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Technical Paper

Experimental and Simulated Results Detailing the Sensitivity of Natural Gas HCCI Engines to Fuel Composition

2001-09-24
2001-01-3609
Natural gas quality, in terms of the volume fraction of higher hydrocarbons, strongly affects the auto-ignition characteristics of the air-fuel mixture, the engine performance and its controllability. The influence of natural gas composition on engine operation has been investigated both experimentally and through chemical kinetic based cycle simulation. A range of two component gas mixtures has been tested with methane as the base fuel. The equivalence ratio (0.3), the compression ratio (19.8), and the engine speed (1000 rpm) were held constant in order to isolate the impact of fuel autoignition chemistry. For each fuel mixture, the start of combustion was phased near top dead center (TDC) and then the inlet mixture temperature was reduced. These experimental results have been utilized as a source of data for the validation of a chemical kinetic based full-cycle simulation.
Technical Paper

Integrated, Feed-Forward Hybrid Electric Vehicle Simulation in SIMULINK and its Use for Power Management Studies

2001-03-05
2001-01-1334
A hybrid electric vehicle simulation tool (HE-VESIM) has been developed at the Automotive Research Center of the University of Michigan to study the fuel economy potential of hybrid military/civilian trucks. In this paper, the fundamental architecture of the feed-forward parallel hybrid-electric vehicle system is described, together with dynamic equations and basic features of sub-system modules. Two vehicle-level power management control algorithms are assessed, a rule-based algorithm, which mainly explores engine efficiency in an intuitive manner, and a dynamic-programming optimization algorithm. Simulation results over the urban driving cycle demonstrate the potential of the selected hybrid system to significantly improve vehicle fuel economy, the improvement being greater when the dynamic-programming power management algorithm is applied.
Technical Paper

Multi-Dimensional Modeling of NO and Soot Emissions with Detailed Chemistry and Mixing in a Direct Injection Natural Gas Engine

2002-03-04
2002-01-1112
This work reports the development and application of multi-dimensional ignition, combustion and emissions models that account for detailed chemistry and mixing effects in a direct injection engine simulation. A detailed chemical reaction mechanism, consisting of 24 species and 104 reactions, is used for increased accuracy of emissions predictions. Turbulent combustion is represented using a modified Eddy Dissipation Concept (EDC) model to account for mixing effects. The soot model includes all aspects of soot formation and destruction. Particle transport equations are used to realistically track transport of the soot particles formed. All computational sub-models developed in this work have been implemented in a modified version of the KIVA-3V code. In order to illustrate the behavior of the new models, soot and NO emissions have been predicted at different operating conditions by varying injection timing, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and injection pressure.
Technical Paper

The Reverse Engineering of a Turbocharged Diesel Engine through a Unified Systems Approach

2001-03-05
2001-01-1244
The need for a rigorous systems engineering approach to automotive powertrains has been addressed in this work from the perspective of the diesel engine. A high-fidelity engine simulation has been integrated with a total vehicle model for the purpose of reverse engineering the optimal powerplant for a given vehicle mission. Engine parameters have been coordinated between the simulations to develop a framework for total vehicle design. The design strategies discussed in this paper allow engine researchers to set targets for individual system components and to analyze the tradeoffs associated with different vehicle mission objectives. A detailed case study employing these techniques is presented for a conventional vehicle where the most fuel-efficient engine is found that simultaneously conforms to the desired performance criteria.
Technical Paper

Effect of Variable Geometry Turbine (VGT) on Diesel Engine and Vehicle System Transient Response

2001-03-05
2001-01-1247
Variable geometry turbines (VGT) are of particular interest to advanced diesel powertrains for future conventional trucks, since they can dramatically improve system transient response to sudden changes in speed and load, characteristic of automotive applications. VGT systems are also viewed as the key enabler for the application of the EGR system for reduction of heavy-duty diesel emissions. This paper applies an artificial neural network methodology to VGT modeling in order to enable representation of the VGT characteristics for any blade (nozzle) position. Following validation of the ANN model of the baseline, fixed geometry turbine, the VGT model is integrated with the diesel engine system. The latter is linked to the driveline and the vehicle dynamics module to form a complete, high-fidelity vehicle simulation.
Technical Paper

Multi-Zone DI Diesel Spray Combustion Model for Cycle Simulation Studies of Engine Performance and Emissions

2001-03-05
2001-01-1246
A quasi-dimensional, multi-zone, direct injection (DI) diesel combustion model has been developed and implemented in a full cycle simulation of a turbocharged engine. The combustion model accounts for transient fuel spray evolution, fuel-air mixing, ignition, combustion and NO and soot pollutant formation. In the model, the fuel spray is divided into a number of zones, which are treated as open systems. While mass and energy equations are solved for each zone, a simplified momentum conservation equation is used to calculate the amount of air entrained into each zone. Details of the DI spray, combustion model and its implementation into the cycle simulation of Assanis and Heywood [1] are described in this paper. The model is validated with experimental data obtained in a constant volume chamber and engines. First, predictions of spray penetration and spray angle are validated against measurements in a pressurized constant volume chamber.
Technical Paper

Overview of Techniques for Measuring Friction Using Bench Tests and Fired Engines

2000-06-19
2000-01-1780
This paper presents an overview of techniques for measuring friction using bench tests and fired engines. The test methods discussed have been developed to provide efficient, yet realistic, assessments of new component designs, materials, and lubricants for in-cylinder and overall engine applications. A Cameron-Plint Friction and Wear Tester was modified to permit ring-in-piston-groove movement by the test specimen, and used to evaluate a number of cylinder bore coatings for friction and wear performance. In a second study, it was used to evaluate the energy conserving characteristics of several engine lubricant formulations. Results were consistent with engine and vehicle testing, and were correlated with measured fuel economy performance. The Instantaneous IMEP Method for measuring in-cylinder frictional forces was extended to higher engine speeds and to modern, low-friction engine designs.
Technical Paper

Speciated Hydrocarbon Emissions from an Automotive Diesel Engine and DOC Utilizing Conventional and PCI Combustion

2006-04-03
2006-01-0201
Premixed compression ignition low-temperature diesel combustion (PCI) can simultaneously reduce particulate matter (PM) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx). Carbon monoxide (CO) and total hydrocarbon (THC) emissions increase relative to conventional diesel combustion, however, which may necessitate the use of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC). For a better understanding of conventional and PCI combustion, and the operation of a platinum-based production DOC, engine-out and DOC-out exhaust hydrocarbons are speciated using gas chromatography. As combustion mode is changed from lean conventional to lean PCI to rich PCI, engine-out CO and THC emissions increase significantly. The relative contributions of individual species also change; increasing methane/THC, acetylene/THC and CO/THC ratios indicate a richer combustion zone and a reduction in engine-out hydrocarbon incremental reactivity.
Technical Paper

Development of a Two-Zone HCCI Combustion Model Accounting for Boundary Layer Effects

2001-03-05
2001-01-1028
The Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion concept is currently under widespread investigation due to its potential to increase thermal efficiency while greatly decreasing harmful exhaust pollutants. Simulation tools have been developed to explore the implications of initial mixture thermodynamic state on engine performance and emissions. In most cases these modeling efforts have coupled a detailed fuel chemistry mechanism with empirical descriptions of the in-cylinder heat transfer processes. The primary objective of this paper is to present a fundamentally based boundary layer heat transfer model. The two-zone combustion model couples an adiabatic core zone with a boundary layer heat transfer model. The model predicts film coefficient, with approximately the same universal shape and magnitudes as an existing global model.
Technical Paper

Numerical Modeling and Experimental Investigations of EGR Cooler Fouling in a Diesel Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-1506
EGR coolers are mainly used on diesel engines to reduce intake charge temperature and thus reduce emissions of NOx and PM. Soot and hydrocarbon deposition in the EGR cooler reduces heat transfer efficiency of the cooler and increases emissions and pressure drop across the cooler. They may also be acidic and corrosive. Fouling has been always treated as an approximate factor in heat exchanger designs and it has not been modeled in detail. The aim of this paper is to look into fouling formation in an EGR cooler of a diesel engine. A 1-D model is developed to predict and calculate EGR cooler fouling amount and distribution across a concentric tube heat exchanger with a constant wall temperature. The model is compared to an experiment that is designed for correlation of the model. Effectiveness, mass deposition, and pressure drop are the parameters that have been compared. The results of the model are in a good agreement with the experimental data.
Technical Paper

Performance Parameter Analysis of a Biodiesel-Fuelled Medium Duty Diesel Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-0481
Biodiesel remains an alternative fuel of interest for use in diesel engines. A common characteristic of biodiesel, relative to petroleum diesel, is a lowered heating value (or energy content of the fuel). A lower heating value of the fuel would, presuming all other parameters are equal, result in decreased engine torque. Since engine torque is often user-demanded, the lower heating value of the fuel generally translates into increased brake specific fuel consumption. Several literature report this characteristic of biodiesel. In spite of the wealth of fuel consumption characteristic data available for biodiesel, it is not clear how other engine performance parameters may change with the use of biodiesel. Characterizing these parameters becomes complicated when considering the interactions of the various engine systems, such as a variable geometry turbocharger with exhaust gas recirculation.
Technical Paper

Biodiesel Imposed System Responses in a Medium-Duty Diesel Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-0565
The often-observed differences in nitrogen oxides, or NOx, emissions between biodiesel and petroleum diesel fuels in diesel engines remain intense topics of research. In several instances, biodiesel-fuelled engines have higher NOx emissions than petroleum-fuelled engines; a situation often referred to as the "biodiesel NOx penalty." The literature is rich with investigations that reveal many fundamental mechanisms which contribute to (in varying and often inverse ways) the manifestation of differences in NOx emissions; these mechanisms include, for example, differences in ignition delay, changes to in-cylinder radiation heat transfer, and unequal heating values between the fuels. In addition to fundamental mechanisms, however, are the effects of "system-response" issues.
Technical Paper

Compression Ratio Influence on Maximum Load of a Natural Gas Fueled HCCI Engine

2002-03-04
2002-01-0111
This paper discusses the compression ratio influence on maximum load of a Natural Gas HCCI engine. A modified Volvo TD100 truck engine is controlled in a closed-loop fashion by enriching the Natural Gas mixture with Hydrogen. The first section of the paper illustrates and discusses the potential of using hydrogen enrichment of natural gas to control combustion timing. Cylinder pressure is used as the feedback and the 50 percent burn angle is the controlled parameter. Full-cycle simulation is compared to some of the experimental data and then used to enhance some of the experimental observations dealing with ignition timing, thermal boundary conditions, emissions and how they affect engine stability and performance. High load issues common to HCCI are discussed in light of the inherent performance and emissions tradeoff and the disappearance of feasible operating space at high engine loads.
Technical Paper

Characterizing Light-Off Behavior and Species-Resolved Conversion Efficiencies During In-Situ Diesel Oxidation Catalyst Degreening

2006-04-03
2006-01-0209
Degreening is crucial in obtaining a stable catalyst prior to assessing its performance characteristics. This paper characterizes the light-off behavior and conversion efficiency of a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) during the degreening process. A platinum DOC is degreened for 16 hours in the presence of actual diesel engine exhaust at 650°C and 10% water (H2O) concentration. The DOC's activity for carbon monoxide (CO) and for total hydrocarbons (THC) conversion is checked at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 16 hours of degreening. Pre-and post-catalyst hydrocarbon species are analyzed via gas chromatography at 0, 4, 8, and 16 hours of degreening. It is found that both light-off temperature and species-resolved conversion efficiencies change rapidly during the first 8 hours of degreening and then stabilize to a large degree. T50, the temperature where the catalyst is 50% active towards a particular species, increases by 14°C for CO and by 11°C for THC through the degreening process.
Technical Paper

Engine-in-the-Loop Testing for Evaluating Hybrid Propulsion Concepts and Transient Emissions - HMMWV Case Study

2006-04-03
2006-01-0443
This paper describes a test cell setup for concurrent running of a real engine and a vehicle system simulation, and its use for evaluating engine performance when integrated with a conventional and a hybrid electric driveline/vehicle. This engine-in-the-loop (EIL) system uses fast instruments and emission analyzers to investigate how critical in-vehicle transients affect engine system response and transient emissions. Main enablers of the work include the highly dynamic AC electric dynamometer with the accompanying computerized control system and the computationally efficient simulation of the driveline/vehicle system. The latter is developed through systematic energy-based proper modeling that tailors the virtual model to capture critical powertrain transients while running in real time. Coupling the real engine with the virtual driveline/vehicle offers a chance to easily modify vehicle parameters, and even study two different powertrain configurations.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Diesel Oxidation Catalyst Performance on an Engine and a Gas Flow Reactor

2007-04-16
2007-01-0231
This paper analyzes and compares reactor and engine behavior of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) in the presence of conventional diesel exhaust and low temperature premixed compression ignition (PCI) diesel exhaust. Surrogate exhaust mixtures of n-undecane (C11H24), ethene (C2H4), CO, O2, H2O, NO and N2 are defined for conventional and PCI combustion and used in the gas flow reactor tests. Both engine and reactor tests use a DOC containing platinum, palladium and a hydrocarbon storage component (zeolite). On both the engine and reactor, the composition of PCI exhaust increases light-off temperature relative to conventional combustion. However, while nominal conditions are similar, the catalyst behaves differently on the two experimental setups. The engine DOC shows higher initial apparent HC conversion efficiencies because the engine exhaust contains a higher fraction of trappable (i.e., high boiling point) HC.
Technical Paper

Integration and Use of Diesel Engine, Driveline and Vehicle Dynamics Models for Heavy Duty Truck Simulation

1999-03-01
1999-01-0970
An integrated vehicle system simulation has been developed to take advantage of advances in physical process and component models, flexibility of graphical programming environments (such as MATLAB-SIMULINK), and ever increasing capabilities of engineering workstations. A comprehensive, transient model of the multi-cylinder engine is linked with models of the torque converter, transmission, transfer case and differentials. The engine model is based on linking the appropriate number of single-cylinder modules, with the latter being thermodynamic models of the in-cylinder processes with built-in physical sub-models and transient capabilities to ensure high fidelity predictions. Either point mass or multi-body vehicle dynamics models can be coupled with the powertrain module to produce the ground vehicle simulation.
Technical Paper

Multi-Dimensional Modeling of Ignition, Combustion and Nitric Oxide Formation in Direct Injection Natural Gas Engines

2000-06-19
2000-01-1839
The heat release and pollutant formation processes in a direct injection natural gas engine are studied by coupling detailed chemistry with a multi-dimensional reactive flow code. A detailed kinetic mechanism consisting of 22 species and 104 elementary reactions is chosen by comparing ignition delay predictions with measurements in a combustion bomb. The ignition model is then coupled with a turbulent combustion model and extended Zeldovich kinetics to simulate heat release and nitric oxide production in a direct injection engine. Parametric studies are conducted to investigate the effect of engine operating conditions which include speed, load, injection timing and level of boost. It is shown that use of detailed chemistry is extremely important to predict the correct ignition delay period as engine operating conditions change. Use of both time and crank angle as the independent variable reveals interesting details of the heat release process as a function of engine speed.
Technical Paper

A Four-Stroke Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine Simulation for Combustion and Performance Studies

2000-03-06
2000-01-0332
A computer simulation of the Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) four-stroke engine has been developed for combustion and performance studies. The simulation couples models for mass, species, and energy within a zero-dimensional framework. The combustion process is described via a user-defined chemical kinetic mechanism. The CHEMKIN libraries have been used to formulate a stiff chemical kinetic solver suitable for integration within a complete engine cycle simulation, featuring models of gas exchange, turbulence and wall heat transfer. For illustration, two chemical kinetics schemes describing hydrogen and natural gas chemistry have been implemented in the code. The hydrogen scheme is a reduced one, consisting of 11 species and 23 reactions. The natural gas chemistry is described via the GRI-mechanism 3.0 that considers 53 species and 325 reactions, including NOx chemistry.
Technical Paper

Validation and Use of SIMULINK Integrated, High Fidelity, Engine-In-Vehicle Simulation of the International Class VI Truck

2000-03-06
2000-01-0288
This work presents the development, validation and use of a SIMULINK integrated vehicle system simulation composed of engine, driveline and vehicle dynamics modules. The engine model links the appropriate number of single-cylinder modules, featuring thermodynamic models of the in-cylinder processes with transient capabilities to ensure high fidelity predictions. A detailed fuel injection control module is also included. The engine is coupled to the driveline, which consists of the torque converter, transmission, differential and prop shaft and drive shafts. An enhanced version of the point mass model is used to account for vehicle dynamics in the longitudinal and heave directions. A vehicle speed controller replaces the operator and allows the feed-forward simulation to follow a prescribed vehicle speed schedule.
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