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Technical Paper

A Simulation Model for the Combustion Process of Natural Gas Engines with Pilot Diesel Fuel as an Ignition Source

During the last years a great deal of efforts have been made to reduce pollutant emissions from Direct Injection Diesel Engines. The use of gaseous fuel as a supplement for liquid diesel fuel seems to be one solution towards these efforts. One of the fuels used is natural gas, which has a relatively high auto - ignition temperature and moreover it is an economical and clean burning fuel. The high auto - ignition temperature of natural gas is a serious advantage against other gaseous fuels since the compression ratio of most conventional diesel engines can be maintained. The main aspiration from the usage of dual fuel (liquid and gaseous one) combustion systems, is the reduction of particulate emissions. In the present work are given results of a theoretical investigation using a model developed for the simulation of gaseous fuel combustion processes in Dual Fuel Engines.
Technical Paper

A Simplified Model for the Spatial Distribution of Temperature in a Motored DI Diesel Engine

The purpose of this paper is to present an alternative method to predict the temperature and flow field in a motored internal combustion engine with bowl in piston. For the fluid flow it is used a phenomenological model which is coupled to a computational fluid dynamic method to solve the energy conservation equation and therefore the temperature field. The proposed method has the advantage of simplicity and low computational time. The computational procedure solves the energy conservation equation by a finite volume method, using a simplified air motion model (estimating axial and radial velocities) to calculate the flow field. The finite volume discretization employs the implicit temporal and hybrid central upwind spatial differencing. The grid used contracts and expands following the piston motion, and the number of nodes in the direction of piston motion vary depending on the crank angle.
Technical Paper

A New Quasi-Three Dimensional Combustion Model for Prediction of DI Diesel Engines' Performance and Pollutant Emissions

The fundamental understanding of mixture formation and combustion process taking place in a DI diesel engine cylinder is an important parameter for engine design since they affect engine performance and pollutant emissions. Multi-dimensional CFD models are used for detailed simulation of these processes, but suffer from complexity and require significant computational time. The purpose of our work is to develop a new quasi-dimensional 3D combustion model capable of describing the air fuel mixing, combustion and pollutant formation mechanisms, on an engine cycle by cycle basis, needing reasonably low computational time compared to CFD ones, while describing in a more fundamental way the various processes compared to existing multi-zone phenomenological models. As a result, a number of problems associated with the application of multi-zone models are resolved.
Technical Paper

An Integrated Transient Analysis Simulation Model Applied in Thermal Loading Calculations of an Air-Cooled Diesel Engine Under Variable Speed and Load Conditions

A comprehensive transient analysis simulation model is used for the calculation of diesel engine performance under variable speed and load conditions. The analysis includes a detailed description of engine subsystems under transient conditions, thus accounting for the continuously changing character of transient operation, simulating among others the fuel injection, transient mechanical friction, heat losses to the walls and governor operation. The results of engine performance, at every time step during the transient event, are used as inputs for the formulation of thermal boundary conditions, which are needed for the calculation in a parallel way of the thermal transients propagating inside the engine structure.
Technical Paper

Development and Validation of a 3-D Multi-Zone Combustion Model for the Prediction of DI Diesel Engines Performance and Pollutants Emissions

A three-dimensional multi-zone combustion model is developed for the description of the combustion mechanism inside the engine cylinder of direct injection diesel engines. Various multi-zone models have been proposed in the past for the prediction of DI diesel engine performance and emissions. These models offer an alternative tool if one wants to avoid the use of other more complicated and sophisticated flow models that require high computational times. Most of them have the disadvantage that they focus mainly on emissions, failing to predict at the same time engine performance adequately. In almost all multi-zone models the resulting fuel jet after injection, which is divided into zones, is assumed to be symmetrical around its axis. In the present work a different approach is followed. The fuel jet is divided into zones in the three dimensions overcoming the need for the previous symmetry assumption.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Instantaneous Cyclic Heat Transfer in the Combustion Chamber and Exhaust Manifold of a DI Diesel Engine under Transient Operating Conditions

In this paper, the results are presented from the analysis of the second stage of an experimental investigation with the aim to provide insight to the cyclic, instantaneous heat transfer phenomena occurring in both the cylinder head and exhaust manifold wall surfaces of a direct injection (DI), air-cooled diesel engine. Results from the first stage of the investigation concerning steady-state engine operation have already been presented by the authors in this series. In this second stage, the mechanism of cyclic heat transfer was investigated during engine transient events, viz. after a sudden change in engine speed and/or load, both for the combustion chamber and exhaust manifold surfaces. The modified experimental installation allowed both long- and short-term signal types to be recorded on a common time reference base during the transient event.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of the Effect of Fuel Composition on the Formation of Pollutants in Direct Injection Diesel Engines

A great deal of research is taking place at the present time in the field of diesel engines, especially regarding the emission of gaseous pollutants and soot. This research is essential for engine manufacturers since it is difficult for diesel engines to meet current standards regarding soot and nitric oxide emissions. The problem will become even more severe when the new legislation will be applicable requiring a 50% reduction of existing levels. Many manufacturers and researchers feel that engines will be difficult to meet this criterion without the use of other techniques such as gas aftertreatment or newly developed fuels (low sulfur content, etc.). The aim of this research is to examine the effect of fuel composition and physical properties on the mechanism of combustion and pollutants formation.
Technical Paper

Development of a Simulation Model for Direct Injection Dual Fuel Diesel-Natural Gas Engines

During the last years a great deal of effort has been made for the reduction of pollutant emissions from direct injection Diesel Engines. Towards these efforts engineers have proposed various solutions, one of which is the use of gaseous fuels as a supplement for liquid diesel fuel. These engines are referred to as dual combustion engines i.e. they use conventional diesel fuel and gaseous fuel as well. The ignition of the gaseous fuel is accomplished through the liquid fuel, which is auto-ignited in the same way as in common diesel engines. One of the fuels used is natural gas, which has a relatively high auto-ignition temperature. This is extremely important since the CR of most conventional diesel engines can be maintained. In these engines the released energy is produced partially from the combustion of natural gas and from the combustion of liquid diesel fuel.
Technical Paper

Comparative Evaluation of EGR, Intake Water Injection and Fuel/Water Emulsion as NOx Reduction Techniques for Heavy Duty Diesel Engines

Despite the improvement in HD Diesel engine out emissions future emission legislation requires significant reduction of both NOx and particulate matter. To accomplish this task various solutions exist involving both internal and external measures. As widely recognized, it will be possibly required to employ both types of measures to meet future emission limits. Towards this direction, it is necessary to reduce NOx further using internal measures. Several solutions exist in that area, but the most feasible ones according to the present status of technical knowledge are EGR, water injection or fuel/water emulsions. These technologies aim to the reduction of both the gas temperature and oxygen concentration inside the combustion chamber that strongly affect NOx formation. However, there remain open points mainly concerning the effectiveness of water addition techniques and penalties related to bsfc and soot emissions.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Various Rich Combustion Techniques for Diesel Engines Using Modeling

Considering future emission legislation for HD diesel engines it is apparent that it will be probably necessary to employ A/T devices to achieve them. The main problem concerns the simultaneous control of both NOx and particulate emissions at an acceptable fuel penalty. Concerning particulate matter the use of particulate traps is considered to be a proven technology while for NOx emission control; various solutions exist mainly being the use of SCR catalysts or LNT devices. But LNT traps require periodical regeneration, which is accomplished by generating reducing agents i.e. CO and H2. The present investigation focuses on the regeneration of LNT devices through the engine operating cycle. This can be achieved using two techniques, additional injection of fuel at the exhaust manifold (external measures) or operation at low lambda values in the range of 1.0 or lower (internal measures).
Technical Paper

Use of Water Emulsion and Intake Water Injection as NOx Reduction Techniques for Heavy Duty Diesel Engines

Diesel engine manufacturers are currently intensifying their efforts to meet future emission limits that require a drastic reduction of NOx and particulate matter compared to present values. Even though several after-treatment techniques have been developed for tailpipe NOx reduction in heavy duty diesel engines, the in-cylinder control of NOx formation still remains of utmost importance. Various methods have been used to control NOx formation in diesel engines such as retarded injection timing and EGR providing each one of them very promising results. However, use of these techniques is accompanied by penalties in specific fuel consumption and exhaust soot. A promising technology for NOx reduction especially for heavy-duty diesel engines and mainly large scale ones is the addition of water to the combustion chamber to reduce peak combustion temperature that obviously affects NOx formation.
Technical Paper

Development of a Detailed Friction Model to Predict Mechanical Losses at Elevated Maximum Combustion Pressures

Engineers use phenomenological simulation models to determine engine performance. Using these models, we can predict with reasonable accuracy the heat release rate mechanism inside the engine cylinder, which enables us to obtain a prediction of the pressure history inside the engine cylinder. Using this value and the volume change rate of the combustion chamber, we can then estimate the indicated power output of the engine. However, in order to obtain the brake engine power output we must have an indication for the mechanical losses, a great part of which are friction losses. Up to now various correlations have been proposed that provide the frictional mean effective pressure as a function mainly of engine speed and load. These correlations have been obtained from the processing of experimental data, i.e. experimental values for the indicated and brake power output of engines.
Technical Paper

Possibilities to Achieve Future Emission Limits for HD DI Diesel Engines Using Internal Measures

The diesel engine is currently the most efficient powertrain for vehicle propulsion. Unfortunately it suffers from rather high particulate and NOx emissions that are directly related to its combustion mechanism. Future emission legislation requires drastic reduction of NOx and particulate matter compared to present values. Engine manufacturers in their effort to meet these limits propose two solutions: reduction of pollutants inside the combustion chamber using internal measures and reduction at the tailpipe using aftertreatment technology. Currently there are various opinions considering the final solution. Taking into account information related to aftertreatment technology, an effort should be made to reduce pollutants inside the combustion chamber as much as possible. The last is obvious if we account for the even more strict emission limits to be applied after 2010 that will require a combination of aftertreatment and internal measures.
Technical Paper

Experimental Heat Release Rate Analysis in Both Chambers of an Indirect Injection Turbocharged Diesel Engine at Various Load and Speed Conditions

A heat release analysis of experimental pressure diagrams, appropriate for indirect injection (divided chamber) diesel engines, is developed and used to obtain heat release rate profiles during the combustion process in each combustion chamber. Attention is paid to the correct processing of the data, due to the inherent complexity of the mass interchange between the two combustion chambers. The analysis concerns a turbocharged, indirect injection diesel engine, having a very small pre-chamber and a very narrow connecting passageway, operated at various load and speed conditions, located at the authors' laboratory. An extended experimental work, at steady-state conditions, is conducted on a specially developed test bed configuration of this engine, which is connected to a high-speed data acquisition and processing system.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Effects of EGR on a Heavy Duty DI Diesel Engine Using a new Quasi-Dimensional Combustion Model

The model has already been applied on an old technology, naturally aspirated HSDI Diesel engine and on a heavy-duty turbocharged DI one equipped with a high pressure PLN fuel injection system, and the results were satisfying as far as performance and pollutant emissions (Soot and NO) are concerned. Taking into account that the main scope of engine simulation models is to assist engineers and researchers to understand the complex mechanisms involved in diesel engine combustion and pollutants formation and that through the continues engine development, new techniques are implemented, it is obvious that engine simulation models must always be enhanced with new features in order to be kept up-to-date. In this study the model has been modified to take into account the effect of EGR, since the latter one is a measure that will be used more extensively in the future to control NO emissions from turbocharged HDDI Diesel engines.
Technical Paper

Operational and Environmental Evaluation of Diesel Engines Burning Oxygen-Enriched Intake Air or Oxygen-Enriched Fuels: A Review

A method to curtail emissions of smoke and other pollutants from diesel engines is to enhance the oxygen supply to their combustion chamber. This can be accomplished by enriching either the intake air stream or the fuel stream with oxygen. Experimental studies concerning the oxygen-enrichment of intake air, have revealed large decrease of ignition delay, drastic decrease of soot emissions as well as reduction of CO and HC emissions while, brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) remained unaffected and increasing of power output is feasible. However, this technique was accompanied by considerable increase of NOx emissions. Experimental and theoretical studies with oxygenated fuels have demonstrated large decrease of soot emissions, which correlated well with the fuel oxygen content. Reduction of CO and HC emissions with oxygenated fuels was also obtained. However, penalties in both BSFC and NOx emissions have been observed with oxygenation of diesel fuels.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Theoretical Analysis of the Combustion and Pollutants Formation Mechanisms in Dual Fuel DI Diesel Engines

With the increasing public interest in energy supply and the environment, attention has focused on the development of ecological and efficient combustion technologies. One of these technologies could be the use of natural gas as supplement fuel for diesel fuel in DI diesel engines. The great availability at attractive prices and the clean nature of combustion are the most important advantages of natural gas compared to conventional diesel fuel. In the present work are given theoretical and experimental results for the combustion mechanism of natural gas in a compression ignition environment, with special emphasis on the combined heat release rate of natural gas and diesel fuel, the duration of combustion and the ignition delay period. Results are also provided for the formation history of pollutants inside the combustion chamber of a DI diesel engine operating in dual fuel mode (with natural gas fuelling).
Technical Paper

Using a Phenomenological Multi-Zone Model to Investigate the Effect of Injection Rate Shaping on Performance and Pollutants of a DI Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

The direct injection heavy-duty diesel engine is the main propulsion unit for trucks, lories and other heavy-duty vehicles mainly due to its superior efficiency when compared to other existing reciprocating engines. However, this engine suffers from relatively high particulate and nitric oxide emission levels. Considering current legislation for emissions and especially future limits, it seems that a great deal of research is required to satisfy these limits and maintain efficiency at a high level. As widely recognized, the fuel injection mechanism plays an important role for both engine performance and pollutant emissions. The major problem is to seek solutions that enable the control of major pollutants, nitric oxide and particulate matter. For this reason, various injection rate shapes have been proposed which require sophisticated fuel injection equipment and extremely high fuel injection pressures. Now two main categories are considered, common rail fuel injection system and PLN.
Journal Article

Experimental Assessment of Instantaneous Heat Transfer in the Combustion Chamber and Exhaust Manifold Walls of Air-Cooled Direct Injection Diesel Engine

An experimental analysis is carried out to investigate several heat transfer characteristics during the engine cycle, in the combustion chamber and exhaust manifold walls of a direct injection (DI), air-cooled, diesel engine. For this purpose, a novel experimental installation has been developed, which separates the engine transient temperature signals into two groups, namely the long-and the short- term response ones, processing the respective signals in two independent data acquisition systems. Furthermore, a new pre-amplification unit for fast response thermocouples, appropriate heat flux sensors and an innovative, object-oriented, control code for fast data acquisition have been designed and applied. Experimentally obtained cylinder pressure diagrams together with semi-empirical equations for instantaneous heat transfer were used as basis for the calculation of overall heat transfer coefficient.
Journal Article

Possibility to Determine Diesel Engine Condition and Tuning from the Application of a Diagnostic Technique at a Single Operating Point

A difficulty which exists when applying diagnostic techniques on large-scale diesel engines operating on the field, is that usually it is not possible to obtain measurement data at a wide engine operating range due to a number of constraints. In the present work is investigated the possibility to overcome this practical difficulty originating from the test procedure for engines operating on the field (i.e. marine or stationary applications). The main objective is to examine if a diagnosis procedure provides similar results when applied at various engine operating conditions. For this purpose an existing diagnostic technique, developed by the authors, is applied at different operating conditions on a large-scale two-stroke diesel engine used for power generation in a Greek island.