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On-Road Evaluation of an Integrated SCR and Continuously Regenerating Trap Exhaust System

2012-06-18
Four-way, integrated, diesel emission control systems that combine selective catalytic reduction for NOx control with a continuously regenerating trap to remove diesel particulate matter were evaluated under real-world, on-road conditions. Tests were conducted using a semi-tractor with an emissions year 2000, 6-cylinder, 12 L, Volvo engine rated at 287 kW at 1800 rpm and 1964 N-m. The emission control system was certified for retrofit application on-highway trucks, model years 1994 through 2002, with 4-stroke, 186-373 kW (250-500 hp) heavy-duty diesel engines without exhaust gas recirculation. The evaluations were unique because the mobile laboratory platform enabled evaluation under real-world exhaust plume dilution conditions as opposed to laboratory dilution conditions. Real-time plume measurements for NOx, particle number concentration and size distribution were made and emission control performance was evaluated on-road.
Technical Paper

Diesel Trap Performance: Particle Size Measurements and Trends

1998-10-19
982599
Particle concentrations and size distributions were measured in the exhaust of a turbocharged, aftercooled, direct-injection, Diesel engine equipped with a ceramic filter (trap). Measurements were performed both upstream and downstream of the filter using a two-stage, variable residence time, micro-dilution system, a condensation particle counter and a scanning mobility particle sizer set up to count and size particles in the 7-320 nm diameter range. Engine operating conditions of the ISO 11 Mode test were used. The engine out (upstream of filter) size distribution has a bimodal, log normal structure, consisting of a nuclei mode with a geometric number mean diameter, DGN, in the 10-30 nm range and an accumulation mode with DGN in the 50-80 nm range. The modal structure of the size distribution is less distinct downstream of the filter. Nearly all the particle number emissions come from the nuclei mode, are nanoparticles (Dp < 50nm), and are volatile.
Technical Paper

Real Time Measurement of Volatile and Solid Exhaust Particles Using a Catalytic Stripper

1995-02-01
950236
A system has been developed that allows near real time measurements of total, volatile, and nonvolatile particle concentrations in engine exhaust. It consists of a short section of heated catalyst, a cooling coil, and an electrical aerosol analyzer. The performance of this catalytic stripper system has been characterized with nonvolatile (NaCl), volatile sulfate ((NH4)2 SO4), and volatile hydrocarbon (engine oil) particles with diameters ranging from 0.05-0.5 μm. The operating temperature of 300°C gives essentially complete removal of volatile sulfate and hydrocarbon particles, but also leads to removal of 15-25% of solid particles. This system has been used to determine total, volatile, and nonvolatile particle concentrations in the exhaust of a Diesel engine and a spark ignition engine. Volatile volume fractions measured in Diesel exhaust with the catalytic stripper system increased from 19-65% as the equivalence ratio (load) decreased from 0.64-0.13.
Technical Paper

Reducing Utility Engine Exhaust Emissions with a Thermal Reactor

1995-09-01
951762
A test reactor was designed for a 6.7 kW, 303 cc, single cylinder, air cooled, gasoline fueled engine. The reactor was very efficient at hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) reductions - with up to 99.9 and 98.6% removed, respectively. It had no effect on oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions. With the reactor, the engine met the California Air Resources Board (ARB) proposed Tier II emission standards. A factorial test was used to determine that A/F ratio and air injection rate significantly affected CO reduction efficiency whereas air injection location, ignition timing, and engine load did not. Relationships were established between CO reduction, air injection rate, and reactor core temperature.
Technical Paper

Physical Factors Affecting Hydrocarbon Oxidation in a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst

1994-09-01
941771
A study of factors affecting hydrocarbon oxidation in a diesel oxidation catalyst was undertaken. The objective was to determine whether interactions between particulate-adsorbed hydrocarbons and the catalyst significantly influenced hydrocarbon oxidation. Theoretical modeling supported by experimental data obtained at the U.S. Bureau of Mines' Diesel Emissions Research Laboratory indicated that the mass of particles interacting with the ceramic support was negligible. Additionally, a model of hydrocarbon adsorption onto diesel particulate predicted that over 98% by mass of exhaust hydrocarbons would be gas-phase, rather than particulate-adsorbed, at converter operating temperatures. A second physical process, the diffusion of gas phase hydrocarbons to the catalytic surface, was subsequently investigated. Theoretical and experimental results for the unburnt fuel hydrocarbons indicated that hydrocarbon oxidation was diffusion limited under high temperature operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Oxidation of Soot Agglomerates in a Direct Injection Diesel Engine

1992-02-01
920111
Carbon black particles, which morphologically and chemically simulate a diesel exhaust soot, were mixed with the intake air of a single-cylinder direct injection diesel engine to investigate the efficiency of their removal by oxidation in the combustion chamber. An aerosol generation system, which is capable of generating carbon black aerosol of a size distribution and mass flow rate comparable to those of the soot agglomerates, was developed first. The aerosol was then introduced into the engine which was operating on conventional fuel. Four methods were used to characterize the exhaust particles: an electrical aerosol analyzer, a condensation nuclei counter, a low volume filter, and a micro-orifice cascade impactor. The size distribution and concentration of the diesel soot particles in the lubricants were investigated by methods of photosedimentation and quantitative spectrophotometry, respectively.
Technical Paper

Size Distribution of Diesel Soot in the Lubricating Oil

1991-10-01
912344
Soot is the largest component of contaminants found in the diesel engine lubricating oil. The soot enters lubricating oil mainly through thermophoretic deposition on the cylinder wall. Although the mechanism is still not fully understood, it is generally accepted that soot particles promote engine wear, reducing engine component service life, fuel efficiency and performance. This problem will be further exacerbated when more and more diesel engines use EGR to reduce NOx emissions and when lubricating oil consumption is drastically reduced to control particulate emissions. In this study, lubricating oil samples were taken from 7 different operating diesel engines. The size distribution and concentration of the diesel soot particles in the lubricants were investigated by methods of photosedimentation and quantitative spectrophotometry. The size distributions were compared to those of soot particles in the exhaust.
Technical Paper

Variability in Particle Emission Measurements in the Heavy Duty Transient Test

1991-02-01
910738
A study of the sources of variability in particulate measurements using the Heavy-Duty Transient Test (40 CFR Subpart N) has been conducted. It consisted of several phases: a critical examination of the test procedures, visits to representative facilities to compare and contrast facility designs and test procedures, and development of a simplified model of the systems and procedures used for the Heavy-Duty Transient Test. Some of the sources of variability include; thermophoretic deposition of particulate matter onto walls of the sampling system followed by subsequent reentrainment in an unpredictable manner, the influence of dilution and cooling upon the soluble organic fraction, inconsistency among laboratories in the engine and dynamometer control strategies, and errors in measurements of flows into and out of the secondary dilution tunnel.
Technical Paper

Further Studies of Electrostatic Collection and Agglomeration of Diesel Particles

1991-02-01
910329
The use of a corona-less electrostatic precipitator as a collection and agglomeration device for diesel soot has been investigated. It collects and grows diesel particles which are emitted in the submicron diameter range and grow into much larger particles. These larger particles may then be collected with a relatively simple inertial device. Previous testing of a full scale precipitator designed for a Caterpillar 3304 engine showed that the reduction in sub-micron sized mass from the engine was roughly 30 to 40%. Greater reductions were desired. A sub-scale electrostatic agglomerator was built to analyze in greater detail the behavior of an existing full scale device. Tests were designed to determine; the charged fraction of the particles from the engine used, the collection efficiency of the electrostatic agglomerator, the effect of geometry on collection efficiency, and the size distribution of the particles reentrained after electrostatic collection.
Technical Paper

The Performance of an Electrostatic Agglomerator as a Diesel Soot Emission Control Device

1990-02-01
900330
A major problem with many soot emission control devices is the fact that they quickly become loaded with soot which must be removed by a controlled burning (regeneration) process. The need for regeneration greatly complicates such diesel particle emission control devices. In this paper, an electrostatic agglomerator (ESA) which efficiently collects diesel particles but does not require regeneration is described. The ESA is an electrostatic precipitator which is designed to collect and subsequently reentrain diesel soot particles. The collection and reentrainment processes results in growth of particle diameter from roughly 0.2 μm to larger than 1.0 μm. The agglomerated particles are large enough to be collected by a relatively simple inertial device, e.g., a cyclone separator. The collected particle may be either recycled to the engine or disposed of by other means. Electrostatic collection is made easier by the fact that diesel particles are charged by the combustion process itself.
Technical Paper

Particulate Emissions from Diesel Engines:Influence of In-Cylinder Surface

1990-02-01
900645
There is a growing body of evidence that in-cylinder surfaces play an important role in determining the nature and quantity of soot emitted by diesel engines. This paper describes recent experimental results which demonstrate the importance of both the deposition of soot on walls during the combustion process and its subsequent reentrainment during exhaust blowdown. Soot deposition was demonstrated both experimentally and theoretically. The principal mechanism of soot deposition during combustion is thermophoresis. Our results suggest that the gross rate of in-cylinder deposition in the indirect injection diesel engine is between 20 and 45 percent of the net soot emission rate. Thus, a significant fraction of the soot emitted may have been stored on combustion chamber surfaces and protected from oxidation. Further evidence of wall deposition and subsequent reentrainment has been obtained by making time-resolved measurements of soot concentrations in the exhaust.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Measurements of Soot Production in a Direct-Injection Diesel Engine

1988-02-01
880344
In-cylinder and exhaust soot mass measurements have been made on a single-cylinder conversion of a 4-cylinder, 2.8 1, high-swirl, direct-injection diesel engine using a sampling system which allows dumping, diluting, quenching, and collecting the entire contents of the cylinder on a time scale o£ about 1 ms. Experiments have been performed at engine speeds of 1,000 and 1,500, and equivalence ratios, ϕ, of 0.4 and 0.7. Soot mass first appears shortly after top dead center and reaches a peak between 15 and 30 crankangle degrees after top dead center (CAD ATDC). After reaching its peak value, soot concentration decreases with increasing crankangle and approaches exhaust levels by 40-60 CAD ATDC. The time lag between the start of combustion and the first appearance of soot increases with ϕ and ranges from 0.2 to 1 ms. The initial rate of soot formation ranges from 0.26 to 0.30 mg ms−1 and varies little with speed or ϕ.
Technical Paper

Particle Growth and Oxidation in a Direct-Injection Diesel Engine

1989-02-01
890580
Time resolved primary and agglomerate particle size distribution measurements have been made on samples obtained from within the cylinder and from the exhaust of a single-cylinder modification of a 2.8 liter displacement, four-cylinder, naturally-aspirated, high swirl, direct-injection diesel engine. The total cylinder sampling method has been used to sample, quench, and dilute the entire contents of the cylinder in about 1 ms. Experiments have been performed at an equivalence ratio of 0.7 and a speed of 1000 RPM. An electrostatic aerosol sampler and a transmission electron microscope have been used to determine primary and agglomerate particle size distributions for both in-cylinder and exhaust samples. An electrical aerosol analyzer and a diffusion battery followed by a condensation nucleus counter were used to further characterize the agglomerate size distributions of exhaust samples.
Technical Paper

Further Studies with a Hydrogen Engine

1978-02-01
780233
This paper describes the performance and emissions of a hydrogen-fueled, spark-ignited engine. An electronic control device, designed to provide the engine with a timed injection of the fuel, is shown to give high mean effective pressures and high efficiencies. The oxides of nitrogen from the exhaust gases have been analyzed and the mechanism for their formation is reviewed. The paper further describes an experiment with traces of hydrocarbons added to the hydrogen in an attempt to explain any additional phenomena that may be taking place during the combustion, such as “prompt NO” which is known to occur in hydrocarbon flames only. As it turns out, such additions have a negligible effect on the NOx formation in the region investigated.
Technical Paper

Origin of the Response of Electrostatic Particle Probes

1987-02-01
870476
This paper describes an examination of the origin of the response of a real-time exhaust particle sensor. The sensor works by detecting the net electrical charge carried by diesel exhaust particles emitted during exhaust blow-down. The distribution of charge on these particles has been measured using an electrical mobility analysis system. The results show that the exhaust particles are highly charged and that their charge distributions are nearly symmetrical. The sensor signal results from a slight departure from this symmetry. The results suggest that most of the charge on the exhaust particles results from bipolar charging by flame ions during combustion, but that the net charge detected by the sensor results from surface interactions which some of the larger particles undergo during exhaust blowdown.
Technical Paper

Injection Timing and Bowl Configuration Effects on In-Cylinder Particle Mass

1992-09-01
921646
The formation of particles in the combustion chamber of a direct injection diesel engine has been studied with the use of the Total Cylinder Sampling Method. With this method, nearly the entire contents of the cylinder of an operating diesel engine can be quickly removed at various times during the combustion process. The particle mass and size distributions present in the sample can then be analyzed. If quenching of the combustion process is quick and complete, the resulting samples are representative of the particle mass and size distributions present in the cylinder near the time sampling begins. This paper discusses the effect of injection timing and piston bowl shape on the particle formation and oxidation. Example size distribution measurements are also shown. The particle concentrations in the cylinder were measured for three different injection timings with the standard piston installed in the engine.
Technical Paper

Impact of a Ceramic Trap and Manganese Fuel Additive on the Biological Activity and Chemical Composition of Exhaust Particles from Diesel Engines Used in Underground Mines

1987-09-14
871621
This study examines the effect of a ceramic particle trap and a manganese fuel additive on the mutagenic activity and chemical composition of diesel exhaust particulate matter from a heavy-duty mining engine. Particles were collected by dilution tunnel sampling from a 4-cylinder, Caterpillar 3304, naturally-aspirated, indirect-injection engine operated at six steady-state conditions. Depending on engine load and speed the ceramic particle trap reduced the following emissions: particulate matter, 80 – 94%; soluble organic fraction (SOF), 83 – 95%; 1-nitropyrene, 94 – 96%; and SOF mutagencity, 72% (cycle-weighted average). When the Mn fuel additive was used without a ceramic particle trap the total cycle mutagenic activity emitted increased 7-fold, in part, due to elevated emissions of 1-nitropyrene.
Technical Paper

Total Cylinder Sampling from a Diesel Engine: Part III - Particle Measurements

1983-02-01
830243
Particle formation, growth, coagulation and combustion in the cylinder of an indirect injection passenger car type diesel engine have been studied using a system which allows the cylinder contents to be rapidly expelled through a blowdown port, diluted, and collected in a sample bag for subsequent analysis. Characteristic blowdown times were about 0.5 ms. Samples were analyzed using a condensation nuclei counter to determine particle number concentrations and an electrical aerosol analyzer to determine particle volume concentrations in the 0.01 to 1.0 μm diameter range. Measurements were made with the engine operating at 1000 rpm and an equivalence ratio of 0.32. Peak particle number concentration in the cylinder 13 times the exhaust level, and peak particle volume (or mass) concentration in the cylinder 3 times the exhaust level were observed. These results suggest that significant particle coagulation and oxidation occur during the expansion stroke.
Technical Paper

Electrostatic Collection of Diesel Particles

1986-03-01
860009
Diesel particles carry charges ranging from 1-5 units of elementary charge per particle. The charge is bipolar, i.e., there are approximately equal numbers of positively and negatively charged particles. The charge distribution with respect to size follows a high temperature, Boltzmann equilibrium relationship. The first part of this paper describes charge measurements made on diesel particles emitted by three different diesel engines, and postulates a charging mechanism. The second part of the paper is an examination of how this natural charge may be used to collect particles from the exhaust. The charge level produced by combustion is only slightly lower than the charge level produced by the corona discharge in a conventional electrostatic precipitator. Thus, a simple electrostatic precipitator without a corona section will collect diesel particles affectively.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Measurements of Particulate Formation in an Indirect Injection Diesel Engine

1986-02-01
860024
Measurements of particle concentrations in one cylinder of a 1982 5.7 liter GM V-8 diesel engine have been made using a unique total cylinder sampling system. The first part of the paper is devoted to an examination of the performance of the sampling system. The role of blowoff and nucleation in the formation of sample artifacts is discussed. The remainder of the paper is devoted to the results of a study of the formation and removal of carbon particles during diesel engine combustion. Several operating conditions have been examined. The influence of injection timing, load, EGR, and oxygen addition on particle formation and removal has been investigated. The concentrations of volatile and nonvolatile particulate matter have been measured as a function of crankangle position. Particle formation begins 1-5 crankangle degrees (CAD) after the start of combustion.
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