with HCCI engines and their effect on subsequent combustion are not yet fully understood. This paper presents an investigation in an optical engine designed for HCCI combustion using EGR trapping. PIV techniques have been used to measure the in-cylinder flow field under motored conditions and a quantitative analysis has been carried out for the flow characterisation with comparison made against the flow in the same engine with conventional valve strategies for SI combustion.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study of Combustion Initiation and development in an Optical HCCI Engine

2005-05-11
2005-01-2129
The major characteristics of the combustion in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engines, irrespective of the technological strategy used to enable the ‘controlled auto-ignition’, are that the mixture of fuel and air is preferably premixed and largely homogeneous. Ignition tends to take place simultaneously at multiple points and there is no bulk flame propagation as in conventional spark-ignition (SI) engines. This paper presents an experimental study of flame development in an optical engine operating in HCCI combustion mode. High resolution and high-speed charge coupled device (CCD) cameras were used to take images of the flame during the combustion process. Fuels include gasoline, natural gas (NG) and hydrogen addition to NG all at stoichiometric conditions, permitting the investigation of combustion development for each fuel. The flame imaging data was supplemented by simultaneously recorded in-cylinder pressure data.
Technical Paper

Modelling of HCCI Engines: Comparison of Single-zone, Multi-zone and Test Data

2005-05-11
2005-01-2123
This paper presents a modeling study of a gasoline HCCI engine using a single-zone and a multi-zone engine combustion models coupled with the CHEMKIN chemical kinetics solver for the closed part of the cycle. These combustion models are subsequently combined with a 1-D gas dynamics engine cycle simulation code which calculates the engine gas exchange to supply the boundary conditions for the in-cylinder simulation and also predicts engine performance. The simulated in-cylinder pressure history and charge composition at the time of exhaust valve opening are compared with the data from a parallel engine experimental project. Although the single-zone model is useful for parameter studies by predicting the trend of auto-ignition timing variations as the result of the effect of engine operating conditions, the matching of simulated and test data is good perhaps only if the mixture and temperature distributions in the cylinder are uniform.
Technical Paper

Applying boosting to gasoline HCCI operation with residual gas trapping

2005-05-11
2005-01-2121
The application of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion to naturally aspirated engines has shown a much reduced usable load range as compared to spark ignition (SI) engines. The approach documented here applies inlet charge boosting to gasoline HCCI operation on an engine configuration that is typical for SI gasoline engines, in conjunction with residual gas trapping. The latter helps to retain the benefits of much reduced requirement for external heating. In the present work, the achievable engine load range is controlled by the level of boost pressure while varying the amount of trapped residual gas. In addition, it was found that there is a maximum amount of boost that can be applied without intake heating for any given amount of trapped residuals. NOx emissions decrease with increasing amounts of trapped residual.
Technical Paper

Study on an Electronically Controlled Common-Rail Injection System for Liquefied Alternative Fuels

2005-05-11
2005-01-2085
Liquefied alternative fuels offer great potential benefits in reducing exhaust emissions and improving fuel economy of automotive engines. In order to achieve the best performance of the engine running with such fuels, it is critical to have an appropriate fuel system. In the present work, a new electronically controlled common-rail injection system has been specially designed and tested for the direct injection of liquefied alternative fuels, since a conventional pump-line-injector injection system in the conventional diesel engine was not suitable for the purpose. Experimental work has been carried out to examine and improve matching of the fuel injection system on a new fuel injection pump test bench. The preliminary engine bench test has demonstrated that this arrangement meets the requirement for the operating characteristics of a fuel injection system in a direct injection diesel engine operating with dimethyl ether (DME).
Technical Paper

Promotive Effect of Diesel Fuel on Gasoline HCCI Engine Operated with Negative Valve Overlap (NVO)

2006-04-03
2006-01-0633
It is well-known that gasoline is a poor fuel for HCCI operation due to its high autoignation temperature, while the major problem for diesel HCCI is that the ignition temperature of diesel fuel is too low so that diesel autoignites too early. Interestingly a blend of gasoline and diesel fuel could have desirable characteristics for HCCI operation. The negative valve overlap (NVO) is a practical and feasible control mode for production applications of the HCCI concept. At present, the most serious problem is the difficulty to control the moment of auto-ignition and extend the limited operating window of smooth HCCI operation. In this paper, the promotive effects of diesel fuel on gasoline HCCI combustion were experimentally examined. The diesel fuel as additive was added in advance in different proportion (10% and 20% by mass) into gasoline for the purpose of improving its ignitability. The experiments conducted on a gasoline HCCI engine which was naturally aspirated and unthrottled.
Technical Paper

Phenomenology of EGR in a Light Duty Diesel Engine Fuelled with Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil (HVO), Used Vegetable Oil Methyl Ester (UVOME) and Their Blends

2013-04-08
2013-01-1688
HVO contains paraffin only and UVOME is methyl ester with long chain alkyl while mineral diesel is complex compound and contains lots of aromatic and Naphthenic. This paper compares the effects of EGR on the two different types of biodiesels blends compared to diesel. The combustion performance and emissions of biodiesel blends of UVOME and HVO were investigated in a turbocharged direct injection V6 diesel engine with EGR swept from 0% to the calibration setting for diesel. The EGR sweep tests with increment of 5% were conducted at the engine speed of 1500 RPM for the load of between 72 Nm to 143 Nm, using sulfur-free diesel blended with UVOME and HVO at 30% and 60% by volume respectively. As the EGR rate was increased, the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) for each fuel was reduced at lower load but increased at higher load. The BSFC of mineral diesel was lower than UVOME blends and similar to the HVO blends.
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