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Technical Paper

Effects of Single and Double Post Injections on Diesel PCCI Combustion

In this study, single and double post injections were applied to diesel premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) combustion to overcome the drawbacks those are high level of hydrocarbons (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions in a single-cylinder direct-injection diesel engine. The operating conditions including engine speed and total injection quantity were 1200 rpm and 12 mg/cycle, which are the representative of low engine speed and low load. The main injection timing of diesel PCCI combustion was set to 28 crank angle degree before top dead center (CAD BTDC). This main injection timing showed 32% lower level of nitric oxides (NOx) level and 8 CAD longer ignition delay than those of conventional diesel combustion. However, the levels of HC and CO were 2.7 and 3 times higher than those of conventional diesel combustion due to over-lean mixture and wall wetting of fuel.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Premixed Compression Ignition Combustion using Various Injector Configurations

Premixed compression ignition (PCI) combustion was implemented using advanced injection strategy and exhaust gas recirculation in a direct-injection single-cylinder diesel engine. The injection timing swept experiment using a baseline injector, which had an injection angle of 146° and 8 nozzle holes, obtained three types of combustion regime: conventional diesel combustion for an injection timing of 10° CA (crank angle) BTDC (before top dead center), PCI combustion for an injection timing of 40° CA BTDC and homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion for an injection timing of 80° CA BTDC. PCI combustion can be verified by burn duration analysis. The burn duration, which was defined as the period from 10% to 90% of the accumulated heat release, was very short in PCI combustion but not in the others. PCI combustion with an injection timing of 40° CA BTDC was achieved in a range of an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rate from 0% to around 40%.
Technical Paper

Mode Transition between Low Temperature Combustion and Conventional Combustion with EGR and Injection Modulation in a Diesel Engine

Mode transition between low temperature combustion and conventional combustion was investigated in a direct injection diesel engine. Low temperature diesel combustion was realized by means of high exhaust gas recirculation rate (69~73%) and early injection timing (-28~ -16 crank angle degree after top dead center) compared with those (20% exhaust gas recirculation rate and -8 crank angle degree after top dead center) of conventional combustion. Tests were carried out at different engine speeds and injection pressures. Exhaust gas recirculation rate was changed transiently by controlling each throttle angle for fresh air and exhaust gas recirculation to implement mode transition. Various durations for throttle transition were applied to investigate the effect of speed change of exhaust gas recirculation rate on the characteristics of mode transition.
Technical Paper

Effect of the Multiple Injection on Stratified Combustion Characteristics in a Spray-Guided DISI Engine

In this study, the single-cylinder engine experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of multiple injections on stratified combustion characteristics in a spray-guided direct injection spark ignition engine. The engine was operated at 1200 rpm. The total injection quantity applied was 11 mg/stroke to represent a low-load condition. Single injection and multiple injection were tested. Split ratio of each multiple strategies were 1:1 for double injection and 1:1:1 for the triple injection respectively. Dwell time between each injection was set to 200 μs. In the result of engine experiment with the single injection, indicated mean effective pressure was increased as injection timing was retarded to top dead center due to the increased effective work. However, the retardation of the injection timing was limited by the misfire occurrence resulted from the locally rich mixture generation under the high ambient pressure.
Journal Article

Spray and Combustion Characteristics of Ethanol Blended Gasoline in a Spray Guided DISI Engine under Lean Stratified Operation

An experimental study was performed to evaluate the effects of ethanol blending on to gasoline spray and combustion characteristics in a spray-guided direct-injection spark-ignition engine under lean stratified operation. The spray characteristics, including local homogeneity and phase distribution, were investigated by the planar laser-induced fluorescence and the planar Mie scattering method in a constant volume chamber. Therefore, the single cylinder engine was operated with pure gasoline, 85 %vol, 50 %vol and 25vol % ethanol blended with gasoline (E85, E50, E25) to investigate the combustion and exhaust emission characteristics. Ethanol was identified to have the potential of generating a more appropriate spray for internal combustion due to a higher vapor pressure at high temperature conditions. The planar laser-induced fluorescence image demonstrated that ethanol spray has a faster diffusion velocity and an enhanced local homogeneity.
Technical Paper

The Effect of LPG Composition on Combustion and Performance in a DME-LPG Dual-fuel HCCI Engine

The effect of the composition of propane (C₃H₈) and butane (C₄H₁₀) in liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) was investigated in a dual-fuel HCCI engine fueled with di-methyl ether (DME) and LPG. The composition of LPG affects DME-LPG dual fuel HCCI combustion due to the difference in the physical properties of propane that and butane such as octane number, auto-ignition temperature and heat of vaporization. DME was injected directly into the cylinder at various injection timing from 160 to 350 crank angle degrees (CAD). LPG was injected at the intake port with a fixed injection timing at 20 CAD. It was found that power output was increased with propane ratio. This gain in power output resulted from increased expansion work due to the better anti-knock properties of propane. However, higher propane ratio made combustion efficiency decrease because of the suppression in low temperature reaction of DME which determines heat release amount of high temperature reaction.
Technical Paper

Particle Reduction in LPG Lean Stratified Combustion by Intake Strategies

Lean stratified combustion shows high potential to reduce fuel consumption because it operates without the intervention of a throttle valve. Despite its high fuel economy potential, it emits large amounts of particulate matter (PM) because the locally rich mixture is formed at the periphery of a spark plug. Furthermore, the combustion phasing angle is not realized at MBT ignition timing, which can bring high work conversion efficiency. Since PM emission and work conversion efficiency are in a trade-off relation, this research focused on reducing PM emission through achieving high work conversion efficiency. Two intake air control strategies were examined in this research; throttle operation and late intake valve closing (LIVC). The experiment was conducted in a single cylinder spray-guided direct injection spark ignition (SG-DISI) engine with liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). The injected fuel amount was fixed so as to investigate the effect of each strategy.
Technical Paper

Combustion Control Using Two-Stage Diesel Fuel Injection in a Single-Cylinder PCCI Engine

A diesel-fueled premixed charged compression ignition (PCCI) combustion technique using a two-stage injection strategy has been investigated in a single cylinder optical engine equipped with a common-rail fuel system. Although PCCI combustion has the advantages of reducing NOx and PM emissions, difficulties in vaporization of a diesel fuel and control of the combustion phase hinder the development of the PCCI engine. A two-stage injection strategy was applied to relieve these problems. The first injection, named as main injection, was an early direct injection of diesel fuel into the cylinder to achieve premixing with air. The second injection was a diesel injection of a small quantity (1.5 mm3) as an ignition promoter and combustion phase controller near TDC. Effects of injection pressure, injected fuel quantity and compression ratio were studied with variation of an intake air temperature.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Swirl Ratio and Fuel Injection Parameters on CO Emission and Fuel Conversion Efficiency for High-Dilution, Low-Temperature Combustion in an Automotive Diesel Engine

Engine-out CO emission and fuel conversion efficiency were measured in a highly-dilute, low-temperature diesel combustion regime over a swirl ratio range of 1.44-7.12 and a wide range of injection timing. At fixed injection timing, an optimal swirl ratio for minimum CO emission and fuel consumption was found. At fixed swirl ratio, CO emission and fuel consumption generally decreased as injection timing was advanced. Moreover, a sudden decrease in CO emission was observed at early injection timings. Multi-dimensional numerical simulations, pressure-based measurements of ignition delay and apparent heat release, estimates of peak flame temperature, imaging of natural combustion luminosity and spray/wall interactions, and Laser Doppler Velocimeter (LDV) measurements of in-cylinder turbulence levels are employed to clarify the sources of the observed behavior.
Technical Paper

The Dual-Fueled Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine Using Liquefied Petroleum Gas and Di-methyl Ether

The combustion, knock characteristics and exhaust emissions in an engine were investigated under homogeneous charge compression ignition operation fueled with liquefied petroleum gas with regard to variable valve timing and the addition of di-methyl ether. Liquefied petroleum gas was injected at an intake port as the main fuel in a liquid phase using a liquefied injection system, while a small amount of di-methyl ether was also injected directly into the cylinder during the intake stroke as an ignition promoter. Different intake valve timings and fuel injection amount were tested in order to identify their effects on exhaust emissions, combustion and knock characteristics. The optimal intake valve open timing for the maximum indicated mean effective pressure was retarded as the λTOTAL was decreased. The start of combustion was affected by the intake valve open timing and the mixture strength (λTOTAL) due to the volumetric efficiency and latent heat of vaporization.
Technical Paper

Operating Range of Low Temperature Diesel Combustion with Supercharging

Low temperature diesel combustion with a large amount of exhaust gas recirculation in a direct injection diesel engine was investigated. Tests were carried out under various engine speeds, injection pressures, injection timings, and injection quantities. Exhaust emissions and brake specific fuel consumption were measured at different torque and engine speed conditions. High rates of exhaust gas recirculation led to the simultaneous reduction of nitrogen oxide and soot emissions due to a lower combustion temperature than conventional diesel combustion. However, hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions increased as the combustion temperature decreased because of incomplete combustion and the lack of an oxidation reaction. To overcome the operating range limits of low temperature diesel combustion, increased intake pressure with a modified turbocharger was employed.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Pilot Injection on Combustion in Dimethyl-ether (DME) Direct Injection Compression Ignition Engine

Dimethyl-ether combustion with pilot injection was investigated in a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine equipped with a common-rail injection system. Combustion characteristics and emissions were tested with dimethyl-ether and compared with diesel fuel. The main injection timing was fixed to have the best timings for maximum power output. The total injected fuel mass corresponded to a low heating value of 405 joules per cycle at 800 rpm. The fuel quantity and the injection timing of the pilot injection were varied from 8 to 20% of the total injected mass and from 50 to 10 crank angle degrees before the main injection timing, respectively. Ignition delay decreased with pilot injection. The effects of pilot injection were less significant with DME combustion than with diesel. Pilot injection caused the main combustion to increase in intensity resulting in decreased emissions of hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and particulate matter.
Technical Paper

Diesel Spray Development of VCO Nozzles for High Pressure Direct-Injection

Spray characteristics of diesel fuel injection is one of the most important factors in diesel combustion and pollutant emissions especially in HSDI (High Speed Direct Injection) diesel engines where the interval between the evaporation of atomized fuel and the onset of combustion is relatively short. An investigation into various spray characteristics from different holes of VCO nozzles was performed and its results were compared to standard sac nozzle. The global characteristics of spray, including spray angle, spray tip penetration, and spray pattern were measured from the spray images which were frozen by an instantaneous photography with a spark light source. For better understanding of spray behavior, SMD of the fuel sprays from each hole in the multi hole nozzles were measured with back light imaging while the sprays from the other holes were covered by a purpose-built nozzle cap.
Technical Paper

Effect of Injection Strategy on Low Temperature - Conventional Diesel Combustion Mode Transition

Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) is known to be feasible only in lower load ranges so in real world application of LTC, engine operation mode should frequently change back and forth between LTC mode in lower loads and conventional mode in higher loads. In this research, effect of injection strategy on smoothness and emissions during mode transition in a single cylinder heavy duty diesel engine is studied. The Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) line was controlled by a servo-valve capable of opening or closing the EGR loop within only one engine cycle. Ten cycles after the EGR valve closure were taken as the transition period during which injection timing and quantity were shifted in various ways (i.e. injection strategies) and the effect on Indicated Mean Effective Pressure (IMEP) stability and emissions was studied.
Technical Paper

Effect of Breathing Characteristics on the Performance in Spark-Ignition Engines

Adaptive valve timing control is one of the promising techniques to accomplish the optimized mixture formation and combustion depending on the load and speed, which is needed to meet the future challenges of reducing fuel consumption and exhaust emissions. The behavior and the effect of adaptive valve timing control system has been investigated by computer simulation, which simulates the gas dynamics in engines. These programs are typically one-dimensional including complex flow features as ‘special’ boundaries. A code adopting 2-step Lax-Wendroff method with artificial damping terms called FCT(Flux Corrected Transport), was developed to investigate the influence of operational and design parameters on the performance of engines. The effects of adaptive valve timing control system on volumetric efficiency or engine torque, and pumping loss were investigated. It increased low end torque by about 6%, and reduced pumping loss drastically at low load, high engine speed conditions.
Technical Paper

Studying the Influence of Direct Injection on PCCI Combustion and Emissions at Engine Idle Condition Using Two Dimensional CFD and Stochastic Reactor Model

A detailed chemical model was implemented in the KIVA-3V two dimensional CFD code to investigate the effects of the spray cone angle and injection timing on the PCCI combustion process and emissions in an optical research diesel engine. A detailed chemical model for Primary Reference Fuel (PRF) consisting of 157 species and 1552 reactions was used to simulate diesel fuel chemistry. The model validation shows good agreement between the predicted and measured pressure and emissions data in the selected cases with various spray angles and injection timings. If the injection is retarded to -50° ATDC, the spray impingement at the edge of the piston corner with 100° injection angle was shown to enhance the mixing of air and fuel. The minimum fuel loss and more widely distributed fuel vapor contribute to improving combustion efficiency and lowering uHC and CO emissions in the engine idle condition.
Technical Paper

Hydraulic Simulation and Experimental Analysis of Needle Response and Controlled Injection Rate Shape Characteristics in a Piezo-driven Diesel Injector

The More precise control of the multiple-injection is required in common-rail injection system of direct injection diesel engine to meet the low NOx emission and optimal PM filter system. The main parameter for obtaining the multiple-injections is the mechanism controlling the injector needle energizing and movement. In this study, a piezo-driven diesel injector, as a new method driven by piezoelectric energy, has been applied with a purpose to develop the analysis model of the piezo actuator to predict the dynamics characteristics of the hydraulic component (injector) by using the AMESim code and to evaluate the effect of this control capability on spray formation processes. Aimed at simulating the hydraulic behavior of the piezo-driven injector, the circuit model has been developed and verified by comparison with the experimental results.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Charge Dilution and Injection Timing on Low-Temperature Diesel Combustion and Emissions

The effects of charge dilution on low-temperature diesel combustion and emissions were investigated in a small-bore single-cylinder diesel engine over a wide range of injection timing. The fresh air was diluted with additional N2 and CO2, simulating 0 to 65% exhaust gas recirculation in an engine. Diluting the intake charge lowers the flame temperature T due to the reactant being replaced by inert gases with increased heat capacity. In addition, charge dilution is anticipated to influence the local charge equivalence ratio ϕ prior to ignition due to the lower O2 concentration and longer ignition delay periods. By influencing both ϕ and T, charge dilution impacts the path representing the progress of the combustion process in the ϕ-T plane, and offers the potential of avoiding both soot and NOx formation.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Two-Stage Fuel Injection on Dimethyl-ether (DME) Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine Combustion

Two-stage injection strategy was studied in dimethyl-ether homogeneous charge compression ignition engine combustion. An early direct injection, main injection, was applied to form a premixed charge followed by the second injection after the start of heat release. Experiments were carried out in a single-cylinder direct-injection diesel engine equipped with a common-rail injection system, and the combustion performance and exhaust emissions were tested with the various second injection timings and quantities. Engine speed was 1200 rpm, and the load was fixed at 0.2 MPa IMEP. Main injection timing for homogeneous mixture was fixed at −80 CAD, and the fuel quantity was adjusted to the fixed load. Second injection quantity was varied from 1 to 5 mg, and the timing was selected according to the heat release rate of the HCCI combustion without second injection.
Journal Article

Improvement of DME HCCI Engine Performance by Fuel Injection Strategies and EGR

The combustion and exhaust emission characteristics of a DME fueled HCCI engine were investigated. Different fuel injection strategies were tested under various injection quantities and timings with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). The combustion phase in HCCI was changed by an in-cylinder direct injection and EGR, due to changes in the in-cylinder temperature and mixture homogeneity. The gross indicated mean effective pressure (IMEPgross) increased and the hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions decreased as the equivalence ratio was augmented. The IMEPgross with direct injection was greater than with the port injection due to retarded ignition timing resulting from latent heat of direct injected DME fuel. It was because that most of burn duration was completed before top dead center owing to higher ignitability for DME with high cetane number. However, HC and CO emissions were similar for both injection locations.