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Journal Article

Experimental Investigation of Droplet Dynamics and Spray Atomization inside Thermostatic Expansion Valves

2011-04-12
2011-01-0129
In this paper, experimental investigation on spray atomization and droplet dynamics inside a thermostatic expansion valve (TXV), a component commonly used in vehicle refrigeration system, was conducted. A needle and an orifice were copied from a commercial TXV and machined to be mounted inside a chamber with optical access so that the flow inside the TXV is simulated and visualized at the same time. The break-up and atomization of the refrigerant were documented near the downstream of the orifice under different feed conditions for two TXV with different geometry. A Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA) system was used later to measure the size and velocity of atomized refrigerant droplets. The results showed that the droplet size variation along the radial direction is slightly decreased at near downstream and increased at farther downstream due to the coalescence.
Journal Article

Mixture Non-Uniformity in SCR Systems: Modeling and Uniformity Index Requirements for Steady-State and Transient Operation

2010-04-12
2010-01-0883
Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx is coming into worldwide use for automotive diesel emissions control. To meet the most stringent standards, NOx conversion efficiency must exceed 80% while NH3 emissions or slip must be kept below 10-30 ppm. At such high levels of performance, non-uniformities in ammonia-to-NOx ratio (ANR) at the converter inlet can limit the achievable NOx reduction. Despite its significance, this effect is frequently ignored in 1D catalyst models. The corresponding model error is important to system integration engineers because it affects system sizing, and to control engineers because it affects both steady-state and dynamic SCR converter performance. A probability distribution function (PDF) based method is introduced to include mixture non-uniformity in a 1D, real-time catalyst model.
Technical Paper

Experimental Evaluation of Electrostatically Assisted Injection and Combustion of Ethanol-Gasoline Mixtures for Automotive Applications

2010-04-12
2010-01-0171
A single nozzle port fuel injector was modified to apply electrostatic charge to the fuel stream, with the intention of studying electrostatically assisted sprays in a practical, port-injected engine. The modifications were kept external to the injector and involved placing an electrode and insulating liner over the tip of the injector. The performance of the modified injector, which combined pressure driven and electrostatic atomization, was characterized in three phases: the injector sprays themselves were studied, combustion of charged fuel droplets was studied, and the injector was installed and tested on a single cylinder spark ignition engine. In the first phase, Fraunhofer diffraction measurements of droplet size, and particle image velocimetry measurements of droplet velocity were performed. The charge transferred by the sprays was measured using an electrometer, and typical forces exerted on droplets in the sprays were estimated.
Technical Paper

Effects of Injection Pressure on Low-sooting Combustion in an Optical HSDI Diesel Engine Using a Narrow Angle Injector

2010-04-12
2010-01-0339
An optically accessible single-cylinder high-speed direct-injection (HSDI) diesel engine equipped with a Bosch common rail injection system was used to study effects of injection pressures on the in-cylinder spray and combustion processes. An injector with an injection angle of 70 degrees and European low sulfur diesel fuel (cetane number 54) were used in the work. The operating load was 2.0 bar IMEP with no EGR added in the intake. The in-cylinder pressure was measured and the heat release rate was calculated. High-speed Mie-scattering technique was employed to visualize the liquid distribution and evolution. High-speed combustion video was also captured for all the studied cases using the same frame rate. NOx emissions were measured in the exhaust pipe. The experimental results indicated that for all of the conditions the heat release rate was dominated by a premixed combustion pattern. Two-stage low temperature reaction was seen for early injection timings.
Technical Paper

Cavitating Flow within an Injector-Like Geometry and the Subsequent Spray

2019-04-02
2019-01-0284
Cavitation plays a significant role in the spray characteristics and the subsequent mixing and combustion process in engines. Cavitation has beneficial effects on the development of the fuel sprays by improving injection velocity and promoting primary break-up. On the other hand, intense pressure peaks induced by the vapor collapse may lead to erosion damage and severe degradation of the injector performance. In the present paper, the transient cavitating flow in the injector-like geometry was investigated using the modified turbulence model and cavitation criterion. A local density correction was used in the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes turbulence model to reduce the turbulent viscosity, which facilitates the cavitation development. The turbulent stress was also considered in the cavitation inception stage. The modified model is capable of reproducing the cavitating flow with an affordable computational cost.
Technical Paper

Macroscopic and Microscopic Characteristics of Flash Boiling Spray with Binary Fuel Mixtures

2019-04-02
2019-01-0274
Flash boiling has drawn much attention recently for its ability to enhance spray atomization and vaporization, while providing better fuel/air mixing for gasoline direct injection engines. However, the behaviors of flash boiling spray with multi-component fuels have not been fully discovered. In this study, isooctane, ethanol and the mixtures of the two with three blend ratios were chosen as the fuels. Measurements were performed with constant fuel temperature while ambient pressures were varied to adjust the superheated degree. Macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of flash boiling spray were investigated using Diffused Back-Illumination (DBI) imaging and Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA). Comparisons between flash boiling sprays with single component and binary fuel mixtures were performed to study the effect of fuel properties on spray structure as well as atomization and vaporization processes.
Technical Paper

Spray Characteristics of Gasoline-Ethanol Fuel Blends under Flash-Boiling Conditions

2019-04-02
2019-01-0297
The spray structure and vaporization processes of flash-boiling sprays in a constant volume chamber under a wide range of superheated conditions were experimentally investigated by a high speed imaging technique. The Engine Combustion Network’s Spray G injector was used. Four fuels including gasoline, ethanol, and gasoline-ethanol blends E30 and E50 were investigated. Spray penetration length and spray width were correlated to the degree of the superheated degree, which is the ratio of the ambient pressure to saturated vapor pressure (pa/ps). It is found that parameter pa/ps is critical in describing the spray transformation under flash-boiling conditions. Three distinct stages namely the slight flash-boiling, the transition flash-boiling, and the flare flash-boiling are identified to describe the transformation of spray structures.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study of the Combustion, Performance and Emission Characteristics of a CI Engine under Diesel-1-Butanol/CNG Dual Fuel Operation Mode

2016-04-05
2016-01-0788
In order to comply with the stringent emission regulations, many researchers have been focusing on diesel-compressed natural gas (CNG) dual fuel operation in compression ignition (CI) engines. The diesel-CNG dual fuel operation mode has the potential to reduce both the soot and NOx emissions; however, the thermal efficiency is generally lower than that of the pure diesel operation, especially under the low and medium load conditions. The current experimental work investigates the potential of using diesel-1-butanol blends as the pilot fuel to improve the engine performance and emissions. Fuel blends of B0 (pure diesel), B10 (90% diesel and 10% 1-butanol by volume) and B20 (80% diesel and 20% 1-butanol) with 70% CNG substitution were compared based on an equivalent input energy at an engine speed of 1200 RPM. The results indicated that the diesel-1-butanol pilot fuel can lead to a more homogeneous mixture due to the longer ignition delay.
Technical Paper

Numerical Study and Parameter Optimization on a Diesel - Natural Gas Dual Fuel Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-0769
This work presents a comprehensive computational study of diesel - natural gas (NG) dual fuel engine. A complete computational model is developed for the operation of a diesel - NG dual fuel engine modified from an AVL 5402 single cylinder diesel test engine. The model is based on the KIVA-3V program and includes customized sub-models. The model is validated against test cell measurements of both pure diesel and dual fuel operation. The effects of NG on ignition and combustion in dual fuel operation are analyzed in detail. Zero-dimensional computations with a diesel surrogate reaction mechanism are conducted to discover the effects of NG on ignition and combustion and to reveal the fundamental chemical mechanisms behind such effects. Backed by the detailed theoretical analysis, the engine operation parameters are optimized with genetic algorithm (GA) for the dual fuel operation of the modified AVL 5402 test engine.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation and Analysis of Combustion Process in a Diesel Engine Fueled with Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol/ Diesel Blends

2016-04-05
2016-01-0737
The performance and emission of an AVL 5402 single-cylinder engine fueled with acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) / diesel blends were experimentally investigated at various load conditions and injection timings. The fuels tested in the experiments were ABE10 (10% ABE, 90% diesel), ABE20 and diesel as baseline. Thermodynamics analyses of pressure traces acquired in experiments were performed to show the impact of ABE concentration to the overall combustion characteristics of the fuel mixtures. Cumulative heat release analysis showed that ABE mixtures generally retarded the overall combustion phasing, ignition delays of ABE-containing fuels were significantly extended, however, combustion rate during CA10∼CA50 were accelerated at different extent. Pressure rise rate of ABE-containing fuels further implicated that the premixed combustion were more dominant than that of diesel. Polytropic indices of both expansion and compression strokes were calculated from p-V diagram.
Technical Paper

A Modeling Study of the Effects of Butanol Addition on Aromatic Species in Premixed Butane Flames

2016-04-05
2016-01-0574
The motivation of the present work was to understand the mechanism by which alcohols produce less aromatic species in their combustion process than an equal amount of hydrocarbon with similar molecular structure does. Due to its numerous advantages over short-chain alcohols, butanol has been considered very promising in soot reduction. Excluding the influence of spray, vaporization and mixing process in engine cases, an adiabatic constant-pressure reactor model was applied to investigate the effect of butanol additives on aromatic species, which are known to be soot precursors, in fuel-rich butane flames. To keep the carbon flux constant, 5% and 10% oxygen by mass of the fuel were added to butane using butanol additive, respectively. Based on the soot reduction effects proposed in literature, effects on temperature, key radical concentrations and the carbon removal from the pathway to aromatic species were considered to identify the major mechanism of reduction in aromatic species.
Technical Paper

NOx Reduction in Compression-Ignition Engine by Inverted Ignition Phi-Sensitivity

2017-03-28
2017-01-0749
A new approach of NOx reduction in the compression-ignition engine is introduced in this work. The previous research has shown that during the combustion stage, the high temperature ignition tends to occur early at the near-stoichiometric region where the combustion temperature is high and majority of NOx is formed; Therefore, it is desirable to burn the leaner region first and then the near-stoichiometric region, which inhibits the temperature rise of the near-stoichiometric region and consequently suppresses the formation of NOx. Such inverted ignition sequence requires mixture with inverted phi-sensitivity. Fuel selection is performed based on the criteria of strong ignition T-sensitivity, negligible negative temperature coefficient (NTC) behavior, and large heat of vaporization (HoV).
Technical Paper

High-Load Compression-Ignition Engine Emissions Reduction with Inverted Phi-Sensitivity Fuel Using Multiple Injection Strategies

2019-04-02
2019-01-0554
Inverted phi (ϕ)-sensitivity is a new approach of NOx reduction in compression-ignition (C.I.) engines. Previously, pure ethanol (E100) was selected as the preliminary test fuel in a single injection compression-ignition engine, and was shown to have good potential for low engine-out NOx emissions under low and medium load conditions due to its inverted ignition sequence. Under high load, however, the near-stoichiometric and non-homogeneous fuel/air distribution removes the effectiveness of the inverted ϕ-sensitivity. Therefore, it is desirable to recover the combustion sequence in the chamber such that the leaner region is burned before the near-stoichiometric region. When the combustion in near-stoichiometric region is inhibited, the temperature rise of that region is hindered and the formation of NOx is suppressed.
Journal Article

The Effects of EGR and Injection Timing on the Engine Combustion and Emission Performances Fueled by Butanol-Diesel Blends

2012-04-01
2011-01-2473
The combustion and emission characteristics of a diesel engine running on butanol-diesel blends were investigated in this study. The blending ratio of n-butanol to diesel was varied from 0 to 40 vol% using an increment of 10 vol%, and each blend was tested on a 2.7 L V6 common rail direction injection diesel engine equipped with an EGR system. The test was carried out under two engine loads at a constant engine speed, using various combinations of EGR ratios and injection timings. Test results indicate that n-butanol addition to engine fuel is able to substantially decrease soot emission from raw exhaust gas, while the change in NOx emissions varies depending on the n-butanol content and engine operating conditions. Increasing EGR ratio and retarding injection timing are effective approaches to reduce NOx emissions from combustion of n-butanol-diesel blends.
Technical Paper

Effect of Acetone-Gasoline Blend Ratio on Combustion and Emissions Characteristics in a Spark-Ignition Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-0870
Due to the increasing consumption of fossil fuels, alternative fuels in internal combustion engines have attracted a lot of attention in recent years. Ethanol is the most common alternative fuel used in spark ignition (SI) engines due to its advantages of biodegradability, positively impacting emissions reduction as well as octane number improvement. Meanwhile, acetone is well-known as one of the industrial waste solvents for synthetic fibers and most plastic materials. In comparison to ethanol, acetone has a number of more desirable properties for being a viable alternative fuel such as its higher energy density, heating value and volatility.
Technical Paper

Reducing NOx Emissions from a Common-Rail Engine Fueled with Soybean Biodiesel

2011-04-12
2011-01-1195
Performance and emissions of a common-rail production diesel engine fueled with soybean-derived biodiesel was investigated. The work was broken down into two categories. First, adjustment of injection timing and EGR ratio was investigated as a means to reduce NOx emissions to levels comparable with those obtained when using pure diesel fuel. Next, simultaneous reduction of NOx and soot emissions was investigated using high rates of EGR combined with late injection timings to approach the low-temperature combustion regime. Results from the first part of the study indicate that optimization of engine control parameters for use with biodiesel can be beneficial to performance and emissions. It was found that adjusting the engine's MAF setpoint table to reflect the difference in stoichiometric air-fuel ratio between diesel and biodiesel brought NOx emissions to comparable or lower levels.
Technical Paper

A Study of Effects of Volatility on Butanol-Biodiesel-Diesel Spray and Combustion

2011-04-12
2011-01-1197
Ternary blends of butanol-biodiesel-diesel with different blending ratios were tested inside a constant volume chamber under various ambient temperatures so as to investigate the spray and combustion characteristics of the fuels. Applying the high speed imaging, a sudden drop in spray penetration was observed at ambient temperature of 800 K and 900 K for fuels with certain blending ratio, but not at 1000 K and 1200 K. When the spray penetration of the butanol-biodiesel-diesel blends was compared to that of the biodiesel-diesel blends under non-combusting environment, a sudden drop in spray penetration length was also observed at 1100 K. The results indicated that for the non-combusting case, the tip of the spray jet erupted into a plume sometime after injection for the butanol-biodiesel-diesel blend at an ambient temperature of 1100 K. Such phenomenon was not seen with the biodiesel-diesel blend, neither with the same fuel but at a lower ambient temperature of 900 K.
Technical Paper

Spray and Combustion Characteristics of n-Butanol in a Constant Volume Combustion Chamber at Different Oxygen Concentrations

2011-04-12
2011-01-1190
A very competitive alcohol for use in diesel engines is butanol. Butanol is of particular interest as a renewable bio-fuel, as it is less hydrophilic and it possesses higher heating value, higher cetane number, lower vapor pressure, and higher miscibility than ethanol or methanol. These properties make butanol preferable to ethanol or methanol for blending with conventional diesel or gasoline fuel. In this paper, the spray and combustion characteristics of pure n-butanol fuel was experimentally investigated in a constant volume combustion chamber. The ambient temperatures were set to 1000 K, and three different oxygen concentrations were set to 21%, 16%, and 10.5%. The results indicate that the penetration length reduces with the increase of ambient oxygen concentration. The combustion pressure and heat release rate demonstrate the auto-ignition delay becomes longer with decreasing of oxygen concentrations.
Journal Article

Micro-Explosion Modeling of Biofuel-Diesel Blended Droplets

2011-04-12
2011-01-1189
Recently, with the increasing interest on some potential alternative substitutes of petroleum fuels such as biodiesel and butanol, more and more researches are focused on the field of bio-fuels because they are renewable and friendly to the environment and can possibly reduce domestic demand on foreign petroleum. Bio-fuels are generally used in the commercial market by mixing with petroleum-based diesel or gasoline. Since the volatilities and boiling points of ethanol/butanol and diesel/biodiesel fuels are significantly different, micro-explosion can be expected in the blend mixture. In this study, a numerical model of micro-explosion including bubble generation, bubble expansion, and final breakup for multi-component bio-fuel droplets is proposed. From the simulated results of droplet characteristics at the onset of micro-explosion, it is concluded that micro-explosion is possible under engine operation condition for ethanol/butanol-diesel/biodiesel fuel blends.
Journal Article

A Semi-Detailed Chemical Kinetic Mechanism of Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol (ABE) and Diesel Blends for Combustion Simulations

2016-04-05
2016-01-0583
With the development of advanced ABE fermentation technology, the volumetric percentage of acetone, butanol and ethanol in the bio-solvents can be precisely controlled. To seek for an optimized volumetric ratio for ABE-diesel blends, the previous work in our team has experimentally investigated and analyzed the combustion features of ABE-diesel blends with different volumetric ratio (A: B: E: 6:3:1; 3:6:1; 0:10:0, vol. %) in a constant volume chamber. It was found that an increased amount of acetone would lead to a significant advancement of combustion phasing whereas butanol would compensate the advancing effect. Both spray dynamic and chemistry reaction dynamic are of great importance in explaining the unique combustion characteristic of ABE-diesel blend. In this study, a semi-detailed chemical mechanism is constructed and used to model ABE-diesel spray combustion in a constant volume chamber.
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